Introduction

Introduction:
Pedagogy of the oppressed was written in 1968 by Paulo Freire an educator by profession he was born in Brazil his main area was education and he worked with poor communities in Brazil and Latin America.Padagogy of the oppressed was first published in Portuguese and later on translated to English. the book is divided in to four chapters chapter one focus on the oppressors are dehumanized by the oppressed and the different ways in which they become deeply involved in the situation that they think it’s normal and that’s how life is supposed to be without critically thinking and analyzing why are things happening around them in that way. In chapter two Paulo scrutinized the banking system of education as tool used by the oppressor who is the master the students who don’t know anything.
Chapter three and four is about dialogue and its importance to the oppressed as well as the different ant dialogical theories used by the oppressed to impose their agenda
Chapter one:
Paulo starts by defining the oppressed as an abstract category and sees them as persons who are deprived of their voices and cheated in the sale of their labor he added that the oppressed are the ones who understand their situation better than anyone else as well as the struggle for freedom. However the oppressors themselves become afraid for the struggle liberation is a struggle and the oppressed cannot get liberation for free it’s a sacrifice that the oppressors have to unite and work to achieve it through dialogical method, however during for the struggle liberation the oppressed are faced with many challenges they become afraid to struggle for their freedom because they have adopted and duplicated the strategies of the oppressors about themselves and communities and they tend to believe that that’s how life is because they don’t know when you’re out of oppressed how does it fells, and so they become
and so they are scared of new role that comes with an independence state. furthermore he added that oppression leads to dehumanization of the oppressed and consequently they become mistreated in these process they don’t think critically because they are benefiting from that situation however the only way they can reason is when the take themselves out of such position this is when they would start to think critically and start questioning to know and understand why are things happening this way and what could be the causes
Chapter two:
This chapter Paulo examines the banking system of the education and discloses its importance to the oppressors as a method of decreasing students trust. in this method of education the teacher is considered the depositors who believes that he knows everything whist the student listen attentively and memories without analyzing and questioning what is being thought Paulo said education is sick and is suffering from narration education is not about listening but a process of understanding and sharing of knowledge where students develop critical consciousness. Paulo believes that problem-posing education and dialogue gives both the student and teacher the chance to learn from each other and becomes effective and efficient citizen. the author further analyses this system as a way where student don’t become transformers of the world but rather fully accept submissive role imposed negate 4-1 cultural invasion: Freire talks of cultural invasion as one of the anitidialogical action and he further said that invades penetrates cultural contexts of another group they impose their own views of the world upon those they invade and prevent the creativeness of the people invaded this is exactly what is happening in Uganda heath system in relation to the donor funding and support verses ministry of health priorities the oppressed need a lot of work to fight and oppressive to fight a system which they live in lack of incentives to health workers working in the field.

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION:
The quiz buzzer systems are widely used in educational institutes and TV programmes. In quiz contests questions are asked by the quiz programmer one by one to teams of the program; and one of the teams is supposed to answer first. The team who is willing to answer first will be allowed to give the answer. Normally, buzzer system is used for this purpose, the team which presses the buzzer first is permitted to give the answer. Sometimes, it becomes very difficult to identify which team has pressed the switch first when two teams press the buzzer within a very small-time gap. In such cases the decision can be unfair due to human intervention. The authors in the present paper have designed and developed a fastest finger first quiz system which takes care of this problem. This buzzer system disables the other inputs as soon as anyone team presses first. This fastest finger first buzzer system has been designed for maximum of eight teams. It is built using open source Arduino UNO, which is very simple to use.
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:
In this system, Arduino UNO, an entry level microcontroller board driven by the ATMega328 microcontroller is used. ATMega328 is a single chip microcontroller created by Atmel in mega AVR family. This is an 8-bit microcontroller and has 32 KB internal built in Flash memory and 2 KB Static Random-Access Memory (SRAM). It also has 1KB Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) which helps to store the data, even when the electric supply to the microcontroller fails. It is a single chip microcontroller with 20MHz clock oscillator, 14 I/O programmable pins. Other features of this microcontroller consist of advanced RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computers) architecture, good performance, low power consumption, real time counter having separate oscillator 1-3. The Arduino UNO board is the first in a series of USB Arduino board, which may be designed in laboratory or it may be procured from the online shop. It is basically an open source programmable circuit board and can be used in wide variety of simple and complex projects.
The present system has eight input pins corresponding to eight teams. The output is displayed on a seven-segment display (interfaced with Arduino), which shows the number corresponding to the team who has pressed the button first. A buzzer is used to give sound alarm for few seconds. It indicates that someone team has pressed his switch whose number is displayed on the seven-segment display connected with Arduino. The team whose number is displayed on the display will be allowed to answer. For the next question the system is reset by the operator and display will show the number “0”. And the same process will be started further. The connections to the Arduino board with the seven-segment display and to the input & output pins are shown fig.1.
This 8-player quiz-buzzer designed by the authors can be used in various competitions organised in educational institutes to identify the team who has pressed the buzzer first. Advantage of this quiz buzzer system is once a team has pressed the switch others team may press the switch but only number is displayed on display who press switch first. So, with the help of this circuit we can easily identify the team who has pressed the switch first. It is a simple circuit with minimum number of components and can easily be built. The ARDUINO considers the time delay between two buttons and the accurate number is displayed. When one of the switches is pressed, the buzzer starts ringing and the corresponding number is displayed on the 7-segment display connected with the system. The ringing of the buzzer stops after sometimes (say after few seconds), however, the seven-segment display will continue showing the team number who has pressed the switch first until it is reset by the reset button manually.
The figures 2 and 3 depict the inside and front view of the system respectively designed by the authors. The connections from the circuit are taken out for the eight push to ON switched. The system was found to work very accurately and efficiently.

Fig. 1

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(a) (b)
Fig. 2

SOFTWARE PROGRAMMING:
Once the circuit has been developed with Arduino UNO module, it is needed to upload the program (known as a sketch) to the Arduino. The software used to create Arduino sketches is called the IDE which stands for Integrated Development Environment 4. Program for the Microcontroller Atmega-328 is written, which is very simple to understand. It is uploaded either by Laptop or Computer through USB port. The sketch designed by the authors for the above-mentioned requirements are as follows:

Sketch for Fastest Finger First Quiz System for Arduino:

int x=1; // take int value as 1
void setup()
{
pinMode(A0,INPUT); //analog pins as input
pinMode(A1,INPUT);
pinMode(A2,INPUT);
pinMode(A3,INPUT);
pinMode(A4,INPUT);
pinMode(A5,INPUT);
pinMode(0,INPUT); //digital pins as input
pinMode(1,INPUT);
pinMode(12,OUTPUT); //Digital pins as output for seven seg display
pinMode(11,OUTPUT);
pinMode(10,OUTPUT);
pinMode(9,OUTPUT);
pinMode(8,OUTPUT);
pinMode(7,OUTPUT);
pinMode(6,OUTPUT);
pinMode(3,OUTPUT); // output for buzzer
// set initially display to 0
digitalWrite(12,HIGH); // seg a
digitalWrite(11,HIGH); // seg b
digitalWrite(10,HIGH); // seg c
digitalWrite(9,HIGH); //seg d
digitalWrite(8,HIGH); //seg e
digitalWrite(7,HIGH); // seg f
digitalWrite(6,LOW); //seg g
digitalWrite(3,LOW); // buzzer as off
}
void loop()
{
int a=digitalRead(A0); // reading pin values for 8 buttons
int b=digitalRead(A1);
int c=digitalRead(A2);
int d=digitalRead(A3);
int e=digitalRead(A4);
int f=digitalRead(A5);
int g=digitalRead(0);
int h=digitalRead(1);
if(a==LOW) //if 1 player press button
{
if(x==1) // check if x is 1 if yes then execute the code
{ //delay(1000);
digitalWrite(3,HIGH); // buzzer on
digitalWrite(11,HIGH); // pirnt 1
digitalWrite(10,HIGH);
digitalWrite(9,LOW);
digitalWrite(8,LOW);
digitalWrite(7,LOW);
digitalWrite(6,LOW);
digitalWrite(12,LOW);
x++; //increment x
}
delay(2000);
digitalWrite(3,LOW); //Buzzer off
}
//delay(1000);
else if(b==LOW) //if player 2 press button
{
if(x==1) // check if x is 1 if yes then execute the code
{
digitalWrite(3,HIGH); // buzzer on
digitalWrite(11,HIGH); // pirnt 2
digitalWrite(12,HIGH);
digitalWrite(9,HIGH);
digitalWrite(8,HIGH);
digitalWrite(7,LOW);
digitalWrite(6,HIGH);
digitalWrite(10,LOW);
x++;
}
delay(2000);
digitalWrite(3,LOW); //Buzzer off
}
else if(c==LOW) //if player 3 press button
{
if(x==1) // check if x is 1 if yes then execute the code
{
digitalWrite(3,HIGH); // buzzer on
digitalWrite(11,HIGH); // pirnt 3
digitalWrite(12,HIGH);
digitalWrite(10,HIGH);
digitalWrite(9,HIGH);
digitalWrite(6,HIGH);
digitalWrite(7,LOW);
digitalWrite(8,LOW);
x++;
}
delay(2000);
digitalWrite(3,LOW); //Buzzer off
}
else if(d==LOW) //if player 4 press button
{
if(x==1) // check if x is 1 if yes then execute the code
{
digitalWrite(3,HIGH); // buzzer on
digitalWrite(11,HIGH); // pirnt 4
digitalWrite(10,HIGH);
digitalWrite(7,HIGH);
digitalWrite(6,HIGH);
digitalWrite(8,LOW);
digitalWrite(9,LOW);
digitalWrite(12,LOW);
x++;
}
delay(2000);
digitalWrite(3,LOW);
}
else if(e==LOW) //if player 5 press button
{
if(x==1) // check if x is 1 if yes then execute the code
{
digitalWrite(3,HIGH); // buzzer on
digitalWrite(10,HIGH); // pirnt 5
digitalWrite(12,HIGH);
digitalWrite(9,HIGH);
digitalWrite(7,HIGH);
digitalWrite(6,HIGH);
digitalWrite(11,LOW);
digitalWrite(8,LOW);
x++;
}
delay(2000);
digitalWrite(3,LOW); //Buzzer off
}
else if(f==LOW) //if player 6 press button
{
if(x==1) // check if x is 1 if yes then execute the code
{
digitalWrite(3,HIGH); // buzzer on
digitalWrite(10,HIGH); // pirnt 6
digitalWrite(12,HIGH);
digitalWrite(9,HIGH);
digitalWrite(8,HIGH);
digitalWrite(7,HIGH);
digitalWrite(6,HIGH);
digitalWrite(11,LOW);
x++;
}
delay(2000);
digitalWrite(3,LOW); //Buzzer off
}
else if(g==LOW) //if player 7 press button
{
if(x==1) // check if x is 1 if yes then execute the code
{
digitalWrite(3,HIGH); // buzzer on
digitalWrite(10,HIGH); // pirnt 7
digitalWrite(12,HIGH);
digitalWrite(9,LOW);
digitalWrite(8,LOW);
digitalWrite(7,LOW);
digitalWrite(6,LOW);
digitalWrite(11,HIGH);
x++;
}
delay(2000);
digitalWrite(3,LOW); //Buzzer off
}
else if(h==LOW) //if player 8 press button
{ if(x==1) // check if x is 1 if yes then execute the code
{ digitalWrite(3,HIGH); // buzzer on
digitalWrite(10,HIGH); // pirnt 8
digitalWrite(12,HIGH);
digitalWrite(9,HIGH);
digitalWrite(8,HIGH);
digitalWrite(7,HIGH);
digitalWrite(6,HIGH);
digitalWrite(11,HIGH);
x++;
//delay(1000);
}
delay(2000);
digitalWrite(3,LOW); //Buzzer off
}
}

CONCLUSION:
The program written above was uploaded to the Arduino module of the system through USB connection of the computer or laptop and the system was verified by pressing the switches many times by different persons who sometimes pressed the switches at the same time but the system recognized who pressed the switch firs; in fact the system gives the result even if there was a time gap between the switches of the order of fraction of a second. It is, therefore, said that the system designed by the authors in the present communication found to work successfully. Since the sketch is uploaded in the Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM), so the program may be changed if need arises.
REFERENCES:
1. J M Hughes, “Arduino: A Technical References”, Publisher O’Reilly, Media INC, May-2016.

2. Michail McRobert, “Beginning Arduino”, 2010 PDF book format available https://www.apress.com/in/book/978143023778.

3. Jack J Purdeem, “Beginning C for Arduino: Learn C Programming for Arduino”, 2012.
4. James A, Langbridge, “Arduino sketches: Tools and Techniques for Programming Wizardry”, 2015.

Introduction

Introduction:
According to IRDA definition, The term ‘Health Insurance’ relates to a type of insurance that essentially covers your medical expenses. A health insurance policy like other policies is a contract between an insurer and an individual / group in which the insurer agrees to provide specified health insurance cover at a particular “premium” subject to terms and conditions specified in the policy.
A Health Insurance Policy would normally cover expenses reasonably and necessarily incurred under the following heads in respect of each insured person subject to overall ceiling of sum insured (for all claims during one policy period).
? Room, Boarding expenses
? Nursing expenses
? Fees of surgeon , anesthetist , physician , consultants, specialists
? Anesthesia, blood, oxygen, operation theatre charges, surgical appliances, medicines, drugs, diagnostic materials, X-ray, Dialysis, chemotherapy, Radio therapy, cost of pace maker, Artificial limbs, cost or organs and similar expenses

“Health insurance is a type of insurance coverage that pays for medical and surgical expenses incurred by the insured.”

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History:
Launched in 1986, the health insurance industry has grown significantly mainly due to liberalization of economy and general awareness. According to the World Bank, by 2010, more than 25% of India’s population had access to some form of health insurance. There are standalone health insurers along with government sponsored health insurance providers. Until recently, to improve the awareness and reduce the procrastination for buying health insurance, the General Insurance Corporation of India and the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) had launched an awareness campaign for all segments of the population.

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