IntroductionSociolinguisticsinvestigates how people use language in different environments.
It attempts tolink patterns of language use to some kind of non-linguistic reality – that is,to things like class, gender, racial or ethnic identification, and other. Inorder to investigate these phenomena one needs to have reliable researchtechniques. However, research techniques used and applied in sociolinguisticresearch are quite different in their nature and always depend on the researchquestion under investigation. For instance, sociolinguists interested in thevariation of a certain phonological feature across different social classeswill depend on the quantitative methods used in variationist sociolinguistics,while sociolinguists interested in the code-switching practices among thebilingual Estonian speech community members might depend on the qualitativemethods used in ethnographic research. Some research questions might requirethe application of different research methods. This approach is called amixed-method approach (or triangulation). Thepresent study has two parts which deal with the sociolinguistic study of: 1. Pronominals2.
AddressTermsThesecond person pronoun in Kashmiri has the variant forms tsI and tohjwhose usage is shaped by the social factors and thus qualify for asociolinguistic study. Similarly, the third person proximate and remotepronouns exist in their respective variant forms yi, yim and su/so timwhich again require a sociolinguistic study. The method adopted for the sociolinguisticstudy of pronominals in this study is quantitative. The second part of this study dealswith the address terms. The address terms are more diverse and the methodadopted for the sociolinguistic study of address terms in this study is mixedmethod blending the quantitative and the qualitative methods.ObjectivesThe main objectives of the study are asunder:· To explore the social norms of usage ofthe pronominals and address terms in Kashmiri language.
· How the choice of Pronominals andaddress terms is influenced by the variables such as:a. Ageb. Genderc. Educationd. Regionof residenceToaccomplish the objectives set for study, a proper methodology was adopted forthe pronominals and address terms as mentioned in the introductory part of thischapter.Methodology Themethodology adopted for the pronominals and address is discussed in the nextsection.SampleThesample chosen for the sociolinguistic study of pronominals consists of thenative speakers of Kashmiri language aged 6 to 65 years.
Choosing this sampleof huge range worked well in the respect that the sample was deemed to berepresentative of the whole speech community covering all the age groups. Thesampling technique adopted for the study was the stratified random sampling inwhich the samples were selected from the strata of the population on the basisof age, gender, region/place of residence and education. The total sampleselected was 240 each for the study of pronouns and address terms.
The wholesampling grid which is same for the study of pronominals and address terms isshown in the figure —-. Sampling Grid Age Groups Gender Residence Education Age Group 1 (80) Male (40) Rural (20) Educated (10) Uneducated (10) Urban (20) Educated (10) Uneducated (10) Female (40) Rural (20) Educated (10) Uneducated (10) Urban (20) Educated (10) Uneducated (10) Age Group 2 (80) Male (40) Rural (20) Educated (10) Uneducated (10) Urban (20) Educated (10) Uneducated (10) Female (40) Rural (20) Educated (10) Uneducated (10) Urban (20) Educated (10) Uneducated (10) Age Group 3 (80) Male (40) Rural (20) Educated (10) Uneducated (10) Urban (20) Educated (10) Uneducated (10) Female (40) Rural (20) Educated (10) Uneducated (10) Urban (20) Educated (10) Uneducated (10) InstrumentsForthe pronominal study, two instruments were used for the collection of data: 1. ASociodemographic Questionnaire to elicit the social background of theparticipants (See Appendix A)2. AWritten Questionnaire (see Appendix B)The use of a questionnaire was consideredappropriate for this study for several reasons. The questionnaire could bedistributed to a larger group, a large amount of specific information could becovered, the extra-linguistic factors under study could be included, and thestandardized format ensured some uniformity of responses.
Most importantly,they provide valuable information as to how people perceive their use of language.For the address terms an additional tool, that is,observation (participant and non-participant) was used to collect the databecause of the diverse nature of address terms used in Kashmiri language. Theadvantage of using the participant observation was that it provided theinformation of the contexts of use of the address terms.
Thus, the tools usedfor studying address terms were:1. ASociodemographic Questionnaire to elicit the social background of theparticipants (See Appendix C)2. AWritten Questionnaire (see Appendix D)3. Observation(Participant and Non-Participant) SociodemographicQuestionnairesThequestionnaires were written in English.
They consisted of sociodemographic questions(See appendix A and C) intended to collect information regarding social factorswhich describe the participant. The participants’ information includes theirage, sex, place of birth, educational qualification, and place of residence. WrittenQuestionnaire for PronounsThequestionnaire (See appendix B) is concerned with sociolinguistic factors, andit probes the use of the second and third person pronouns of address andreference in addressing and referring todifferent people (family members, friends and acquaintances, professors, andstrangers). All the entries in this questionnaire represent an interpersonalrelationship (son-father, brother-sister, students-professor, etc.). For eachitem, participants were asked to mark four forms of address: (1) The form theywould use to address a given interlocutor, and (2) The form they expect toreceive from that person. (3) The form of third person proximate pronoun thatthey would use to refer to the referent. (4) The form of the third personremote pronoun that they would use to refer to the referent.
WrittenQuestionnaire for Address TermsThe questionnaire for the address terms (Seeappendix D) is similar to the one used for collecting data for pronominal studyexcept for the thing the it probes the use of address terms in the same set ofrelationships enlisted in the questionnaire for pronominal study. For each itemparticipants were asked to make two responses: (1) the address term they woulduse to address a given interlocutor (2) the address term they expect to receivefrom that person.ObservationObservation was used an extra tool for the study ofaddress terms to cover a huge range of address terms in different contexts. Thebenefit of using observation as an extra tool was that many peculiar addressforms were collected which could not be collected otherwise because of hugevariety of the modes of address available to the people to address a sameinterlocutor. Data CollectionAsmentioned before, data for this study were collected from the native speakersof Kashmiri residing in the valley. The sample size for the sociolinguistic studywas 240 grouped into many subgroups on the basis of the social variables likeage, gender, education and place of residence.
Thus a total of 240 filled inquestionnaires were collected to study the pronominals sociolinguistically.AnalysisTheStatistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was employed in the statisticalanalysis of the data. Percentages of frequencies were calculated for each addressform, tsI, tohj, yi, yim, su/so and tim and crosstabulations were generated for each of theextralinguistic factors. There are tables which associate pronoun usage witheach of the social variables like age, gender, education and place of residencein the domains like family, and other social domains. Operationalising the LinguisticVariables and Extralinguistic FactorsLinguisticVariablesThedependent linguistic variables of the study are the second and third person pronominaladdress and reference forms. The study distinguishes the use of tsi and tohj in the case of second person pronominaladdress and yi, yim, in the case of third person proximate referencepronominal and su/so and timin the case of third person remote reference pronominals. ExtralinguisticVariables Variablessuch as age of the speaker, gender, addresser-addressee relationship, andsocial class are generally considered in studies on address forms(Páez-Urdaneta 1980; Jaramillo 1986; Simpson 2002). For the present study thevariables that were considered were: age, gender, education and place ofregion/place of residence.
.Age of the SpeakerAge-graded variation is astable variation which varies within a population based on age. That is,speakers of a particular age will use a specific linguistic form in successivegenerations. J.K.
Chambers cites an example from southern Ontario, Canada wherethe name of the letter ‘Z’ varies. Most of the English-speaking worldpronounces it ‘zed’; however, in the United States, it is pronounced ‘zee’. Alinguistic survey found that in 1979 two-thirds of the 12-year-olds in Torontoended the recitation of the alphabet with the letter ‘zee’ where only 8% of theadults did so. Then in 1991, (when those 12-year-olds were in their mid-20s) asurvey showed only 39% of the 20- to 25-year-olds used ‘zee’.
With respect tothe present study the age was assumed to be one of the important independentvariable affecting the use of the pronominals. To see the effect of age on thepronominal usage, the total sample was grouped into three age groups: Age Group Age Range (in years) Age Group 1 6 to 25 Age Group 2 26 to 45 Age Group 3 46 and above Thethree age groups are assumed to have different social roles andresponsibilities leading to their different psychological makeup which canaccount for the varied use of language across these three age groups.Gender of speaker (Feminine/ Masculine): Studiessuch as Jaramillo (1996), for the Spanish spoken in Tucson, Arizona, have shownthat there is a difference in the selection of one pronoun over another basedon the sex of the speaker. In her study, men used tú more frequentlythan women in a work context. Similarly, Bartens (2003), in her study onaddress forms in Colombia, observed important differences in the use of thepronouns based on gender, notably, the use by men of the pronoun usted toexpress solidarity. On the basis of gender the population for the present studywas grouped into the universal categories of male and female.Region of ResidenceSociolinguistshave always been concerned with place.
Be it nation, region, county, city,neighborhood, or block, place has long been adduced as a key correlate of linguisticvariation, and geography has often entered into explanations of variation.Since in the 19th century, dialectologists have been cataloguing and mappinghow language varies from place to place. Starting in the 1960s, sociolinguiststurned their focus to “social facts” such as class, gender, and race asinfluences on talk, but they often continued to delimit their research sites ascities, neighborhoods and, in the U.S., states. Place has also played a role inaccounts of variation in more metaphorical and more abstract ways: people’s”locations” in social networks affect the likelihood of their being linguisticleaders or followers; changes move from centers to peripheries, or sometimesfrom peripheries to centers, be these physical or social. Studies of the spreadof language change have sometimes used models of diffusion from geography.
Likemany other societies, social change of the Kashmiri society is a fact. Theprocess of urbanization has affected the social relations and social networks.Having crept deep into the minds of the people, the idea of urbanization hasbecome a factor for making the dichotomy between the rural and the urban areas.The valley of Kashmir is geographically not a diverse place. The most of theregions of the valley do not have the amenities which qualify a place for beingcalled urban. The difference on the basis of region is made between ‘shahar’ and ‘gaam’- the prevalent concepts among the general population. TheRevenue Department of the J&K state lists the Srinagar city as the onlyurban area and rest of the valley is falls under the rural category.
This isthe criterion which has been adopted for the present study in which theSrinagar city has been taken as an urban area and rest of the valley as rural.The sample was selected from Srinagar representing urban Kashmir and fourdistricts of South Kashmir (Anantnag, Pulwama, Kulgam and Shopian) representingrural Kashmir. EducationThecategorization on the basis of education, in the present study, resulted in twocategories: Educated and Uneducated. The tags ‘educated’ and ‘uneducated’ wereassigned to the respondents based on their educational qualifications whichwere operationalised for the present study.
The unenrolled and primary schooldropouts in all the three age groups were taken as uneducated while as peoplehaving qualified 10th standard and above were taken as educated. Inthe age group 1, all understudy students above 5th standard weretaken as educated.