urge for development both intellectually and commercially has spurned man to
greater pedestal not only for survival on the planet but also to extremes of
being a dominant species. Pollard’s chapter 8 of Worlds together worlds apart
demonstrates how clans, groups, and tribes in both Roman and Han Empires
between 300 and 600 CE thrived on a premise of spirituality across
Afro-Eurasian territory. The same chapter clarifies that spiritual advancement
was molded within imperial customs both benefitting; from morality and
integration of dispersed communities. Religion fostered morality of the society
by reconciling brethren through guidance from religious leaders who gave
answers when war and pessimism to understand the unknown arose, thus religion
and religious leaders could both integrated and broadly scatter societies as
Rome’s stumbling leadership gave in to
invasions by barbarians causing the people to look to the Christianity faith
for the provision of the order, an event that led to the papacy rising as a
ruler. Martyrs witnessed to the believers who looked to them as their
connection to the gods-omnipresent figures whom man pleased with loving deeds-
martyrs shed blood for by obeying scriptural laws conflicting the Roman laws
thus punishment. I believe the same optimism had Constantine place a Christian
symbol on his soldiers’ shields on a battle that made him emperor.
former emperors before him, he treated Christianity best by granting bishops
privileges they exploited and used as stepping stone to universalize
Christianity. In addition, he convened all bishops to the council where they
established a creed that ended the wildly debated contradictions about the
conduct of Christian believers. His monumental legacy of conversion of the
entire Roman Empire to Christianity is furthered by his successor Justinian.
Who after achieving what he sought most-outdoing all previous Roman Emperors by
reforming Roman Laws to the “Roman Law”- honored dearly the cohesion of
Christianity and imperial culture by building a church of the Hagia Sophia in
Constantinople whose columns and size portrayed this relationship.
intellectual and commercial prowess of China controlling the Silk Road rendered
it porous to populations and cultures of its far western terrain-Buddhism.
Buddhism transformed Chinese Empire after spreading along the Silk Road from
India to China via Central Asia because of booming business. In as much as the
Vedic religion (Brahmanism) which united people of South Asia explained all
problems of theology, it did not claim universal faith until its transformation
that produced Hinduism. Even after adopting Buddhism and Jainist practices of
associating with agricultural societies as opposed to prior pastoral past of
animal ritual sacrifices, Hinduism still maintained a monotheistic perspective.
Since people lacked imperial systems they developed dependence on religious and
social institutions (e.g. castes and guilds) to maintain civic order a reason
why Buddhism and Jainism gained populace in cities and commercial places