Mario attempts to discuss the ways in which

Mario VinasAFL 161 100W Professor Sheldon ApplewhiteAnnotated BibliographyAnguelovski, I. (2015). Healthy Food Stores, Greenlining and Food Gentrification: Contesting New Forms of Privilege, Displacement and Locally Unwanted Land Uses in Racially Mixed Neighborhoods. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research,39(6), 1209-1230.

doi: This article attempts to discuss the ways in which food can be gentrified and its subsequent effects on residents. Anguelovski uses the opening of a Whole Foods in a predominantly Latino area in Boston Massachusetts to highlight how such stores can be exclusionary to marginalized groups. Despite the need for healthful foods, the use of much needed resources to open said store can actually do more harm than good. The author of this article is based in Spain. Which I feel affords the piece an outsiders perspective worth evaluating.

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Basch, C. H., Ethan, D., & Rajan, S. (2013).

Price, Promotion, and Availability of Nutrition Information: A Descriptive Study of a Popular Fast Food Chain in New York City. Global Journal of Health Science,5(6), 73-80. doi:10.5539/gjhs.

v5n6p73 This article takes a look at the issues facing healthy dietary choices versus cost. The authors gathered data from one specific fast food chain restaurant. Compared the healthiness and price of the menu options. While also tracking the promotions offered to its patrons.

Due to the sheer volume of fast food restaurants, this kind of analysis is worthwhile. The use of only one restaurant represents one drawback of the study that can be an avenue for further scrutiny. Black, J.

L., Macinko, J., Dixon, L. B., & Fryer, G. E., Jr. (2010).

Neighborhoods and obesity in New York City. Health & Place,16(3), 489-499. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.

2009.12.007 The authors of this article use self-reported data from a phone survey of adults over the age 18 in New York City to delineate between multiple neighborhood factors and how they affect obesity. The statistics obtained in this fashion were startling.

Especially the comparison of different areas of the city in regards to obesity. This is a valuable piece of analysis. Yet being that it is almost ten years old, I imagine it would be constructive to conduct the study again. Clary, C., Matthews, S. A.

, & Kestens, Y. (2017). Between exposure, access and use: Reconsidering foodscape influences on dietary behaviours. Health & Place,44, 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.

2016.12.005 This journal article is concentrated on assessing the so called food environment and how our dietary choices are effected it. The major question being whether said environment has a negative impact on our diets. The authors do a great job at stressing the ways our surroundings can influence our perception. Especially when considering the endless ad stream that we tend to be subject to.

Farley, S. M., Sacks, R., Dannefer, R., Johns, M., Leggat, M., Lim, S., .

. . Nonas, C. (2015). Evaluation of the New York City Green Carts program.

AIMS Public Health,2(4), 906-918. doi:10.3934/publichealth.

2015.4.906 This piece is an evaluation of Green Carts Program in New York City.

Three summers of data were compiled to study the change in access to fresh vegetables and fruits around the city. Most notably here is the correlation of Green Carts availability to a surge in local stores applying for permits to carry fresh fruits and vegetables. Yet this is a study that is due to be updated. Gordon, C., Purciel-Hill, M., Ghai, N. R.

, Kaufman, L., Graham, R., & Van Wye, G. (2011). Measuring food deserts in New York City’s low income neighborhoods. Health ; Place,17, 696-700. doi:10.1016/j.

healthplace.2010.12.012 This article goes about comparing “food deserts” in New York City, the negative health outcomes that are related to them and how they stack up to wealthier locations. The authors also investigate the trend of said deserts being in predominantly African American neighborhoods.

Having a low household income was also a factor that correlated to the lack of access. Being that it’s been almost ten years since its publication, I wonder if any of the rates of access has shifted. Kwate, N. A. (2008). Fried chicken and fresh apples: Racial segregation as fundamental cause of fast food density in black neighborhoods.

Health & Place,14, 32-44. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.

2007.04.001 In this essay, Kwate argues that segregation in a racial context has been the major contributing factor to the proliferation of fast food restaurants in African American neighborhoods. She does a wonderful job at addressing how segregation has led to, and continues to create a space that leads to negative outcomes.

She also lists some great ideas for further research. MacKendrick, N. (2014). Foodscape.

Contexts,13(3), 16-18. doi:10.1177/1536504214545754 In this essay the author goes about defining the idea of a “foodscape”.

She implies that it is more than just your physical surroundings. But can also extend to online shopping and how we communicate about food in general. I find this piece essential. Most importantly because it helps the reader gain a conceptual idea of ones location in a nutritional context. There is a need to pin down exactly what a healthful food environment looks like. So people can go about creating that for themselves. McCormick, A.

, & Painter, M. A., II. (2017). Food insecurity in the United States of America: An examination of race/ethnicity and nativity. Food Security,9(6), 1419-1432. doi:https://doi.

org/10.1007/s12571-017-0733-8 This article utilizes a decade of information from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to investigate the correlation between ethnicity, nativity and inaccessibility of adequate nutrition in the United States. While the majority of this piece is statistical based info the authors do excellent work in elucidating the information. They go about explaining what food insecurity is and all of its insidious implications. It’s alarming to see all of it backed up by raw data. Quale, B. (2017). Creating a sustainable community garden.

Parks ; Recreation,52(6), 26-27. Retrieved July 6, 2016, from;sid=AONE;xid=f5a95651 This essay is centered on a community garden in the Bedford-Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn New York.

Quale, a project coordinator for NYC Parks GreenThumb, writes about the importance of locally grown produce and all of the positive aspects surrounding said community garden. Started in 2011, the 462 Halsey Community Garden has become a central aspect of the neighborhood. Bringing people together and enhancing access to healthy sustainable nutrition. This essay was heartening for me and informative because I hadn’t heard of the garden till then. Roy, A. L.

, Hughes, D., & Yoshikawa, H. (2012). Exploring Neighborhood Effects on Health and Life Satisfaction: Disentangling Neighborhood Racial Density and Neighborhood Income.

Race and Social Problems,4(3-4), 193-204. doi:

1007/s12552-012-9079-1 In the article, the authors use data from The Survey of Minority Groups to assess health status and life satisfaction. They specifically used a sample of 311 African Americans living in New York City above the age of 25. They were looking to get an understanding of how racial density of an area and neighborhood income influence one another. They go in depth in how these factors influence health outcomes. I see the importance of this type of research. Yet it was written very technically and not the simplest read for a layperson. Silver, M., Bediako, A.

, Capers, T., Kirac, A., & Freudenberg, N. (2017). Creating Integrated Strategies for Increasing Access to Healthy Affordable Food in Urban Communities: A Case Study of Intersecting Food Initiatives. Journal of Urban Health,94(4), 482-493. doi:10.1007/s11524-017-0178-6 This article documents the methods employed by the Central Brooklyn organization named Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation to make healthy food more accessible to the urban community.

The Farm to Early Care program and their strategy to bolster the food supply are the main focuses of the paper. The authors did a particularly good job at highlighting the local policies that play a role in food initiatives. Which was a window into the frustrations and possible setbacks that may occur when a new administration is chosen. They also kept the study plainspoken and clear. Vitiello, D., Grisso, J.

A., Whiteside, K. L.

, & Fischman, R. (2015). From commodity surplus to food justice: Food banks and local agriculture in the United States.

Agriculture and Human Values,32(3), 419-430. doi: This article uses surveys and case studies to express how food banks and local farmers are interacting with each other. As well as how this synergistic relationship can play a role on the community’s food security. The authors argue that as the popularity of food banks grow there is a need to ensure that efficacy of distribution is a goal.

In my opinion this paper is a well written example of ways in which two separate sectors of food availability can come together. Wright, J. D., Donley, A. M.

, Gualtieri, M. C., ; Strickhouser, S. M. (2016). Food Deserts: What is the problem? What is the solution? Society,53(2), 171-181. doi:

1007/s12115-016-9993-8 In this study the authors first go about definitively establishing what the theory food deserts is. There is also argument of exactly how food deserts are created and maintained. They then go on to critique aspects of the theory that need to be revisited. What is offered is a fairly unbiased look at this framework of food accessibility. What I appreciated was the choice to include a section about ideas of what can be done to remedy these situations. In which a major focus was dietary changes.

Zukin, S. (2014). Restaurants as “Post Racial” Spaces. “Soul Food” Symbolic Eviction in Bedford-Stuyvesant(Brooklyn). Ethnologie Francaise,44(1), 135-147. doi:10.

3917/ethn.141.0135 This article takes a nutrition based view on gentrification in Bedford-Stuyvesant. Its main focus is how said process has effected locals and their connection to food. Zukin, writing from a place of seeming reverence, profiles local eateries.

Yet she lovingly expresses their connection to the racial identity of the community. I liked that this paper was written with warmth and documented the way people come to identify with the spaces in which bread is broken. There seems to be a want to protect that sensitive dietary symbiosis. It would be interesting to get an update in regards to those local establishments and whether they are still thriving.


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