Introduction

Introduction:
Tempering is a heat treatment technique applied to ferrous alloys like steel or cast iron to achieve greater toughness by decreasing the hardness of the alloy. The ductility of the metal increase and brittleness decrease as the hardness reduce. Tempering is performed after quenching which is the metal undergo rapid cooling process. Tempering is accomplished by controlled heating of the quenched metal to a temperature below its lower critical temperature. At this temperature, ferrite and cementite combine to form a single-phase solid solution called austenite. Heating above lower critical temperature is avoided in order to prevent destroy martensite which is a hard quenched microstructure. There are two different type of tempering treatment which are Austempering and Martempering treatment.
Characteristic of Austempering Treatment:
Austempering is an isothermal heat treatment that is applied to ferrous metals such as notably steel and ductile iron to produce bainite structure. Austempering is performed from quenching from a temperature above the transformation range to a temperature above the upper limit of martensite formation and holding at this temperature until the austenite is completely transformed to the desired intermediate structure. It produces bainite microstructure in steel and produces ausferrite in cast iron. Ausferrite contain high carbon content and stabilized austenite. Austempering treatment is primarily used to promote and improve mechanical properties or reduce distortion. The properties including higher ductility, resistance to shock and uniform hardness.

Figure 1: TTT diagram. Red line shows the cooling curve for austempering
Advantages of Austempering:
Reduce or eliminate distortion
Increase ductility
Uniform and consistent hardness
Increase toughness
Wear resistance
High impact and fatigue strength
Resistance to hydrogen embrittlement
Limitation of Austempering:
The greatest limitation is that for Austempering to work, one must be able to miss the ‘nose’ on the TTT diagram and prevent transition to structures inferior in strength to Bainite and Martensite. This means that the material must respond quickly enough to the quench medium to accomplish this. In Austempering, the quench material must also be capable of being held at a high enough temperature to arrest Martensite Start transformation. Thus, Austempering will not work with every steel type, which may in fact limit the process to only a select few options of threaded fastener grade steels.
Application of Austempering:
Austempering usually is substituted for conventional quenching and tempering for these reasons:
To improve mechanical properties
To reduce cracking and distortion
To increase wear resistance at a given hardness
To add resistance to subsequent embrittlement
At times, austempering is more economical than conventional quenching and tempering. Most likely when small parts are treated in an automated setup in competition with conventional quenching and tempering which is a three step operation: austenitizing, quenching and tempering. Austempering is a two- step process: austenitizing and isothermal transformation in an austempering bath.
Generally, applications are limited to parts made from small diameter bar or from sheet or strip which is small in cross section. The process is especially suitable for the treatment of thin section, carbon steel parts calling for exceptional toughness at hardness between 40 and 50 HRC. Reduction in the area of austempered carbon steel parts usually is much greater than it is for part conventionally quenched and tempered as indicated in Figure 3 for 5mm bars of 0.85% carbon, plain carbon steel:

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Figure 3: Properties of 5mm bars of 0.85% carbon, plain carbon steel
Characteristics of Martempering Treatment:

Figure 2: TTT diagram of Martempering process
Formation of martensite occurs fairly uniformly throughout the workpiece during cooling to room temperature, thereby avoiding formation of excessive amounts of residual stress. Straightening or forming is also easily accomplished upon removal from the marquenching bath while the part is still hot. The piece will hold its shape upon subsequent cooling in fixturing or in air cooling after removal from the forming die.

Figure 3: Molten salt bath treatment
Martempering of wrought steel and cast iron consists of the following steps:
Quenching from the austenitizing temperature into a hot fluid medium (oil, molten salt. molten metal, or a fluidized particle bed) at a temperature usually above the martensitic range (Ms point)
Holding in the quenching medium until the temperature throughout a part is uniform.

Cooling usually in air, at a moderate rate to prevent large differences between temperatures on the outside and center of a section.

During cooling to room temperature, the formation of martensite throughout a part is fairly uniform which avoids excessive residual stresses. When the still-hot part is removed from the bath, it is easy to straighten or to form, and will hold its shape on subsequent cooling in a fixture, or in air cooling after removal from a forming die. Following marquenching, parts are tempered in the same manner as conventionally quenched parts. The time lapse between martempering and tempering is not so critical as it is in conventional quenching and tempering operation CITATION Tem l 18441 (Tempering Processes/Technology).

Advantages of Martempering:
The advantage of martempering lies in the reduced thermal gradient between surface and center as the part is quenched to the isothermal temperature and then is air cooled to room temperature. Residual stresses developed during martempering are lower than those developed during conventional quenching because the greatest thermal variations occur while the steel is in the relatively plastic austenitic condition and because final transformation and thermal changes occur throughout the part at approximately the same time. Martempering also reduces or eliminates susceptibility to cracking.

Another advantage of martempering in molten salt is the control of surface carburizing or decarburizing. When the austenitizing bath is neutral salt and is controlled by the addition of methane gas or proprietary rectifiers to maintain its neutrality, parts are protected with a residual coating of neutral salt until immersed in the marquench bath.
Although martempering is used primarily to minimize distortion, eliminate cracking, and minimize residual stresses, it also greatly reduces the problems of pollution and fire hazard as long as nitrate-nitrite salts are used rather than martempering oils. This is especially true where nitrate-nitrite salts are recovered from wash waters with systems that provide essentially no discharge of salts into drains. Any steel part or grade of steel responding to oil quenching can be martempered to provide similar physical properties. The quenching severity of molten salt is greatly enhanced by agitation and water additions to the nitrate-salt bath. Both techniques are particularly beneficial in heat treating of carbon steels that have limited hardenability.
Oil for Martempering:
At temperatures between 95 to 230?, quenching oil requires special handling. It must be maintained under a protective atmosphere (reducing or neutral) to prolong its life. Exposure to air at elevated temperatures speeds up the deterioration of oil. For every 10? above 60? the oxidation rate approximately doubles, causing the formation of sludge and acid, which can affect the hardness and colour of workpieces. Oil life can be extended and the production of clean work can be maintained by using bypass or continuous filter units containing suitable filtering media (clay, cellulose cartridge or waste cloth). Oils should be circulated at a rate no lower than 0.9 m/s to break up excessive vapour formed during quenching.

The advantages of using oil is oil can be used at lower temperature and is easier to handle at room temperature as compared to salt bath. However, it still have disadvantages. Firstly, the maximum operating temperature of oil is 230?. Workpiece require more time to reach temperature equalization. Next is soap or emulsifier is needed to wash off oil. Washers must be drained and refilled periodically. Oil waste present disposal problems.
Limitation of Martempering:
Due to the high temperature of the quenching medium, the quench severity is seriously hampered CITATION Pan17 l 18441 (Deval, 2017). Hence, there is a danger of intercepting the nose of the TTT curve while cooling to the temperature of the marquenching medium. Therefore hardenability of parts to be martempered should be sufficiently high CITATION Pan17 l 18441 (Deval, 2017). Also parts with very high section thickness cannot be martempered satisfactorily. Even though the residual stresses are minimised because of Martempering, tempering after marquenching is still required.

Application of Martempering:
Since martempering lowers the residual thermal stress, it is used for parts with complex geometries, diverse weights, and section changes. Martempering is used primarily to minimise distortion and eliminate cracking. Alloy steels are generally more adaptable to martempering. In general, any steel part or grade of steel responding to oil quenching can be martempered to provide similar physical properties.

Alloy steels generally are more adaptable than carbon steels to martempering. In general, any steel that is normally quenched in oil can be martempered. Some carbon steels that are normally water quenched can be martempered at 205? in section thinner than 5mm using vigorous agitation of the martempering medium. In addition, thousands of gray cast iron parts are martempered on a routine basis. The grades of steel that are commonly martempered to full hardness include 1090, 4130, 4140, 4150, 8740 and SAE 1141 CITATION Tem l 18441 (Tempering Processes/Technology). Carburizing grades such as 3312, 4620, 8620 and 9310 also are commonly martempered after carburizing CITATION Tem l 18441 (Tempering Processes/Technology). Higher alloy steels such as type 410 stainless are martempered but this is not a common practice CITATION Tem l 18441 (Tempering Processes/Technology).
Table 1: Differences between Austempering and Martempering
Austempering Martempering
Austempering is not a hardening treatment Martempering is a hardening treatment
Austempering gives bainite structure Martempering gives martensite structure
Less distortion and quenching cracks More distortion and quenching cracks
Tempering is not needed after austempering Tempering is needed after martempering
It requires more time It requires less time
Low ductility and low toughness obtained Greater ductility and high toughness obtained
Conclusion:
Martempering consists of heating a steel to above its critical transformation and then quenching into a bath held at a temperature approximately equal to that of its Mg. The steel is maintained in the hot bath until its temperature is essentially uniform and then is cooled in air. Martensite microstructure will be formed. Severe internal stresses develop in steel during hardening. Steel contracts during cooling but undergoes a marked expansion when the austenite transforms to martensite. Since a quenched steel must cool from the surface inward, various portions transform at different times. The steel is subjected to internal stress. By equalizing the temperature throughout the section before transformation takes place, and then cooling slowly through the martensite range, the internal stresses are considerably reduced. Austempering is a method of hardening steel by quenching from the austenitizing temperature into a heat extracting medium which is maintained between at 200? and 400?. Then, holding the steel until austenite is transformed to bainite. This method is used to increase strength, toughness and to reduce distortion.

Introduction

Introduction:

This case study will be looking into the evolution of Jungle music, from its roots in Reggae and UK Rave music to Drum & Bass and other sub-genres today. It will look at the historical views of its origins, and how it has developed from the underground to the mainstream scene.

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it will identify key players in this genre of music, and explain how they have influenced significant changes.

Summary:

Through this case study, I will show how Jungle music has evolved in the last thirty years, illustrating how the fusion of very different genres such us Reggea, Ska, Breakbeat or Acid house have created this genre that has continued evolving into other sub-genres, and during its history has become a reference that has brought people from different social classes and races together meaning the union of black and white people in England.

I will also explain how the genre has found its ways of promotion, despite the media being against it and also despite commercial radios refusing to play it. And how years after, artists like Goldie have brought the Genre to the top of the charts.

Figure 1: DJ Fabio at an early jungle rave, London, 1990s

Before The Jungle
Origins:
After World War 2, between 1948 and 1971 Great Britain encouraged mass emigration from countries of the British Empire to work and help in the reconstruction of the nation. They were named as The Windrush Generation, this included Jamaica, Barbados or Trinidad and Tobago.
The British government invited Caribbean migrants, some of them were ex-servicemen. They were picked up from Kingston (Jamaica), then brought to the port of Tilbury, giving them residency in Clapham and Brixton in London (Boiler Room, 2018).

Figure 2: 22 June 1948 the Empire Windrush landed at Tilbury Docks, Essex
Little did we know in the future of how much of an influence their culture impacted Britain. The Windrush generation not only brought workers: they brought style, music and new sounds.
Stemming from the late 60’s, Pigmeat Markham is considered to be the first introduced early elements of rapping with ”Here Comes the Judge”. Also, at the time, Funk, R;B and soul were popular in the US, creating legends as Aretha Franklin, Ben E. King, James Brown and many more. Meanwhile, in the UK, the scenes were driven by Subcultures like Punks, Mods and Skinheads.

From Jamaica, the migrants started to bring to the UK their handmade Sound systems to the communities. This, therefore, resulted in the future ”British Sound System” like Sir Coxone Outernational, Channel One, Jah Shaka or Aba-Shanti. This brought the elements of toasting lyrical singing over dub instrumentals, which in the future evolved into MC’s.
Council estates were filled with working-class English and Caribbean families, dynamics that were reflected in working-class jobs. By the 70s, young working-class English and Jamaicans came together in music and with that came the Two-Tone scene, a genre that mix Ska and Punk Rock.
Back in the US during the late 70s, DJs from New York such as Kool Herc from the Bronx realised that when playing Soul and Funk to a crowd, the energy would pick up in the dance at the time of the drum break solo.

DJs were always looking for sample breaks looking at the funk and Soul tracks like:
James Brown – The Funky Drummer
Incredible Bongo Band – Apache
Lyn Collins – Think About It
But in 1969, ‘Amen Brother’ by The Winstons was the record that impacted the music scene the most with the ‘Amen Break’. This drum break would be sampled and used by many subcultures and genres.

The UK Rave scene:
In the 90s British DJs and producers started taking the breaks influenced by the US hip-hop mixing the sounds with Acid House creating UK Breakbeats.

DJs brought this to the rave scene, changing the sounds and paving the way for new creativity and artists. Accordingly, this is why the understanding and importance of Sound System culture had been an influence in the UK music scene. the UK raves were getting shut down by police and people rebelling against the system and bringing love and unity similar to the scene back in Jamaica.

Jungle
The Beginning of Jungle:
British rappers started to leave their mark on the dance scene, while the UK Breakbeat sound stayed fresh and new thanks to US Hips Hop.

Initial pioneers of Jungle – coming from the Breakbeat scene – are artists like Rebel MC and Ragga Twins that started incorporating their Jamaican influences. By 1992, more producers started experimenting with Jungle sounds through the use of distinctive bass lines borrowed from dub and reggae.

The scene grew big with people like Kenny Ken, Nicky Black Market, Fabio & Grooverider or DJ Hype. MCs started to demonstrate their talent on the scene by bringing the Jamaican influences of toasting, rhyming on the baseline and motivating the crowds, creating Jungle legends such as Tenor Fly, Hyper D or Skibadee. Another factor that characterised these raves was the display of professional dancers on the stage reflecting the hype and atmosphere of the scene.

Jungle raves were packed full of people in iconic venues such as Club Labyrinth (London) and The Sanctuary Music Arena (Milton Keynes), which saw the impact of the scene, later creating an iconic event known as Jungle Fever (Bennett, 2010), named by DJ Eastman from Kool FM, because of the film ”Jungle Fever” by Spike Lee which focuses on the issues of mixed relationships between black and white people.

The scene started growing causing mass controversy, including the media, due to some of the violent lyrics used, as they believed it glamorises violence.

Pirate Radios:
Commercial radio stations and TV would not even dare touch the underground sounds, which forced new pirate radio stations to pop up in urban areas. In the UK, stations such as Sunrise, Center force, Kool FM and Fantasy FM were playing the latest tracks in underground music.

Pirate Radio Stations always competed for being the champion radio and to get the best Transmission signal. This would be from Hightower’s or Council State rooftops (Clifton, 2018).

”Radio Stations, very very very very important. They played the tune on dubplate, the DJ’s played it out in the clubs and then we’d get it on promo at the shop.”
(Evans, 2018)
Without Pirate Radio Stations local businesses such as the record stores wouldn’t prosper as they did at the time. UK underground music was in high demand in correlation to the commercial tracks, in record stores like Black Market Records (London), which enabled the opportunity for their customers and listeners of a local Pirate Radio Station to meet face-to-face with their local Pirate DJ’s.

For Pirate radios, MC culture was vital. As was explored earlier in the text, the jungle scene incorporates the Jamaican influence of ”Toasting’, which is when a DJ raps over the bassline. Mcs were rhyming on the rhythms and amping up the crowds. That was a vital part of communication to the pirate listeners.
With no visuals or video uploads, MCs got their respect and recognition due to a lyrical flow, with recognisable ad-libs and voices. Rave promoters paid the pirate stations or MCs to give on-air promotions and other business relations.

Pirate radio was a crucial element in the UK ground music scene. And without it, the cultural British urban music wouldn’t be where it is today.

Mainstream:
Jungle reaches the top of its popularity between 1994 and 1995. Some of the key players that brought Jungle to the top of the UK Charts were M-Beat and General levy with ‘Incredible’ or Shy FX and UK Apache with ‘Original Nuttah’ (BBC 2, 1994).
‘Incredible’ reached the top ten in UK Charts, giving the opportunity to M-Beat and General Levy to perform in TV Shows like the ”Iconic top of the Pops”, the most popular music shows on BBC.

‘Original Nutta’ managed to reach the top 40 in the UK Charts, demonstrating the potential of Jungle scene in the UK mainstream.
The Jungle sound isn’t as predominant as it was in the early 90s. However, its influence can still be heard. The scene influenced important jungle artists of today such as Benny page, Ed Solo, Serial Killaz, Ed Rush or Congo Natty, creating fusions of Reggae, Drum & Bass and Jungle.

Nowadays, UK still holds events like Jungle Mania and is still going strong, and artists in the scene are still performing to this day at raves and festivals.

Jungle to Drum & Bass:

Producers and people wanted to separate themselves from Jungle. Producers started to remove the Reggae and Jamaican influences but kept the base and Amen break elements given that dark tunnel atmosphere which similarly represented the dark times of the UK scene.

DJs, Produces an MCs from The Jungle scene were moving into Drum & Bass such as DJ Hype, LTJ Bukem or Grooverider.

Goldie was such an essential part in the Jungle and Drum & Bass movement. He put out an album called ‘Timeless’, reaching the number seven in the charts with ‘Inner City Life’. Goldie brought back to the attention of the media and new audiences to the underground music.

‘Inner City Life’ was playing everywhere; in shops, TV, adverts, and commercial radio. Goldie became an icon, his personality and artistic talent made him into a star. His success allowed him to cross paths with big names such as Oasis, Bjork, David Bowie. Also, opening opportunities for him to participate in movies, even in 2016 he has been awarded as MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) by the Prince of Wales for his contribution to the British music industry (English and Turnbull, 2018).

Figure 3: Goldie awarded an MBE by Prince Charles during an Investiture ceremony, at Buckingham Palace.

Following Goldie other Drum & Bass artist started to be winning Awards such as Bristol Legend Roni Size, which won Mercury Prize for his album ‘New Forms’. Furthermore, the genre has evolved till today creating more subgenres like Jump Up, Liquid or Neurofunk. Labels from the time such as RAM records from Andy C, Metalheads and Hospitality records, run until today becoming the reference of Drum & Bass music. The genre has reached the mainstream again with artist like Pendulum or Rudimental or Rita Ora and Dj Fresh. Also, nowadays you can listen to Jungle and Drum & Bass samples in many of the songs on the top of the UK charts, like Rita Ora and Dj Fresh.
Conclusion:

Drum & Bass is an important genre both musically and culturally, it has been played at festivals and raves all around the globe. Furthermore, the genre opens up the exposure and diversity of producers all over the world. Artist like Makoto from Japan, S.P.Y from Brazil and Netsky from Belgium have become international big names in the scene, showing that the genre has become a commercial front, more prominent than ever before.

Today, artists are playing at the main stages in international festivals like Tomorrowland or Glastonbury. Without the efforts of DJs, MCs and Pirate Radio from the 80s and 90s, We would not have the drum and bass scene that we have today.

Introduction

Introduction:
In this assignment I will explore the features of different businesses and analyse what makes them successful. The two businesses I have chosen are Coca Cola and the non-profit business Oxfam. I will also be investigating how businesses are organised.
Coca-Cola

Ownership
Coca Cola is a public limited company meaning that the company’s shares are placed on the stock exchange meaning anyone is able to buy them. This means that Coca Cola are owned by all the different shareholders which can be thousands of people. Also investors will own part of the company. Coca-Cola is a public limited company with its shares being sold on the stock market. In 2010 Coca-Cola was record as having the largest stock on the market being sold.
The advantages of Coca-Cola being a public limited company is that the company is able to exploit opportunities in the market as soon as they arise. This means Coca-Cola are able to change their products for the customers’ needs and wants. In addition to this the business is allowed greater freedom and flexibility to finance their growth and development. For Coca-Cola this means that they can invest into what they want with how much they want. Another advantage is that Coca-Cola can produce more capital as being a PLC it means they can sell their shares through the stock market. Coca-Cola can have more investors and more money put into the company to develop more products due to their capability to sell shares on the stock market. Also the increased capital means that Coca-Cola is able to grow and diversify. This is a benefit as they can increase their brand awareness and consumer loyalty. Another positive is that Coca-Cola has limited liability as a PLC and this means on a set amount of things can be taken if Coca-Cola were to go into debt. This is due to the thousands of shareholders they have.
Even though there are many advantages of owning a PLC there are also alongside this disadvantages. These are that the formation and running costs can be expensive as there are many roles within the company and the shareholders will also get a take of the money earn by the company each month. The reason there are many roles is that due to the nature of the business they need different sectors of the business to be separate for example the deign team and the manufacturing team won’t work in the same office as one would be in a factory. Another con of owning a PLC is that decisions are made slow as they have to go through many departments before the decision is finalised. A major disadvantage is that if something goes wrong in the company the whole public knows about it and this could damage reputation and customer loyalty this is because they If someone goes on the stock market and buys the majority of the shares they can take over the company and it could be theirs this is a disadvantage for the owners of coca cola as their position can be taken and them become redundant. An overall disadvantage is that the shareholders only want to make money and in doing this is causes the company to lose track of its other objectives as the company will focus on ensuring the shareholders are satisfied to keep their money being injected into the company. This could run the company and reduce the profit made depending on the objectives. For example, if an objective is to increase customer loyalty and satisfaction this could be failed if the shareholders decide to raise the prices of the product which would reduce consumers.

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Liability
Limited liability is where if a company goes into debt, to pay off the debt only things the company owns can be taken away to repay the debt. This is a safer option as your personal belongings cannot be taken.
Unlimited liability is where if a company goes into debt, to repay the debt anything can be taken not just things the company owns, your personal belongings can be taken away to make sure the debt is paid.
Coca-Cola have limited liability meaning a set amount of things can be taken if the company goes into debt as the company is public. This means as Coca-Cola is a public limited company it is owned by shareholders. This gives Coca-Cola the ability to sell its shares on the stock market for anyone to buy, this creates many potential opportunities for greater finance to be raised.
The advantages of having limited liability is that if your company gets sued you’re bank accounts, real estate and personal belongings will be safe and only items the company owns can get taken away. This means at most you can only use money you put into the business. Another advantage is that the revenue the company makes is classed as personal income on tax laws and the money will not have to go through government taxes which LTD have to.
On the other hand, there are disadvantages of having limited liability. One of these disadvantages is that the company will have higher fees compared to that of a company which doesn’t have limited liability. This includes an annual fee each year that needs to be paid. Also even though you can avoid government taxes on the revenue your profit has to go through the countries income taxes which could end up being more than if the revenue was to go to the business.
Purpose
The purpose of Coca-Cola is to refresh the consumer with low health complications. Coca-Cola try to keep customers loyalty with a sweet taste. They sell different drinks for different purposes. For example, their smart water drink, which has the purpose of rehydrating the brain ready for learning. However, their coca cola drink is to refresh and taste sweet on a day out or in the house.
Sector
Coca-Cola work in the private sector as they do not receive funding from the government. As they are a PLC this means they will receive their funding from stakeholders and shareholders and foreign investment. Coca-Cola will operate in the secondary sector as they manufacture their own product. Coca-Cola is also in the tertiary sector as they provide a service as they sell their product, which is a soft carbonated drink.
Scope of activities
Coca-Cola sell soft drinks along with carbonated drinks. Also, they have many different drinks they sell as they own many companies. They have many different brands of drink that they sell worldwide. They sell them in shops everywhere in smaller cans or bigger bottles and almost every corner shop will sell the coca cola drinks. Coca-Cola only sell refreshments however they own most brands such as Fanta, sprite, coke and smart water.
Size
Coca-Cola is a worldwide business with the Coca-Cola Company being the world’s leading soft beverage company, with over 500 sparkling and still options. Coca cola currently has the strongest portfolio of all the non-alcoholic beverage brands- as they have 21 brands that generate over US$1 billion in revenue per annum. Coca-Cola across the whole world have 71,000 employees.

Organisational Structure
Organisational structure of the Coca-Cola Company has separate international division structure as their international staff operates separately and in isolation from the head office. They have various divisions in various continents around the world with presidents that control each continental division. In the company Coca-Cola they have 5 different international divisions that work separately they’re; Eurasia and Africa group, Europe group, Latin America group, North America group and Pacific group. Within Coca-Cola they also have 6 functional departments and these are; marketing, finance, packaging, sales, research and development and finally administration.

Mission
Coca Cola has 3 company mission and they are; “To refresh the world in mind, body and spirit.” “To inspire moments of optimism and happiness through our brands and actions.” “To create value and make a difference.” Theses missions is what they try to accomplish all year round.
Visions
Coca Cola also have many visions that that want people to inspire each other to be the best that they can be. Coca-Cola have aims for profit as they want to maximise long-term return to shareholders while being mindful of our overall responsibilities. Productivity is to be a highly effective, lean and fast moving organisation.
Values
Values- leadership, integrity, accountability, passion, diversity and quality. These values mean a lot to Coca-Cola and they want everyone within the company to follow and exceed these values.
Aims and objectives
Objectives for Coca-Cola are to be globally known as a business that conducts business responsibility and ethically to accelerate sustainable growth. Coca-Cola have aims for profit as they want to maximise long-term return to shareholders while being mindful of our overall responsibilities. Productivity is to be a highly effective, lean and fast moving organisation.
Reason for success
Reasons for Coca-Cola’s success is that their marketing campaigns are strong and attract many consumers and they have also always been successful in the way their brand gets promoted and what the brand stands for. For example, one of the marketing campaigns they use is that they put large vending machines in three London stations that will dispense free t-shirts and bottles of free coke. To get the two items consumers will have to tweet Coca-Cola’s previous slogan of #choose happiness. Even though it is costing Coca-Cola a lot of money for this promotion, people enjoyed it and a positive image of the Coca-Cola brand grew.
Oxfam
Oxfam are a non-profitable charity which tries to help countries in aid after a natural disaster strikes. They will go out to the country and supply the locals with the basics things so they can survive and get through the aftermath of the disaster.
Ownership
Oxfam is an international organisation, which consists of 14 organisations working in over 100 countries. In the charity Oxfam, there are 12 trustees who are made responsible in the eyes of the law of charities as they have many experiences and skills that enable them to undertake the responsibilities of a large complex charity.
Liability
Oxfam is a charity and this is important to remember when it comes to liability, as there are not a public company, nevertheless there are still responsibilities and rules that need to be followed by the board of employees and trustees. Members/donors make the responsibility.
Purpose
Oxfam’s purpose is to help and be working with thousands of local partner organisations, to help people living in poverty, and to exercise their human rights. Oxfam as a whole is purpose driven results and focussed approach means they take full responsibility for their actions and hold themselves accountable. Also they believe that others should also be accountable for their actions as well.
Sector
Oxfam work in the private sector this means they find their funding privately they work to increase the investment to ensure that can do what is needed of them. They want to do this to enable and ensure that the economic growth of the charity is increasing so they can evenly distribute money where needed. They work in the tertiary sector as they offer as service. They help developing countries worldwide come back from natural disasters that occur.
Scope of activities
Oxfam have many charity shops where they receive donations of clothes, housing items and many other things to then be sold to raise money so they can then provide the countries in need with the basic requirements for survival. They will also go out to the country in need and help the locals by giving them shelters to stay in until their houses can be rebuilt.
Size
Oxfam is a large charity with over 250 employees meaning they’re on the international stage of companies as they help places in need of aid but can’t afford to do it themselves. All workers for the charity are volunteers to ensure the charity can put more money towards the countries in need of aid. Oxfam mainly operate in developing countries that are in need of help soon after a natural disaster happens.
Organisational structure
Oxfam has a complex organisational structure, as they are a global organisation. It splits into central, north, east and west. This shows the range that the charity has and that they do not stick to one area they try to help all areas. It also shows that the span of Oxfam is too big for the chart, even though this is beneficial for Oxfam as most of their employees are volunteers so it will not cost Oxfam a big amount of money.
Functional areas
The functional areas of Oxfam are a good way for the charity to be organised, as employees will be able to see whom they can report to in their department. Oxfam believes in empowerment as their approach means that everyone who is involved with the charity Oxfam from their staff and supporters to people living in poverty, have the right that they should feel that they can make a difference and change their lives.
Mission
They strive to be open to everyone and embrace diversity. Oxfam believe everyone has a right to contribute to make the world better, regardless of visible and invisible differences.
Stakeholders
Stakeholders are people who take an interest in the company. There are two different types of stakeholders, internal and external. The types of stakeholders you can get are:
• Owners
• Shareholders
• Managers
• Staff and employees
• Customers
• Suppliers
• Community
• Government
These can be broken down in internal and external stakeholders. Internal stakeholders are people who are within the business. External stakeholders are people who are outside of the business but still take an interest in it.

Coca-Cola
Shareholders
Coca Cola’s shareholders will have their main interests in making profit and the growth of the share price. They have power within the business as the main shareholders will have a vote and elect the board of directors. This will influence how the company is run and the aims and objectives. This will intern effect the overall profit of the company. Shareholders are an internal type of stakeholder. The shareholders will communicate with the managers and directors, as they are the people who pick who they employ as the board. They would use emails too communicate. For example, when employing new manager/directors they will email the candidate an email of conformation of them getting the job. Shareholders will also communicate through yearly meetings. These are appropriate methods of communication as they are a good way of shareholders finding out how the company they are putting money into has done over the year.
Banks
The banks main interest would be to get paid back and maintain their credit rating. The power they can have will influence the financial side of the company as they can withdraw their financial backing, which would affect the company, as they will have less money to invest in the properties and machinery. Furthermore, the bank can enforce bank loan covenants, which means they have the right to call for you to pay the loan back when they choose. This will influence Coca Cola as if they have a loan they are budgeting to be paid back every month. This means they would have to make some cuts to ensure the loan is repaid when the bank would like it to be. If this happened, it would set back Coca Colas profit for the coming months until they can get back to the input and output they need to make a substantial amount of profit to ensure shareholders happiness. Banks are an external type of a stakeholder. The banks will communicate with Coca Cola through meetings and emails. Through meetings, Coca Cola can discus mortgages and leases on properties for storage of their supplies and product. This is appropriate, as face-to-face interaction is more effective at times, as a person is more inclined to accept rather than decline. In addition, they can communicate quicker and reduce the time consuming emails.
Directors and managers
The directors and managers main interest would be their own salary as they work in this job to make a living and ensure a good quality of life. This would affect Coca Coals output, as a person such as a director will want a high wage for his/her job. They would also hold a main interest in job satisfaction, which means they want to be happy at work and enjoy it when something good happens to the company. For example, if they meet the aims and objectives for the year it will make the directors and managers feel good within their job role and with the job, they have done throughout the year. Finally, they would keep a main interest in their job status, as they would like to keep their high role within the company as they have a massive influence over what goes on through the company. This would affect coca cola in the main path the company shall take for that annum. Directors and managers for coca cola will have an influence over the business in the fact that they will make all the decisions for the business and this will intern determine the outcome for the near future. Managers will also communicate with shareholders through annual meetings where they will address problems and successes throughout the year. Managers and directors will also communicate through emails to the employees to let them know what they should be doing.
Employees
The employees’ main interest would lie with their salaries, as they want to make a living. In addition, they would have an interest in their job security. This would be because they would not like to lose their job and if they did, the employee would have no source of income. They would have an influence on the coca cola company as they have control of the service quality and the industrial action. This would influence coca cola as if the employees were doing a bad job their sales would go down and the company would lose profit. The employees will communicate with the directors and managers via phone and email to discuss issues they run into when manufacturing the drinks and cans. This is effective as employees can also inform the managers and directors about the amount of drinks they have produced with a day’s work. This makes it appropriate as the managers and directors can tell the shareholders how the company is doing on production.
Suppliers
The suppliers will have their main interest in gaining long term contracts to ensure more profit is generated over the annum. In addition, they will be interested in the growth of the purchasing of their products from the company to gain added amounts of revenue per year. Suppliers have within the company as they decide on the quality of products given to the company. This could influence Coca Cola’s profit for that year as if the quality of the product given by the suppliers is poor it will reflect that onto Coca Cola’s product and they could lose customer loyalty. The suppliers will communicate with the directors through emails to discuss payment and timings of delivery. This is appropriate as the managers can have proof of the transaction and what is being said through the emails. So if anything was to go bad and they ended up in court Coca-Cola would have proof of everything that happened via emails.
Customers
The customer’s main interest would be in the service and product they are receiving from Coca Cola. This would then influence Coca Cola’s profit as if their customers are happy with the product it would increase customer loyalty and they would come back and buy Coca Cola’s product again. The customer would also care about the value for money on the product as the customer would not be happy and would not pay £1 for a 550ml can. If this was the pricing for Coca Cola cans the company would lose customer loyalty, as the price would be too high as other cans, the same size cost £0.55, which is good value for money. The influence customers will have over the company Coca Cola is the revenue and the word of mouth recommendation. This would influence Coca Cola, for example if they got a bad review through word of mouth, it would reduce their sales and thus their profit. However, if the review is good it would increase the sales and then their profit. Customers would communicate with employees on the quality of the product through word of mouth and making a review on the Coca Cola website. This is an appropriate was of communication as the coca cola company can make improvements to their product or service if it is needed. This will help Coca Cola as they can see if they are gaining customer loyalty or new customers.
Community
The coca cola headquarters is located in Atlanta, Georgia and is part of a large complex. The community would have their main interest in the creation of jobs. As coca cola is a large company they would have many roles within their business and high skilled graduates would be looking to get a job within the company. The community would have an influence on the company with regarding the opinion on the business and this would affect Coca Cola’s reputation and then their profits. The community will communicate with Coca Cola through social media and press releases. They would communicate through social media as they can go onto Coca Colas website or pages on different platforms and address their issues or gratitude towards the company. In addition, press releases can be a way for the community to express their feeling about Coca Cola. This is appropriate as Coca Cola can have an employee attend the press release to take down notes and bring it back to the directors for it is be analysed. Also, Coca Cola will have a social media sector and they can feedback the comments to the boards.
Government
The government would have a main interest in receiving taxes from the company and they determine the taxes meaning Coca Cola will have to pay the price they set. Also the government will have an influence in the funding they give to the company could differ depending on what state they based themselves in. For example, the tax laws could be higher in the state of California compared to the tax laws of Atlanta. The government will communicate with Coca Cola through the annual reports, as Coca Cola are required by law to send the government their annual reports to see if they are making the amount of money they say they are. This is too ensure that Coca Cola are paying the required tax towards the government.
Oxfam
Shareholders
Oxfam’s shareholders will have their main interests in making profit and the growth of the share price. They have power within the business as the main shareholders will have a vote and elect the board of directors. This will influence how the company is run and the aims and objectives. This will intern influence the overall respectability of the company. Shareholders are an internal type of stakeholder. The shareholders will communicate with the directors and managers as they elect the board of directors. This is important, as it will determine how the charity is run while they remain in power. In addition to this, communication with the directors is essential as the shareholders can decide on whom is employed in what sector of the directors.
Banks
The banks main interest would be to get paid back and maintain their credit rating. The power they can have will influence the financial side of the company as they can withdraw their financial backing, which would affect the company, as they will have less money to invest in the properties and machinery. Furthermore, the bank can enforce bank loan covenants, which means they have the right to call for you to pay the loan back when they choose. This will affect Oxfam as if they have a loan they are budgeting to be paid back every month. This means they would have to make some cuts to ensure the loan is repaid when the bank would like it to be. If this happened, it would set back Oxfam profit for the coming months until they can get back to the input and output they need to make a substantial amount of profit to ensure shareholders happiness and satisfaction with the work they complete in the countries in need of aid. As all their profit made is put into the next country in need of aid. Banks are an external type of a stakeholder. The bank will communicate with Oxfam through emails and word of mouth, as the bank can issue meetings to when loans will be paid back. However as Oxfam is a charity, it is unlikely that they will have loans taken out as they receive most of their income from government grants and fundraising.

Managers and directors
The directors and managers main interest would be their own salary as they work in this job to make a living and ensure a good quality of life. This would affect Oxfam output, as a person such as a director will want a high wage for his/her job. They would also hold a main interest in job satisfaction, which means they want to be happy at work and enjoy it when something good happens to the company. For example, if they meet the aims and objectives for the year it will make the directors and managers feel good within their job role and with the job, they have done throughout the year. Finally, they would keep a main interest in their job status, as they would like to keep their high role within the company as they have a massive influence over what goes on through the company. This would affect Oxfam’s in the main path the company shall take for that annum. Communication for managers and directors is highly important as they end of every year they hold meetings with the shareholders on how the charity has done over the past year. This is essential as the shareholders decide at the end of every year whether the directors will keep their jobs. In addition to this, directors and managers will need to communicate with the employees and volunteers regularly through phone calls, emails and meetings. Managers and directors will need to do this to inform them on where they will be station at for the upcoming year and if they are needed. On most occasions, it will be random as natural disasters are hard to predict, as some can be unexpected. Therefore, the employees and volunteers need to be free to be able to aid Oxfam in completing their promises.
Employees
The employees’ main interest would lie with their salaries, as they want to make a living. In addition, they would have an interest in their job security. This would be because they would not like to lose their job and if they did, the employee would have no source of income. They would have an impact on the Oxfam Company as they have control of the service quality and the industrial action. This would influence Oxfam as if the employees were doing a bad job their opportunities to help countries in aid would go down, the company would lose profit and trust within the communities, and they would not seek help from Oxfam in the future. Oxfam also have volunteers and their main interest would be to help the country in aid. In addition to this, the volunteers would not like their time to be wasted, as they are not being paid for their service. This would influence Oxfam as if they did not treat the volunteers correctly people would be reluctant to volunteer and help Oxfam out by giving them a service for free. Employees and volunteers would communicate through phone call, emails and word of mouth as the directors can inform the employees and volunteers they are needed and in what part of the world and for the duration they are needed.
Suppliers
The suppliers will have their main interest in gaining long term contracts to ensure more profit is generated over the annum. In addition, they will be interested in the growth of the purchasing of their products from the company to gain added amounts of revenue per year. Suppliers have an influence within the company as they decide on the quality of products given to the company. This could affect Oxfam’s quality of aid given to the country in if need if the products given by the suppliers is poor it will reflect that onto Oxfam’s product and they could lose customer loyalty. Oxfam will have suppliers, as they need donations for their stores to be able to sell and make money to give to countries in need of aid. They also have suppliers for the products they use to aid countries. The suppliers will communicate with Oxfam through emails as they can let Oxfam know when they have the product they need in stock. This is appropriate for Oxfam as they can have the knowledge to know who they will get their products from.
Customer
The main interest for Oxfam’s customers would be to get a cheap second hand item with a good quality behind it. Their main interest would be the quality as it is second hand and would be at a good and reasonable price. In addition to this the money would all be going to a good cause. The customer would have a massive influence on Oxfam, as without these sales and donations they would not be able to do the work they do for the countries in need of aid from them. The customers would communicate through social media and word of mouth, as they would interact with the volunteers in the store when buying products. Also through social media as they can make reviews on the service and the quality of the product they bought.
Community
The community would have a main interest in the work Oxfam are trying to do is environmentally friendly and will help them get back to the state they need to be in after a natural disaster hits. In addition to this the community would like to feel like they are still in control and not getting overrun by the company. The community has power in the business in that they can reject the aid offered which would damage Oxfam’s reputation and could then mean Oxfam won’t be asked to help the aiding countries next time. Oxfam also has a shop and the community has control over their sales as Oxfam ask for donations so they can sell these items to generate money, which would then be spent on the countries in need of it. The community would communicate with Oxfam through social media, as their stores will have an effect on the local area. The community can write reviews on Oxfam through Facebook this could either have a positive or negative impact on Oxfam. This could affect Oxfam’s reputation as if the review is bad, they would have to move their store to another location. However if it was a good review Oxfam would be able to expand their stores and have more in more locations.
Government
Due to Oxfam being a charity they do not need to pay taxes as the money they get they give to others in need of the financial backing. Every charity is a non-profit company. This affects Oxfam as every drop of money they earn and that gets donated they get to keep so they can build useful resources such as water fountains and shelters. The government would communicate with Oxfam through emails. As they would let Oxfam know where they can build water fountains and shelters. This is an appropriate way of communication as they can have include attachments of data and other important information that are put into documents. It helps Oxfam justify what they are doing and ensures the government knows what is happening.
Oxfam
Organisational Structure:

Oxfam has a tall organisational structure. A tall structure is where there are many levels that include managers and supervisors. In addition, more jobs roles include more rules and less creativity. In a tall organisational structure, where they have multiple managers due to the hierarchy, each manger has a small span of control where they are only the boss of a small group of employees.
The communication in a tall structure is clear. However, this makes it very slow to make decisions, as the message has to go through everyone before reaching the director who can finalise the decision. This is due to the decisions needing many employees approval before reaching the director. In addition to this, communication is usually moved upwards in a chain of commands through the management chain, which is where the message will go through managers and employees first then to other departments. This will affect the communication between the different departments that could possibly cause issues for Oxfam as some vital information could take a while to get to the person it needs to for the issue to be resolved.
The advantages of having a tall organisational structure is that the company will have a clear management structure. This is good for Oxfam as their employees and volunteers know whom they need to address to when something happens in the company good or bad. In addition, another advantage is that there is a clear progression and promotion ladder. That is great to have, as employees know how they can be promoted and to what position. This will cause no confusion as employees have a clear view on the roles they can grasp. Finally, in this organisational structure there are very clear responsibilities. This is good for the company, as everyone in their roles knows exactly what to do. This is also good as it means employees can have no excuse as it is clear what they have to do in their roles.
The disadvantages of having a tall organisational structure is that they are more rules which means everybody’s role is fixed and the employee can’t go above and beyond as they only thing they can do is their job. This is a disadvantage as employees cannot do anything more than they are allowed and the way they do their job is determined by the rules. This means they cannot do their job any other way. In addition to this, another disadvantage is the company will have less creativity, which reduces the flexibility of the company reducing their target market. As Oxfam only help developing countries in aid, due to the little creativity they are restricted to whom they can help. This is a disadvantage as they could receive a poor reputation even though they help countries in aid. They don’t help every country in aid which could be an influence if they were to gain a poor reputation.
Functional areas:
Fundraising is an area Oxfam work in as they are a charity and don’t get much government funding. They need to fundraise, as they need to buy the supplies they need to help the country in aid. Oxfam run many different events to raise money. They run events like a run, a concert, and cycling and trail walker events. These go on all year round and in many different locations across the country. To get involved you have to pay to an entry fee in case you do not raise any money, which is highly unlikely but could happen in a rare case.
The advantages of fundraising is that is it there main source of income. In addition to this, a fundraiser is an event so it is could for publicity and increase the awareness of what Oxfam do and who they are. This is an advantage as Oxfam as a charity are able to gain funds and expand due to the money given. This means they will be able to aid more countries in need.
The disadvantages of fundraising is that all the participants are representing Oxfam so if anything wrong were to happen it would look bad on Oxfam, as they are the people holding the event. This means that Oxfam could lose some of their regular donators and this could influence how they are able to help the countries in aid.
Marketing is also a functional area of Oxfam, as they will have TV adverts where they try to gain donations. In addition, Oxfam will have flyers and adverts on the internet to increase the chance of someone donating. They adverts will try to guilt trip people into donating due to the nature of the advert being quite upsetting. Furthermore, in their flyers they will also have disheartening images and information to try increase the likelihood of someone donating.
The advantages of Oxfam’s marketing is that it does increase the amount of donations given to them. This means they can use that money to increase the quality of service they provide. Their products will also benefit from the marketing as Oxfam can show what products they use to improve the quality of life. The increase in donations can mean Oxfam are able to buy better quality products.
The disadvantages of Oxfam’s marketing is that it would be quite expensive and if they do not cover the cost of the advert by the donations given they will be at a loss and this will prevent them from helping countries who are in need of the help. In addition to this, it can damage Oxfam’s reputation and intern reduce the likelihood of countries asking for their help, and the countries could look elsewhere for the help needed.
Another functional area of Oxfam is

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