Louis Riel was born on the October of 1844.raised by two dedicated parents, Louis Riel Sr. and Julie Lagimodiere in the Red River Settlement.
However, the portion of the community he lived in was mostly francophone. His father, who was of Franco-Ojibwe Métis descent; was very prominent in his community. He organized a group that supported Guillaume Sayer. Sayer was imprisoned for challenging the historical trade monopoly for the fur trade.
When it came to siblings Riel was the oldest of the 11. Charles Riel, Joseph Riel, and Alexandre Riel were his brothers and Elsie Riel, Philomene Riel, Sara Riel, Marie Riel, Octavia Riel, Eulalie Riel, and Henriette Riel were his sisters.Riel was first educated by Roman Catholic priests at St. Boniface. At age 13 he came to the attention of Alexander Taché, the Suffragan Bishop of St. Boniface, who promoted priesthood for talented young Métis. In 1858 Taché arranged for Riel to attend the Petit Séminaire of the Collège de Montréal, under the direction of the Sulpician order.
However, shortly following the news of his father’s premature death in 1864, Riel lost interest in the priesthood and withdrew from the college in March of 1865. For a time, he continued his studies as a day student in the convent (nunnery) of the Grey Nuns but was soon asked to leave, following breaches of discipline. He remained in Montreal for over a year, living at the home of his aunt, Lucie Riel. Eventually, he went back to support his family.Once Louis went back to the Red River area. In March 1869, the HBC agreed to sell Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory to the Dominion of Canada. This was essentially affecting Red River area. For this transfer to happen, the federal government arranged William McDougall as lieutenant-governor (ensures that a proper constituted government is always in place of the new territory).
The government sent survey crews to Red River that August to reclaim the lands. Concerned that immigrants from Ontario would conquer their lands. To stop this from happening the Métis organized the Métis National Committee in order to protect the social, cultural and political status of the Métis in Red River and the Northwest more generally. Concequently, they needed a secretary and as an intelligence young man with an eastern education, Riel was elected and was later elected president.
Riel succsesfully halted the Canadian land surveys on 11 October 1869. Less than one month later, Riel established a roadblock to prevent William McDougall from entering the Red River Settlement on 2 November. This day was ver special as, the Committee seized Upper Fort Garry (Hudson’s Bay Company trading post)from the HBC and took steps to establish itself. Now that they recieved control over it the committee invited both the English and French represenatives to Upper Fort Garry to discuss the terms of reclaiming the landWhile studying for the priesthood, Riel met a young French Canadian woman, Marie-Julie Guernon, to whom he tried to get engaged. In the racially charged atmosphere Guernon’s parents refused to allow her to marry a Métis man and the engagement was broken off. Eventually, he married a Métis woman, Marguerite Monet, dit Bellehumeur 1881.
They gave birth to Marie-Angélique Riel (Daughter) and Jean-Louis Riel (Son).Louis Riel was a man with a plan. He wanted Ruperts land to be part of Canada without Canada taking away their culture. Thus, Riel issued a “Declaration of the People of Rupert ‘s Land and the North-West.” This restricts Canada’s authority to govern the Northwest and after they proposed a negotiated arrangement between Canada. The Canadian government then sent three special commissioners to the settlement: Reverend Jean-Baptiste Thibault, Colonel Charles de Salaberry, and Donald A. Smith, (chief representative of the HBC in Canada) in a general meeting. In this meeting there were 40 representatives of the settlement, equally distributed between English and French speakers, to discuss the possibility of union with Canada.
At the first meeting, held 26 January 1870, the repersenatives decided to make an entire “List of Rights.” In March 1870, this was transformed into the “Provisional Government of Assiniboia,” which contained three branches of government: an elected legislature, an executive responsible to the legislature, and a fledgling judicial branch. Now the most difficult task was to negotiate with George-Étienne Cartier the entry of Red River and the surrounding area into Confederation which they accomplished. They recieved royal approval on 12 May 1870, this means that Manitoba was born.
At the same time all this a small force of Canadians that were armed showed up at Portage la Prairie . The sight of armed Canadians frightend the metis. Thomas Scott (Irish Protestant who moved to the Red River Colony in 1869 and joined the Canadian Party). He was excequted by Loui Riel for attempting to disband ther temporary goverment the Metis had. He did this due to the fact that he wanted to show that the Metis must be taken seriously. Te canadian government was very upset as Thomas Scott was a member of the canadian government. Thus, they sent a military force to Red River under Colonel Garnet Wolseley in the summer of 1870. That was when Louis Riel fled to the United States.
In the interveining years while Louis Riel was in America. there was a $5000 reward for his arrest. During this time there were many times he entered federal politics, however failed to keep his seat. After many setbacks he got asked by a group of Métis to help them protect their legal rights in the Saskatchewan Valley in 1884.
MAny of these metis people originally lived in Manitoba but moved to Saskatchewan as the canadian government failed to meet the agreements.