Schooling has multiple purposes. In the long run, higher levels of schooling are associated with higher earnings and economic mobility, better health, lower mortality rates, and greater democratic participation. For these reasons, most societies require children to attend school for a specified number of years or until they reach a certain age. Many of the benefits of schooling occur in part because students learn some new knowledge or skills that enhance their ability to communicate, solve problems, and make decisions. Learning is complex, involving cognitive processes that are not completely understood. Typically, school systems have established a primary mode of learning that involves groups of students of about the same age interacting with a single individual leading activities in a confined physical space, directed toward learning a particular topic—in other words, students are placed in classes (https://www.psychologicalscience.org/journals/pspi/pdf/pspi2_1.pdf?origin=p).
An increasing body of analysis has found out that school facilities can have overwhelming effect on both teacher and student end result. With honour to teachers, school facilities influence teacher employment, custody, dedication, and effort. With regard to students, school facilities touch health, manner, determination, education, and development in performance. Hence, we mainly cease that without sufficient facilities and resources, it is hugely difficult to serve massive numbers of children with multiplex needs.
Regardless of that, government affirm that it has been rising the financial plan for education, still the public school system barely manage the insufficiency, and state universities and colleges have been raising tuition, therefore making tertiary education is out of reach for the poor. (Ayers, 2015)
Besides about the general maintenance and establishment issues, we had found that most schools are lack of facilities in the form of infrastructure, laboratories, and instructional space. More than half does not have sufficiently flexible instructional space for effective teaching to take place.
Thus, facility quality is a fundamental predictor of teacher possession and student learning. The physical and emotional health of students and teachers depend on the quality of the physical location, which makes establishing safe, healthy buildings essential.
Results revealed that the component with the highest mean rating was the exterior environment (3.50) and the component with the lowest mean rating was support space (2.97). In terms of student performance and achievement, the substantial increase was observed during school year 2016-2017 (22.0%) while the smallest increase was noted during school year 2014-2015 (2.8%). These findings support the assumptions that insufficient school facilities were negatively impacting student performance and achievement, and the administrators apprehensive take no serious action in giving a talk about this educational issue.
Rooted in the research findings of Department of Education (1999), public schools struggle when it comes to the availability of suitable, serviceable, and excellence school facilities in teaching and learning.
Furthermore, in 2015, Schneider heavily underscored that a massive proportion of school facilities in the Philippines are approximately fifty years old and are mostly in poor conditions. This finding was aid by Filardo (2017) when he noted that public schools are continuously tackled with outmoded designs; aggravate conditions, and changing utilization pressures.
The problem then is clearly visible inadequacy in the physical school facilities result to serious outcome to student learning and achievement, damaged of teaching standards, and persistence of health and safety problems for members of the faculty, as well as the students. Exacerbating these matters is impotence of the authorities concerned to provoke actions that purport to support the accumulation of modern and relevant facility, likewise to train personnel in the management of these resources.
Poor condition of school facilities leads about critical concerns on teachers’ and students’ common welfare. Consequently, it became mandatory that the functions of school facilities fulfill the student acquisition and learning of life-long knowledge and skill competencies. It should be taken into account by policy makers and administrators when designing a curriculum it should provides equitable and efficient education.
Stakeholders must perceive that there’s exists an evident, direct relationship between student performance and achievement and the quality of school facilities. Our study seeks to regulate the relationship between the quality of school facilities and student performance and achievement; specifically, we indicated the component of physical school facility that yields the heaviest weight in affecting student performance and achievement.
The findings in our study, provides implications for policy revisions and considerations in curriculum planning that can effectively address the foregoing educational gaps resulting from the deficiency of physical facilities, which gradually consume the quality of teaching and learning. Moreover, the findings highlights to focus attention on improving educational environment by increasing the acquiring of equipment in the implementation of TLE curriculum, likewise in the maintenance, renovation, and expansion of school infrastructures to accommodate the growing number of Filipino youth enrolling in secondary schools. These installation and improvement measures hope to provide avenues for students to proficiently translate theory into practice and to aim for life- long, meaningful learning. (Limon, 2016).
2.1 School facilities affect academic outcomes
It is a fact that having schools in good conditions is decisive for students to achieve the expected academic results. For those who love to read and study, any place can be good to read and learn. They might argue that the space you are in does not matter, that knowledge is immaterial, that the physical context is secondary, and that what is important is to concentrate in what you are reading.
But if we transfer this reasoning to the reality of educational systems, the empiric evidence is flagrant: having rooms and learning spaces in good conditions is decisive for students to achieve the expected academic results. In other words, the condition of the schools directly impacts the performance of the students.
The fact is that a good school infrastructure, with renewed spaces, makes it possible for children and youths that live in remote areas to study and, in addition, tends to improve the attendance and interest of students and teachers in learning. For this same reason, investments in school infrastructure have an essential role in solving access problems of students to the school system and to improve their performance (www.caf.com).
From the past century poor school infrastructure and facilities still an issue facing the different country like West Africa, Haiti, Myanmar, Lebanon, Libya, etc. because of their government insufficient action to the issue. How the plans solve the problem without any action implemented?
Lack of high-quality infrastructure can shape student outcomes. Research shows bad facilities affect our children’s cognition, comprehension and concentration, and even their breathing (www.syracuse.com). In a study released last year, we concluded that even seemingly minor issues like weak air quality can lower achievement. Poor condition make it more difficult for teachers to deliver an adequate education to their students, adversely affect teacher’s health and increase the likelihood that teachers will leave their school. Over 58% of teachers consider their classrooms the wrong size for the type of education they delivered. Over 20% had taught in non-classroom spaces. About one-third of teachers had little or no teachers work space. Most teachers reported poor thermal comfort, poor lighting, dirty and inoperable windows, and dirty restrooms. Many teachers felt their classrooms and hallways were so noisy that it affects their ability to teach, and many believed that school conditions affected their career decisions (www.usnews.com).
As we notice same old problems with amid solution. Schools are just infrastructure but they have a big contribution to everyone. Quality school infrastructures mirror every generation future. Modernization is the trend today but books are still the main tool used in school. Writers still wrote for their books, but how we used those old books with the old information to relate in our generation today? The idea is simple books are still important for the students and teachers but they need to have the updated one. School tools and facilities guides every youth, have a great one also have a great guidance.
“Retained the past used it as reference and face the present with confidence”
2.2 The impact of school facilities
School facilities can have a profound impact on both teacher and student outcomes. With respect to teachers, school facilities affect teacher recruitment, retention, commitment, and effort. With respect to students, school facilities affect health, behaviour, engagement, learning, and growth in achievement. Thus, researchers generally conclude that without adequate facilities and resources, it is extremely difficult to serve large numbers of children with complex needs. Improving the quality of school facilities is an expensive campaign. However, when the positive impacts of facility improves on teachers and students, the rewards of such investment far outstrip the cost of the investment. There are five primary facets of school facilities: acoustics/noise, air quality, lighting, temperature and space (Tanner, 2012)
Acoustic and Noise
While at school students and teachers are exposed to various types of noise including external, environmental noise and noise generated within the classroom. Previous research has shown that noise has detrimental effects upon children’s performance at school, including reduced memory, motivation, and reading ability (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).
Noise leaves greatly affect teachers and students performance. In fact, so much noise causes dissatisfaction and stress in both teachers and students. The school that have classroom with less external noise are positively associated with greater student engagement and achievement, compared to schools with classrooms that have noisier environment. Thus, building schools that buffer external noise from classrooms can improve student outcomes (Mosteller, 2011).
We all know how just the right lighting can set “the mood” whether you’re aiming for a romantic ambiance, an energizing workout environment, or a dimly lit atmosphere to relax in.
Now, a new study published in the journal Optics Express this week, suggests that dynamic lighting can support students’ performance in classrooms.
Researchers in South Korea found that lighting can be optimized for many various activities, from test-taking to recess to reading, and they characterized lighting by measuring their CCTs — or different correlated colour temperatures — from “warm” to “cool” using the Kelvin scale Classroom lighting can be an overlooked factor for children’s success in school. However, studies have shown that lighting quality affects students’ abilities to see clearly, concentrate and perform well in the classroom. Since lighting plays a critical role in our everyday lives, it’s worth our while to understand the quality of light that’s shining down on our children.
Lighting in a school building should allow people to see to read, to see others with whom they are communicating, and to perform other visual tasks associated with learning, teaching, and school administration. Lighting can be provided by electric systems or by daylight through windows, clerestories, and skylights. Typically, school buildings use a combination of electric lighting and daylight.
Proper temperature and control of temperature
One consistent research finding across individuals of all ages is that the temperature in which a person works affects engagement levels and overall productivity—including student achievement. Anyone that has worked in a classroom or office that is too hot or too cold knows how difficult it can be when trying to work when the temperature is uncomfortable. According to the best analyses, the ideal temperature range for effective learning in reading and mathematics is between 68º and 74º.
To maintain such a temperature in every classroom within a school, teachers typically need to be able to control the temperature in their own classroom. At the very least, teachers should be able to control the temperature of small blocks of classrooms that receive the same amount of sunlight and have similar exposures to outside temperatures.
This study demonstrated that students are likely to perform better academically when the temperature is cooler rather than hot. That being said they will do their best when the temperature in the room is more neutral than not (Wargocki & Wyon, 2015).
Classroom size and space
The class size could also affect the teacher’s allocation of time and, hence, effectiveness, in other ways, too—for example, how much material can be covered. Teachers may choose different methods of teaching and assessment when they have smaller classes. For example, they may assign more writing, or provide more feedback on students’ written work, or use open-ended assessments, or encourage more discussions, all activities that may be more feasible with a smaller number of students. Exposure to a particular learning environment may affect learning over the time period of exposure, or it may have longer term or delayed effects (e.g., by increasing self-esteem or cognitive developments that have lasting effects). For these reasons, changes to the class size are considered a potential means of changing how much students learn. Not only is class size potentially one of the key variables in the “production” of learning or knowledge, it is one of the simplest variables for policymakers to manipulate (https://www.psychologicalscience.org/journals/pspi/pdf/pspi2_1.pdf?origin=p).
Overcrowded classrooms and schools have consistently been linked to increased levels of aggression in students. Overcrowded classrooms are also associated with decreased levels of student engagement and, therefore, decreased levels of learning.
Alternatively, classrooms with ample space are more conducive to providing appropriate learning environments for students and associated with increased student engagement and learning. Classroom space is particularly relevant with the current emphasis on 21st century learning such as ensuring students can work in teams, problem solve, and communicate effectively. Classrooms with adequate space to reconfigure seating arrangements facilitate the use of different teaching methods that are aligned to 21st century skills. Creating private study areas as well as smaller learning centre reduces visual and auditory interruptions, and is positively related to student development and achievement (Baron, 2007)
The quality of education is not just teachers matter. Quality of school infrastructure and facilities also depend on the quality of teaching that teachers may provide and the students can get. Even though students have the eager to learn but with the poor school facilities, that passion can be lost. Owing to the fact that school facilities have huge impact on the behaviour and performance of the students. Lack of school facilities may result to a poor interest of the student and if they have high sufficiently facilities, the more knowledge and understanding they can get. Learning is opportunity, knowledge and education is success. Looking for the right path is a choice. Build it with competence and we have confidence.