Module Code: DPR2602
Unique Number: 719509
Assignment Number: 03 (Exam Portfolio)
Student Number: 53791754
Theories are a collection of assumptions that explain how processes work. They are also used to make predictions about the effects of those processes. Theories are usually not unbending rules but rather are merely guides.
The purpose of a theory in public relations
The importance of public relations theory is to give an understanding to public relations practitioner of how and what makes public relations work. As an example, an engineer needs a theoretical knowledge of physics for him to be able to build a bridge that will not collapse.
Diffusion of innovation theory highlights the importance of communication in aiding the adoption of a new idea, practice or object which is regarded as new innovation.
Diffusion of innovation steps:
Cyber 5G, is one of the biggest cell phone manufactures and has recently launched a new smartphone. The new smartphone comes with state-of-the-art technological features currently not available to existing smartphones.
process Cyber 5G customers will go through in adopting the new smartphone.
Knowledge: This is the first stage, and, at this stage, people seek information about a new innovation and, in some instances, come across new innovations. The role of communication is to provide as much information as possible about the new innovation.
In this stage customers will want to know more about this super innovation by Cyber 5G, even though some of the customers are still not familiar with the evolution of technology of which some will have difficulty in operating the smartphone however they are eager to learn, other customers they won’t be sure whether they want to continue with their old smartphones or want to embark on this new journey of beautiful innovation where they will use a new smartphone that comes with state-of-the- art technology feature currently not available on existing smartphones.
Persuasion: The second stage of diffusion of innovation involves persuading people to adopt the new innovation. The role of communication is to emphasise the benefits of adopting the new innovation.
At this stage the interest in the new innovation developed and they actively seek more information and details to: first, how the new smartphone looks like, its features before going on seeking how to operate it.
Decision: At this stage, people make a decision to either adopt or reject the innovation.
At this stage before making a decision or deciding that they are absolutely going to purchase the new smartphone they have to find more information that may be the lifespan of a phone battery, does it freeze like other smartphones? customers will look for advantages and disadvantages of buying into a new innovation without perhaps having suffice information about the product and after that they can decide to buy in and try the new smartphone.
Implementation: The implementation stage is when people actually begin to use the innovation. The role of communication is to show people how the innovation works.
Here the customers employ the idea of having the new smartphone and also determine the usefulness of it since it got something that other smartphones does not have and further searched more information about it.
Confirmation: At this stage, people are encouraged to continue using the innovation. Communication is used to address any challenges people might have in using it.
At this stage the customers will finalize their decision to continue using and employing the idea of going ahead with the innovation.
Communication is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message composition. Message encoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium.
Components of communication according to the Shannon and Weaver model:
Sender: The originator of message or the information source selects desire message
Encoder: The transmitter which converts the message into signals
Note: The sender’s messages converted into signals like waves or Binary data which is compactable to transmit the messages through cables or satellites. For example: In telephone the voice is converted into wave signals and it transmits through cables
Decoder: The reception place of the signal which converts signals into message. A reverse process of encode
Note: The receiver converts those binary data or waves into message which is comfortable and understandable for receiver. Otherwise receiver can’t receive the exact message and it will affect the effective communication between sender and receiver
Receiver: The destination of the message from sender
Note: Based on the decoded message the receiver gives their feedback to sender. If the message distracted by noise it will affect the communication flow between sender and receiver
Noise: The messages are transferred from encoder to decoder through channel. During this process the messages may distracted or affected by physical noise like horn sounds, thunder and crowd noise or encoded signals may distract in the channel during the transmission process which affect the communication flow, or the receiver may not receive the correct message
Note: The model is clearly deals with external noises only which affect the messages or signals from external sources. For example: If there is any problems occur in network which directly affect the mobile phone communication or distract the messages
Practical Example of Shannon-Weaver model of communication:
Mandela Day 2018 launch – a centenary celebration
Sender: Nelson Mandela Foundation
Encoder: Mr Sello Hatang
Channel: Brand South Africa and Nelson Mandela Organization
Reception: Constitution Hill
Receiver: Global citizens
Systems theory is a way of looking at organizations. We can use it when we create business systems, and we can also use it to analyse them and diagnose their problems. According to systems theory, every organization is part of a system with three components: the organization, its publics and its goals. The ultimate organizational goal is survival.
System Theory in Public RelationsA system is a set of interacting units that endures through time within an established boundary by responding and adjusting to change pressures from the environment to achieve and maintain goal states.
Systems theory is a useful way for public relations practitioners to understand the relationship between an organization and its publics and the role of public relations within an organization. With different kinds of situation, public relations practitioners have different ways to handle and solve those issues.
There are 3 types of environmental changes which can cost PR practitioners to make another decision to deal and to adapt those issues which are:
1. Information2. Action3. Relationships
http://www.voteforus.com/publicrelationstheories.htmlWindahl et al. (2009)