Introduction

Introduction:
Wealthy hard working people around the world, earn their wealth through honesty and discipline, but does that mean that they must share their wealth with the poor? In the article “The Singer Solution to World Poverty” by Peter Singer, he argues that every day we as humans are immorally spending money on ourselves rather than spending that money on reducing the world’s poverty (Singer 2018). Throughout the article, Singer gives his audience a sequence of interesting examples questioning the decision of people of how they choose to spend their money: “going out to nice restaurants, buying new clothes because the old ones are no longer stylish… so much of people’s income is spent on things not essential to the preservation of our lives and health” (Singer 2018: 231). Singer strongly believes that suppressing income is the same as giving a kid a chance to starve to death. Therefore, Singer proposes the moral thing to do to end world poverty is to give up regular extravagances, by giving a huge amount of money that could aid dying and starving children.
Thesis:
This essay explains Singer’s solution to aiding world poverty through the idea of the wealthy giving to the poor, but he fails to address the underlying issue in doing so.
Plan: 1. Singer’s Argument 2. Views opposed to Singer’s argument 3. Conclusion
Section 1: Singer’s Argument
In his article, Singer shares the solution whatever money people spend on luxuries, not necessities, should be given away to end the poverty of the world (Singer 2018). Furthermore, Singer uses examples of Dora and Bob in his essay to further explain to his audience his solution for salvation: Dora, who is a retired schoolteacher suddenly has an opportunity to pocket $1,000 by selling an orphaned boy who will be killed for his organs, later saves the child; and Bob who has invested all his money in a rare car which cannot be insured, is his pride and joy (Singer 2018). One day Bob stumbles upon a life saving situation where he can either save a child or his precious car (Garrett 2018). Singer uses Bob and Dora, two individuals who chose money and their wants over an innocent child’s life and compares them to his audience saying “one genuine difference between Bob and those who can afford to donate overseas aid organizations but don’t is that only Bob can save the child on the tracks, whereas there are hundreds of millions of people who can give $200 to overseas aid organizations” (Singer 2018: 234). The problem is “most us aren’t doing it” (Singer 2018: 234). Singer even goes to further lengths where he compares the lack of help people give to starving children to when “Nazi atrocities were being committed” and those who did nothing to stop it (Singer 2018: 234). He bases his logic on what the moral thing to do is. Philosophist Jan Narveson also argues that “we must feed the hungry, as a matter of justice” (Garret 2018: 81). Narveson argues about what we are obligated to do and what can be forced to do. Charity is a voluntary act and we are not forced to donate, so is feeding the poor doing justice or charity? Is it wrong to let the starving die? Is letting someone die the same as taking a life? These are the questions we must ask ourselves according to Narveson (Garret 2018). From the utilitarian view, if we calculate the odds of choosing to feed the starving and suffering over leisure activities, is it possible to choose which ultimately promotes the greater good (Garret 2018). In addition, Singer tries to convince us that to live an empathetic and moral life, we need to spend our money not on the things we find extravagant, but on saving children in need because “a $1000 suit could save five children’s lives” (Singer 2018: 236). By giving the examples of Dora, and Bob, and their scenarios and the decisions they chose to make, Singer raises a question: “what is the ethical distinction between a Brazilian who sells a homeless child to an organ peddlers and an American who already has a TV and upgrades to a better one – knowing that money can be donated to an organization that would use it to save the lives of kids in need” (Singer 2018: 232)? The answer – because when you have met that child and see the conditions he is living in, it is more of a “shot in the heart” and a sense of heartlessness and grief compared to when you have not met or seen his hardships before (Singer 2018: 232). He goes on to compare Dora’s situation and decision to “the average family in the United States” and how they “spend almost one-third of their income on things that are no more necessary to them than Dora’s new TV” (Singer 2018: 231).
Situation 2: Views Opposed to Singer’s argument
Although Singer’s solution of donating money to a homeless, dying child can help. His idea is too impractical and demanding. An everyday, “average family” barely have enough money to pay their taxes and have loads of responsibilities of their own. I feel that Singer’s solution is a very bold and a moral one and sure, money can save a child’s life by buying that child food, clothing, shelter, etc. But the question I have for Singer is, can money buy that child love and happiness? The answer to that is, no it cannot. Money can buy a child all the necessities that he/she needs to survive, but what money cannot buy is love, compassion, and empathy for that child. When that child grows up, he/she is not going to have anyone or anything to love, to most people that child’s purpose in this world is just to survive the worst to come. Is our moral duty only to give the child enough money to survive? The idea of everyone donating the money we are saving for ourselves to organizations such as Unicef is also unrealistic because we as humans cannot change overnight; changing this would take us years to do because a lot of us are so accustomed to the way we have lived for all our life. However, according to Singer it is wrong to live like this because we are failing to fulfil our moral duty. Singer fails to address the issue that preventing the death of the child is only in the hands of Bob, while not giving to charity is the hands of many people (Singer 2018). The situation significantly becomes much more different when we are placed in a scenario like Bobs rather than sitting at home and simply choosing not to donate. Having the ability to save the life of the child who is about to die in front of us rather than one who is in a foreign country are two different situations. Also one may simply argue that the child would have died had Bob decided that morning not to go to the railroad tracks, so why should Bob be burdened with the choice he had made (Singer 2018).
Conclusion:
Ultimately, Singer has a point where we as humans want all the extravagant and expensive things of the world that will get us nowhere and do us no good; but how we choose to spend our hard-earned money is none of Singer’s business. Singer does a very poor job to convince his audience of his solution by being too demanding. Although, I strongly agree that poverty is a major issue and needs to be resolved and payed more attention to, he uses emphasised examples and scenarios that portrays us as heartless tyrants. For example, when Singer compares people who do not donate money to the poor, with the Nazis. People in America already have many responsibilities of their own and have their own children to take care of, and it is illogical to rely on humans to give away their own money to strangers they have not even seen before. According to Unicef, the United States has the second highest population of child poverty in the list of developed countries (Unicef). Regardless of my disagreement with Singer’s logic, I do believe we as humans need to think as one and work as one to end world issues; but nonetheless, I do not think Singer’s solution is a legitimate one.

Introduction

Introduction; Divine Command Theory, Situation Ethics, Cultural Relativism
The Divine Command Theory is an ethical philosophy based on one’s religious values and the faith they put in God, meaning that at the crux of this theory is the belief that God is ‘the source of moral truth and communicates his will to humanity via commands’. This allows that everything God commands, regardless of whether it is good or bad (determined by man), is law and must be obeyed. The idea of this command being truly good or bad is dependant on its origin – it is good on the condition that it is a command from God and, therefore, divine.

Situation ethics, a moral compromise made and promoted by former priest Joseph Fletcher, is a specific set of moral ethics rooted in the power of love and all its qualities. A proposition made to counter the unsound reasoning between legalism (that decisions are fixed in law) and antinomianism (the process of ethical decision-making ought to be spontaneous), based on the claim that ‘God is love’, found in the book of John. According to this logic, justice achieved through the circumstances of the situation rather than what set law would declare. This began as an ethical philosophy established through religion, but similarly to its creator, it is easily applied to cases unrelated to the Christian faith.

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Cultural Relativism is the justifiable understanding that different ethnic and cultural groups function according to distinctive laws, each adhering to a separate set of expectations and ideologies. A man in his own country might be bound by one set of laws, but as he moves into another country where the law is made clear but is no longer the same, he must adjust his behaviour accordingly. As no one group of people are perfect, it is not believed to be acceptable to judge or criticise a culture that differs from our own.

Similarities and Differences
A prominent similarity between two of the three philosophical ethics is religion. Both situation ethics and the divine command theory originate from a religious – namely Christian – perspective. However, the core of situation ethics shifts away from what could be considered as Christian ideals. While the divine command theory comes from the belief that God’s commands are good and ought to be followed, goodness and love become aspects of life that require close relation in order to be related to God or his commands. If an issue is created out of something that is not done from love, it is not likely to gain approval or pardon from a situation ethicist, though if it was done for the sake of obeying God, it is likely to be pardonable in the eyes of a divine command theorist.
In comparison, cultural relativism does not demonstrate any religious origins. Perhaps it is a tolerant way of viewing the world, but it is not something done out of devotion to divine beings or power. It barely even supports religion, rather existing to prevent a specific or singular group, whether it be religious or secular. From judging opposing or differing groups. It defends culture rather than religion.
All three philosophical ethics work to defend the best interests of the people who follow or apply them to their lives, and although they have differing origins and beliefs, they encounter many arguments both for and against.

Introduction

Introduction:
Pedagogy of the oppressed was written in 1968 by Paulo Freire an educator by profession he was born in Brazil his main area was education and he worked with poor communities in Brazil and Latin America.Padagogy of the oppressed was first published in Portuguese and later on translated to English. the book is divided in to four chapters chapter one focus on the oppressors are dehumanized by the oppressed and the different ways in which they become deeply involved in the situation that they think it’s normal and that’s how life is supposed to be without critically thinking and analyzing why are things happening around them in that way. In chapter two Paulo scrutinized the banking system of education as tool used by the oppressor who is the master the students who don’t know anything.
Chapter three and four is about dialogue and its importance to the oppressed as well as the different ant dialogical theories used by the oppressed to impose their agenda
Chapter one:
Paulo starts by defining the oppressed as an abstract category and sees them as persons who are deprived of their voices and cheated in the sale of their labor he added that the oppressed are the ones who understand their situation better than anyone else as well as the struggle for freedom. However the oppressors themselves become afraid for the struggle liberation is a struggle and the oppressed cannot get liberation for free it’s a sacrifice that the oppressors have to unite and work to achieve it through dialogical method, however during for the struggle liberation the oppressed are faced with many challenges they become afraid to struggle for their freedom because they have adopted and duplicated the strategies of the oppressors about themselves and communities and they tend to believe that that’s how life is because they don’t know when you’re out of oppressed how does it fells, and so they become
and so they are scared of new role that comes with an independence state. furthermore he added that oppression leads to dehumanization of the oppressed and consequently they become mistreated in these process they don’t think critically because they are benefiting from that situation however the only way they can reason is when the take themselves out of such position this is when they would start to think critically and start questioning to know and understand why are things happening this way and what could be the causes
Chapter two:
This chapter Paulo examines the banking system of the education and discloses its importance to the oppressors as a method of decreasing students trust. in this method of education the teacher is considered the depositors who believes that he knows everything whist the student listen attentively and memories without analyzing and questioning what is being thought Paulo said education is sick and is suffering from narration education is not about listening but a process of understanding and sharing of knowledge where students develop critical consciousness. Paulo believes that problem-posing education and dialogue gives both the student and teacher the chance to learn from each other and becomes effective and efficient citizen. the author further analyses this system as a way where student don’t become transformers of the world but rather fully accept submissive role imposed negate 4-1 cultural invasion: Freire talks of cultural invasion as one of the anitidialogical action and he further said that invades penetrates cultural contexts of another group they impose their own views of the world upon those they invade and prevent the creativeness of the people invaded this is exactly what is happening in Uganda heath system in relation to the donor funding and support verses ministry of health priorities the oppressed need a lot of work to fight and oppressive to fight a system which they live in lack of incentives to health workers working in the field.

Introduction

Introduction:
Cells named hybridomas are able to make monoclonal antibodies in a colossal sum which is desirable. The cells of mice spleen are able to fuse with cells of mice myeloma. At that point the secreted antibodies which demonstrate specificity are controlled by parent spleen cell and the characteristics are controlled by myeloma. Two scientist kohler and milstein revealed this innovation in 1975. This innovation makes monoclonal antibodies in distinct cells. Monoclonal antibodies are utilized in hindering, examination and treating infection. They are additionally utilized in sparing organ transplantation where dismissal of organ can happen (Tokunaga, Chiba and Ohnishi, 2010)

Technique involved in hybridoma technology:
1. Necessary to initiating a hybridoma project:
– Sterility is important in cabinet where hybridoma generation is presented.
– An incubator is required in which temperature is controlled, moistness is kept up and gas concentration is kept up. Fluid nitrogen storage ought to be faciliated as it is basic for hybridomas keeping up in a low temperature store for cryopreservation.
– Ease of animal holding, aseptic careful surgical for mouse dissection, water showers of temperature at 37 and 56 degree Celsius, centrifugation machine, tissue culture product are additionally required (Hurrell, 2018)

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