The Inclusive education is a system of education that is responsible for delivering the needs and wants of all south African learners. It means that all learners in the school environment, besides their strength or weaknesses in any area, become part of the school community. Inclusive Education emphasises the right of all children to feel welcomed into a supportive educational environment in their community. It also refers to the number of ordinary local schools and ECD Centres to respond to the needs of all learners, including those who require extra support because of learning or physical disability, social disadvantage, cultural difference or other things that prevent them from learning. education systems used to be constructed to include some children and exclude others. The different is that some children ‘could not cope’ within the ordinary education system because of their individual deficits. The idea of separation between special schools and ordinary schools promoted a traditional and medical view of special needs as attention was focused on the problem affecting the individual child (Carrington, 1999:257).
Teachers are entitled to accept new policies and practices and cope with these changes without being given much time to consider their personal beliefs and rights. The development of inclusive education has the potential to disconcert teachers and this could prevent overall school development and reform. The Inclusive Education policy affects all those who are involved in education and it requires the attention of everybody within the Department of Education. It is critical that those responsible for management in south African schools and teaching in higher educational institutions be educated so that they can fully support the implementation of the Inclusive Education policy at all levels of education in south Africa.
Levels of support need to be sufficiently understood by Children and teachers, teachers must support children for them to support each other. Many children in special schools should be in ordinary schools. School admissions processes not aligned with policy. Budget allocations are insufficient and inconsistently utilised across the provinces. Teacher capacity, Lack of experience and confidence, training in teaching to diversity. Formality of curriculum delivery & monitoring Systemic focus on academic results only, no acknowledgement of supports being given to learners.
School-level barriers to inclusion
Funding is a very big problem faced by the majority of south African citizens and it is one of the challenges faced when implementing the practice of inclusion. teaching learners who are dis-abled in public schools and general class rooms calls for specialist and additional members of the stuff to support learners and fulfil their needs. Many schools do not have money that is required by offering individual supports to learners especially in south Africa because our economy is very tight.
Many of the south African schools are still un accessible to dis-abled learners for example a di-abled learner can not learn in an inclusive classroom because he or she cannot even enter the classroom that also includes the school building as a whole learners with wheel chairs need paved ways and lifts in order to be easy for them to move around the school building each and every classroom must be in a condition that will accommodate each and every learner based on their disabilities.
As the environment must be easily accessible to dis abled learners, the curriculum must contribute in the implementation of inclusive education. General educators must be willing to work with inclusion specialists to make modifications and accommodations in both teaching methods and classroom and homework assignments. Teachers should be teach learners based on what they can do for example if learner cannot then written work should be excluded and if a learner cannot write and can accomplish the same or similar learning objective through a different method it can be demonstration or oral.
lack of communication among administrators is one of the barriers to inclusion, teachers, specialists, staff, parents, and students. Open communication and coordinated planning between general education teachers and special education staff are important in the process of implementing inclusion to work.teachers and specialists must make time and meet together to come with ideas and plans of identifying and implementing accommodation and goals for each and individual learner.it consist of teachers, staff, members of the community and parents to meet a learners needs and facilitate learning at home.
Cultural-level barriers to inclusion
Polat (2011:57) suggests that resources and improved infrastructure are necessary but not enough for inclusion and that “changing attitudinal barriers among school professionals and in the wider community … is one of the essential aspects of making inclusive education happen in low-income countries”. The meaningful participation of children and adults with disabilities in the school and the community is affected by the cultural attitudes and values of its citizens. If a community expresses disregard and prejudice towards people with disabilities, then discriminatory practices will continue to be propagated. Cultural attitudes about the importance of educating children with disabilities can affect whether parents decide to send them to school.
Parents also consider the financial expenditures relating to education in South Africa. Since many school’s charge tuition fees many of the families find it difficult to send their childrend to school, particularly if they have other developing children of school-going age whose prospects of bringing in some sort of income are much better than those of their disabled child. Sparing the expense of school, some families also prefer to benefit from lobola, a custom practised primarily among black South Africans. Lobola is like a dowry, where a man pays his fiancée’s family for her hand in marriage.
This settlement can provide substantial financial benefits for the girl’s family, particularly if they live in poverty. In the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, a study of teachers, parents, children and aid workers was undertaken to determine how these various parties
perceived the extent to which inclusive education was being implemented in their communities (Maher, 2009). It was found that ostracism of learners with disabilities was perceived as a barrier by all participant groups. Teachers blamed negative societal attitudes toward disability for the stigmatisation of learners with disabilities within ordinary schools and considered this a justification for maintaining separate schools. Parents and children in this same study stated that learners may be safer in special schools for children with disabilities due to the intolerant attitudes of other children and school staff. In another study, caregivers of children with disabilities who lived in the Western Cape province of South Africa expressed similar fears concerning the mistreatment of their children in ordinary schools (Masasa, Irwin-Carruthers ; Faure, 2005), with 72% of the respondents stating that they believed their children with disabilities were better off in special schools. Increasing attention has also been focused on the contrasting traditional and biomedical views of disability. Traditional views of disability are beliefs that have been handed down through generations, whereas the biomedical perspective refers to the scientific, evidence-based practice of modern medicine (Maloni, Despres, Habbous, Primmer, Slatten, Gibson ; Landry, 2010). In South Africa (Hosegood, PrestonWhyte, Busza, Moitse ; Timaeus, 2007) and neighbouring Zimbabwe (Jackson ; Mupedziswa, 1988), the traditional perspective attributes disability to family sin, witchcraft and angered ancestors. These perspectives sometimes lead to the mothers of children with disabilities being shunned and blamed for their child’s disability by their families and communities, and to families hoping for their child with a disability to be “cured”. These unique perspectives have also been found to differentially influence how caregivers approach the education, intervention and rehabilitation for their children with disabilities. In fact, those who prescribe to traditional beliefs at times delay accessing modern medical interventions while they look for folk cures.
Over 10 years following the unveiling of Education White Paper 6 (Department of Education, 2001), most children with disabilities in South Africa are still not taught in classrooms together with their typically developing peers. However, the inclusion of learners with disabilities into mainstream classrooms, and more generally, the inclusion of people with disabilities into society, is currently conceptualised as a human rights issue – a topic with which most South Africans are quite familiar in their struggle to overcome apartheid. There are many barriers to providing quality and inclusive education to learners with disabilities in South Africa. The situation is far
12 Donohue, Bornman from hopeless, though. Inevitably, obstacles to inclusion will thwart progress in both developing and developed countries. Fortunately, these obstacles are not insurmountable, and the more children with disabilities are included in education and elsewhere in their communities, the sooner they can become productive and contributing members of society, showcasing their unique talents just like everyone else
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. (2008). Barriers to inclusive education.
South Africa journal of education 2014
Inclusive Education south Africa
Pedagogy of inclusive education 2017