Literature Case Study
1. Haengdang-dong, Seoul (denoted as Hospital 1)
2. Seongdong-gu, Seoul (denoted as Hospital 2)
The patients’ data was collected from two hospitals in Seoul. The patients were categorized by the direction of patient rooms and by names of diseases. Using computer simulation, illuminance and luminance distributions were calculated to evaluate the visual environment in patient rooms. Statistical tests were conducted to verify if the natural light reduced the hospitalization period of patients.
Hospital 1 is a detached-style building, with the main building connected with the 3 annexes, located in a downtown. The main building is with twenty-one stories above ground and two basements, and the wards are placed between 6th and 21st floor. The main axes of each building are toward the north – south and the east – west.
In Hospital 1, every floor has different departments. Except the department of obstetrics and gynecology and the newborns’ rooms on the 6th floor, data had been researched from every other ward between 6th and 15th floor.
Hospital 2 is the concentrated-style building, that has ten stories above ground and two below, where wards are between 5th and 9th floor. Data was analyzed only from the orthopedics out of the medical wards, the otolaryngology, and the orthopedics. Table 1. shows the interior-exterior views and the floor plan of both hospitals.
The data of the hospitalization period in Hospital 1 is about 6000 patients in 11 ward from 7 floors. It was one-year-data between January 1st and December 31st in 2004. The data of the Hospital 2 was the analysis of the hospitalization period between January 1st in 2002 and December 31st in 2004, of 2,000 patients in the orthopedics based on their symptoms for 3 years.
Data collected from each hospital was classified by the orientation of their wards and the departments. When they analyzed the recovery period, they considered patients with a same disease as one group and also ignored the other factors such as the relative seriousness of an illness.
Fig.1 shows the days of hospital treatment on the y axis and each ward of hospital and symptom on the x axis and ‘S’ stands for southern ward, ‘N’ for northern ward. Table 3. shows number of patients, the average days of hospital treatment , direction and wards of both Hospital 1 and Hospital 2 respectively.
Computer simulation tool used to analyze the illuminance and luminance of the hospitals is radiance. Each ward was classified north and south according to direction and the state of the sky. According to the patients’ poses : lying and sitting in the bed, luminance was analyzed. Table 4. illistrates the images of the luminance in Hospital 2, which show the poses of the patients in the ward (in the case of lying, in the case of sitting) and direction (south, north) and the state of the sky when it is the vernal equinox (Mar. 21st) at noon,. As a result, the luminance of the wards in Hospital 2, according to direction of south and north, the southern wards show much higher the luminance distribution.
The inferences of this study are as follow :
• According to the result of analysis of the illuminance and luminance of the wards in Hospital 2, based on orientation of northern and southern wards, higher luminance distribution is for southern wards.
• Patients in the southern facing wards tend to stay shorter than in the northern facing wards, by 19.84% and 8.52% respectively, according to the analysis conducted on hospitalization period for both the hospitals.
• The amount of the daylight coming inside the hospital is inversely proportionate to the period of the hospitalization of patients,which shows that daylight gives positive effect on healing patients.
• This study shows how important, it is for architects to consider the amount of daylight and planning of wards, for curing patients in the hospital.
Visual activity of human beings is one of the important senses to observe, perceive and analyze one’s surroundings; this visual activity is facilitated by the sense of light. We perceive light or subjects by the luminance and illumination level, which is a photometric measure of the intensity of light in a given direction.
Natural daylighting is an important factor in hospital design due to its known ability to heal and maximize user comfort by providing an enjoyable indoor environment. Therefore, the study of maximum utilization of daylight in indoor environments is extremely important for lighting designers and building planners since it improves the users’ well-being and performance. also allowing to reduce energy consumption. Daylight is especially very important for hospitals since the users spend most of their time indoors in the buildings.
Natural lighting is also beneficial to patients who have long hospital stays by aiding their ability to look out of the windows to see the time of the day and observe the weather and landscape along with natural light. Appropriate daylighting is also a powerful tool for coding, navigation and way finding; and can also promote a sense of well-being and independence.
The ideology behind healing is a psychological and physical concept of health. In a healthcare environment, a window opening is important to transmit daylight and provide visual connection to the outside world to enhance therapeutic performance.
This study is conducted to identify the effect of the daylight on the recovery rate of patients in hospitals. This paper reviews the role of daylighting in creating a healing environment for patients through architecture by addressing whether it creates a healing effect, and if so, its degree of effectiveness and its process. These aspects are analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitatively, the reduced time for recovery and psychological enlightenment is studied through field interviews and evaluation of the visual environment in patient rooms through case study. Quantitatively, illuminance and luminance distributions will be calculated through the computer simulation and compared with respect to room orientation.