INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study Entrepreneurial skills have long been considered a significant training for economic growth and development, simply because it provides many job opportunities. As a result of positive impact of entrepreneurial skills and training recent decades have witnessed a tremendous rise in entrepreneurial skills at various sectors in Nigeria, National Youth Service Corp (NYSC) in particular. Skills acquisition is the ability to be trained on a particular task or function and become expert in it. Skills are very important in the life of every human being. The reason many technicians earns more than some university graduates is because the technicians acquire more practical than the theories, unlike the graduates who were feed with theoretical experiences while in the universities. (Ola, 2013) There is huge parading of unemployment in many parts of the world today. Unemployment is giving many youths in different parts of the world sleepless night.
It is one of the causes of rapid growth in crimes in many parts of the world today there are many unemployed graduates in Nigeria. This is partly as a result of our long system of education that is more of grammar and not much practical learning. The truth remains that the major causes of the unemployment among these vibrant youths is lack of skill to back up what they learnt from their institutions of learning. Skills person can survive in any environment. As water is very essential to human life, so is skill training and acquisition needed in the life of every serious minded human being. Lack of entrepreneurial skills is one of the major causes of corruption. (Oduma, 2012).
Entrepreneurship is the process of using available capital in any form for business endeavour in an open and free market economy, for the purpose of generating wealth (Oduma, 2012). It is the ability of an individual to set up a business enterprise instead of being employed. Thus, the ability should be acquired and should differ in some respect from the abilities required to enable a person obtain employment. The entrepreneur is often interested in exploring his immediate environment to understudy the varied dimensions of the multiple challenges confronting it. Such challenges may be social, economic or even political in nature.
The concern of the entrepreneur is on how to transform those challenges to enterprise opportunities. The entrepreneur is often enterprise driven interested in the least opportunity to risk his resources through investment in order to generate further wealth in the form of profit (Hannon, 2005). Every economy is characterized by both active and inactive populations. The economically active ones are referred to as the population willing and able to work, and include those actively engaged in the production of goods and services and those who are unemployed. The International Labour Organization (ILO) defines the unemployed as numbers of the economically active population who are without work but available for and seeking work, including people who have lost their jobs and those who have voluntarily left work (World Bank, 1998). However, fresh graduate from either university or polytechnic increase the numbers of unemployed youth.
Youths move to urban areas with the probability of securing lucrative employment in the industries. In addition to this, there is the concentration of social amenities in the urban centers. This meant that the rural areas are neglected in the allocation of social and economic opportunities. Ordinarily, this should not have been a problem, but the reality is that the Nigerian economy is too weak to absorb this large number of graduates (Utomi, 2011). Graduate unemployment Imeli (2013) tweeted that graduates are now subjected to such training like bead and soap making, computer training, tailoring, cloth tying, welding among others in order to become self-employed. To him (Imeli, 2013) this speaks ill of efforts of in tackling graduate unemployment will only amount to waste of scare resources. The astronomical rise in number of unemployed youths and its negatives consequences, governments are being called upon to make drastic actions and decisions and decision to initiate effective policies to reduce the rate of unemployment especially the young graduates.
University education in Nigeria, like other developing countries, is to produce graduate grounded in skills and quality education for the nations economic development. University curriculum content should enable students to attain the societys expectations, and most importantly their needs. According to Anene and Imam (2012) the problem of unemployed youths is becoming a source of concern and great embarrassment to the country because the past curriculum did not prepare the youths for self-reliance.
The curriculum is poorly implemented. In other words, there is a need to offer students the correct choice of skills in the entrepreneurship curriculum that would adequately empower them to become self-reliant. Should they fail to find a white collar job. In the face of the serious and growing threat of graduate unemployment in Nigerian graduate of today to seek avenue for self-employment now seems inevitable. Many people seems to worry about the nature of entrepreneurship education given to undergraduates in Nigerian universities today.
The entrepreneurship education presently given seems to lack good management and acceptable content. Many students seems to have not grasped the importance of the course. There seems to be no seriousness among many students in the participation of the course.
One can rightly say that many students see the course as one of those unnecessary courses imposed on them to fulfil graduation requirements. The content and delivery of the course lack proper knowledge, preparation and attainment of the aimed goals and objectives. Importantly, one of the major challenges confronting entrepreneurship education is identifying and recruiting the qualified entrepreneurship educators who have the appropriate knowledge and pedagogy to impart entrepreneurship knowledge and competences in the students.
Obviously, over the past two decades, Nigerian graduates from various levels of education are increasingly facing the dilemma of prolonged period of joblessness. The unemployment rate at which three million young graduates are turned out every year without job prospects in the labour and with no indication of a declining trend but skyrocketing figures. This is what will happen in the next five years If one is not concerned to this predicament of the young graduates, similar to this will again happen and many death will be recorded In fact the skyrocketing rate of unemployment in Nigeria is disturbing. Imeli (2013) expressed worry over the high rate of graduate unemployment in the country. Anene and Imam (2012) frowned at the increasing involvement of youths in criminal activities. High unemployment rate is perceived to be responsible for social vices such as armed robbery, kidnapping, hooliganism, prostitution, illegal business deals, occultism, bunkering of mcrude oil, drug trafficking and other forms of misdemeanors. It appears that these unemployed youths are taking it back on a society that has failed to give them a proper sense of direction through sound education.
The persistent social vices in the country is a result or evident of ineffectiveness in the implementation of social policies. Okolo (2010) described unemployment and proverty as the inability of graduates to engage in gainful opportunities is due to previous educational system that did not prepare them for gainful living. Aladekomo (2009) maintained that sound education which equips students to challenge the way out of the status quo and proffer better alternatives is the way out of the present economic quagmire. In this regard, Okolo(2009) asserted that among the strategies being adopted by Nigeria to redress the ugly situation was reformation of the education sector cannot result in job creation It is against this background that there is a need to reposition Entrepreneurship Education in the country. Entrepreneurship education should be seen antidote to unemployment or coin as a strategy to graduate employability. However experiences of developed economies in relation to the roles played by entrepreneurship buttresses the fact that the importance of entrepreneurship cannot be overemphasized especially among the Developing Countries. In order to highlight its significance in relation to the growth and development of a given economy, entrepreneurship has been variously referred to as a source of employment generation.
This is because Entrepreneurial activities have been found to be capable of making positive impacts on the economy of a nation and the quality of life of the people (Adejumo, 2000) therefore, the increasing workforce in Nigeria without readily available job can make a great advantage. Unemployed youth which are mostly graduate can take up the responsibility of the national wealth creation through entrepreneurship development. On the other hand, these can be achieved through entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship education seeks to provide students with the knowledge, skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a variety of settings. Entrepreneurship education is known as a specialized knowledge that inculcates in learners the traits of risk-taking, innovation, arbitrage and co-ordination of factors of production for the purpose of creating new products or services for new and existing users within human communities. Entrepreneurial education is considered central to the economic development of nations.
Entrepreneurship education has to increase entrepreneurial self-efficacy, self-employment, and risk-taking attitude of the entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship education creates enormous business opportunities and trains people with innovative enterprise skills to grasp the opportunities for starting new entrepreneurial activities. Entrepreneurship education is one way of addressing poverty reduction, as there is strong empirical evidence suggesting that economic growth over time is necessary for poverty reduction. Entrepreneurship boosts economic growth, enhances educational attainment and increases the rate of economic growth. The World Economic Forum in 2009 claims that the three relationships are suggestive of productive outcomes emanating from education provision. For example, in eradicating extreme hunger and poverty even if developing countries focus on innovation, creativity, talent and resources to overcome poverty, they lack the infrastructure and the expertise to support such an objective. These deficiencies could be overcome through capacity building through entrepreneurship development to transform these assets into products and services, thereby creating more jobs, enhancing their global trade opportunities and reducing the incidence of poverty.
Enterpreneurship attention has focused on the importance of a societys attitude towards entrepreneurship as a key determinant of the level of entrepreneurial activity. Stokes, Wison and Mador 2010 opined that the general attitude of a population towards the concept of entrepreneurship taking risk, recognizing opportunities, knowing entrepreneurs personality, attaching high status to entrepreneurs, and possessing the skills required to create successful start-ups is seen to have a major bearing on actual levels of entrepreneurship. Clearly, the role of entrepreneurship education is very important in this respect. Entrepreneurship Education is not synonymous with vocational education nor does it mean the same thing as business education (Oloko, 2010).
It is not also synonymous with technology education. Over the years people have erroneously linked entrepreneurship education with these three areas of study. Consequently a student who would like to be an entrepreneur was advised to offer courses in any of those three areas of study.
In fact the fundamental aim of entrepreneurship education is value creation. It is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitude to enable the learner apprehend life challenges in whatever form and take decisive steps to realize new trends and opportunities for meeting those challenges in all aspects of human life. Entrepreneurship education is indeed a critical resource for economic transformation. What distinguishes entrepreneurship education from other forms of education is its emphasis on perceiving and realization of economic opportunity. These opportunities can be transformed into tangible offer through creating an enterprise, introducing new products or ideas or through doing something in a different way with the European Commission (2007) presents entrepreneurship as an individuals ability to turn ideas into action. Entrepreneurship is often associated with such words and phrases as innovative, self motivated, confident, creative, dynamic, resourceful, ingenious, endurance, risk daring, pressure management ability and willingness to accept both positive and negative results of life ventures.
These are some of the entrepreneurial skills and capacities that learners are expected to acquire through entrepreneurship education. Other entrepreneurial skills are verbal expression skills, problem solving skills, team skills, as well as listening and empathy skills. Among the entrepreneurial competences the learners are required to acquire) are self-awareness and self-confidence, personal responsibilities, flexibility and adaptability, orientation to opportunity, pro-activity and persistence (karmelic, 2009). Entrepreneurial attitude, dedication to duty and willingness to accept positive as well as negative results of business ventures is what learners need to acquire (Karmelic,2010) through entrepreneurship education.
On the other hand, it is true that the major crucial factor leading to unemployment is lack of vocational and technical skills. Technical and vocational education (TVE) is concerned with the acquisition of skills. Technical education is the acquisition of skills as well as the basic knowledge. While vocational education is training for a specific vocation in industry or trade.
The acquisition of the skills in TVE is primarily concern on the development of occupational skills needed on a particular work (Olaitan, 1998). The mission of technical an vocational education is professional manpower. Because the society is focused mostly on formal university education, the nation lack competent painters, carpenters, plumbers, technicians, auto mechanics and many vocational and technical skills. Entrepreneurship is not just skills acquisition like technical and vocational education. Entrepreneurship is the ideas and skills for the sake of creating employment for self and for others.
Entrepreneurship shifts young people from being seekers to job creators and also from social dependent to self-sufficient individuals. Entrepreneurship builds industries and create job for people. Would it not be to ridiculous to educate young people to become administrators, entrepreneurs, pharmacists, chemists, accountants name them. If the system send them message to become bead maker, dress maker, bricklayer, caterer, baker and carpenter, unless perhaps, that is their passion to establish The National Universities Commission (NUC) introduction of the minimum academic standards in all Nigerian universities in 1990 brought another dimension into the development of entrepreneurship, that is to maintain the quality of its graduates and its high standard of teaching and learning. And as part of the minimum academic standards, the NUC introduced Entrepreneurship Development course in the 1990 curriculum of management and administration disciplines.
This has introduced a great opportunity among students to acquire and build up their entrepreneurial abilities toward self-employment. Hence, in accomplishing their major aims, tertiary institutions must perform the function of not only providing the society with professionals, but should develop the mindset and impart knowledge that will encourage self-reliance in the individual and the development of entrepreneurship culture. The concept entrepreneurship education refers to a specialized knowledge that inculcates in learners the traits of risk-taking, innovation, creativity, proactive for the purpose of creating value. Fayolle, (2009) defined entrepreneurship education as the process of providing individuals with the ability to recognize commercial opportunities and the knowledge, skills and attitudes to act on them. Yahaya (2011) also define entrepreneurship education as the process of developing entrepreneurial spirit through the development and application of relevant and entrepreneurial-based educational curriculum.
It involves giving the recipient of education the understanding and capacity or the unique orientation, behavior, skills and attribute to pursue entrepreneurial ventures. In this premise, entrepreneurship education seeks to provide students the knowledge, skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a variety of settings. Entrepreneurship education was said to have started in some developed countries before the great depression of1929. After the depression, the enthusiasm for entrepreneurship education wanes. But it received renewed interest in the 1970s and 1980s as countries sought to address the problems of economic recession, unemployment, inflation and mass poverty. Entrepreneurship education has been applied in various forms and scopes in different countries thereby bringing about various definitions But a common denominator has emerged from the existing definitions to the effect that a broad concept of entrepreneurship education has emerged from the existing definitions the effect a broad concept of entrepreneurship education sees it as opportunities to acquire the appropriate knowledge and skills to have competences needed for him to explore, sustain and expand a venture. This entails creativity, innovation, showing initiatives and risk-taking as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives. This broad definition of entrepreneurship education pertains to all activities aiming to foster entrepreneurial mindsets, attitudes and skills and covering a range of aspect such as idea generation, start-up, growth, and innovation (Fayolle, 2009).
Yahaya (2011) provided the objectives of entrepreneurship education. These are to Address the problem of unemployment and underemployment. Encourage universities to generate knowledge and other competencies that will build entrepreneurial human capital for national development. Enable universities move further up from traditional enclaves to include possible commercialization of untapped research activities. Challenges universities to evolve ways to foster entrepreneurship especially diffusing innovation through research activities. Help build an innovative entrepreneurial culture.
Entrepreneurship education is known instrumental to lay solid foundation for the emergence of a generation of innovators willing to apply necessary capital into the production, open and expand new markets, explore new source of materials and ensure the organization of new industries. Through this process, there will emerge new unit of businesses that would burgeon into bigger industrial concern with the application of right managerial skills. The inclination for entrepreneurial behaviour is not the exclusive preserve of an individual. Different individuals have different capabilities for acquiring and applying entrepreneurial behaviours, skills and abilities.
These behaviours and skills can be learned, developed and practiced through the instrumentality of education. Entrepreneurship education will develop and sharpen the potentials and skills of the individual necessary for him to operate as an independent mind and infuse into him the spirit of enterprise in this era in which the recipe for rapid economic development is found in creating the enabling environment for private sector-driven economy to thrive.Akpomi (2009) stated that entrepreneurial skills and attitudes provide benefits to the society even beyond their application activity.
Personal qualities that are relevant to entrepreneurship such as creativity and spirit of initiative can be useful to everyone in their responsibilities and in their daily lives Through the framework of education, entrepreneurship educators are using the specialized learning to create class for graduates with the right experiences and insights to discover and create entrepreneurial opportunities and also gain the expertise to successfully start and manage their own businesses to take advantages of existing opportunities. In the past, entrepreneurial development has been used by successful government as a programme of activities to increase the knowledge, skill, behaviour and attitude of individuals and groups to assume the role of entrepreneur. Moreover, different parts of Nigeria has put in place confidence for building successful entrepreneurship programme.
(Owualah, 1999). In this regard the Federal Government has adopted several strategies and policies towards entrepreneurship development in Nigeria, by establishing Agencies and Institution, which provide variety of support services to entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs make a substantial contribution towards entrepreneurial development in Nigeria however, the realization of these potential contributions has been flawed by a lot of challenges such as lack of knowledge in the basic sciences and technology, high cost of doing business in Nigeria, inappropriate incentive structure, lack of enabling environment for innovative incubation and many more.
Oviawe (2010) argues that the obvious critical skill gap is capable of inhibiting the development of youths and the nation. Graduates with innovative ideas for business, creativity, trade and investment do not have favourable conditions to venture into such idea. Politicians are using government agencies to spice their campaign into securing political position with the promises of youth empowerment. Despite the potential contributions of entrepreneurs towards entrepreneurial development, entrepreneurial in Nigeria has continued to perform below expectation and hence the expected role entrepreneur will play towards Entrepreneurial development in Nigeria has been constrained by challenges entrepreneurs face in Nigeria such as harsh government regulations, gaining access to financial constraint, inability to acquire to information technology have been the cause of the failure of many entrepreneurial development in Nigeria (Diejomah and Orimolade, 1991 Dabalen, Oni, and Adekola, 2000). Work is a means to an end. It is believed that work is remedy to poverty (the polytechnic Ibadan motto ise logun ise) while some Yoruba traditional schools has argued that working and getting paid for such can only sustain the employee and will not translate to wealth creation. However, same school of thought concluded that if poverty must be alleviated and wealth must be created, youth must be involved business in terms of entrepreneurial development. A skillful person speaks with confidence while none skillful is filled with fear.
Entrepreneurial skills builds individual self-esteem, engender growth process and changes that is never ending (Uju, 2015). In 2012, the NYSC launched a nationwide initiative, the Skill Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) project, with mission to facilitate access to requisite skills and resources necessary for successful entrepreneurship. The SAED programme is targeted at young Nigerian graduates deployed for the one – year mandatory service and was designed to be implemented during the required camping exercises ( in -camp). The SAED initiative dedicates a cumulative 30 hours across a period of 10 days to sanitizing Corps members on the need to widen their scope, beyond paid employment, towards considering entrepreneurship. They are then encouraged to take on different course content that will enable them to start business of their own. (Kazaure, 2016).
The introduction of SEAD is aimed at reducing the rate of unemployment and developing a culture of self-reliance among youths in Nigeria by equipping them with necessary skills for sustainable job creation towards national development. Youths are implored to take these seriously for their own benefit. The introduction of Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development Programme (SAED) to corps members by NYSC had helped many fresh graduates to depend on their self-efforts, creating new job instead of searching for non-existent jobs, it reduce poverty and to develop a positive attitude toward work and labour. (Dan-Abia, 2016). As at the end of 2015, over 500,000 corps members had been exposed to the idea of acquiring skills and becoming entrepreneurs. Also, over 1,600 had become fully entrepreneurs, managing businesses with huge degrees of successes across Nigeria. The economic competitiveness of a country depends on the skills of its work force. The competencies of the work force and the skills, in turn are dependent upon the quality of the countrys training system and education.
(Dan-Abia, 2016). Upon the achievement of SAED through NYSC, lack of financial support to establish their business inadequate number of resource persons, insufficient training equipment such sewing machines, ovens, gas cookers, dryers, steamers, tool kits of different vocations and lack of accessibility to loan facilities are the main challenges faced by the corps members. There is further challenge of lack of follow-up with trained beneficiaries by NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) scheme to provide post-training support for the corpers business.
(Anosike, 2016). 1.2 Statement of Problem The lingering problem of graduates unemployment in Nigeria as a result of higher education curriculum that is wobbly and irrelevant to the need of the society. Over the years, the tertiary institutions course of study have emphasized the teaching of theory more than practical aspect.
It is evident that the highest number of unemployment is found in the African continent. Amidst concerns of unemployment in Nigeria, the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) beefed up its programme by introducing the Skill Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) initiative. A lot of work has been carried out on entrepreneurship skills acquisition nationwide, little work has been done on influence of NYSCs skills acquisitions and entrepreneurial development programme (SAED) on entrepreneurship development of corps member.
This research aim at examine the influence of SAED on entrepreneurship development of Graduates in Ibadan. 1.3 Research Questions. For the purpose of this research, analyses will be more deeply on the topic under research by providing answers to the following research questions What are the available skills the graduates are been exposed to during NYSCs (SAED) programme Is there any benefits derived from NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) by graduate What are the relatives contribution of NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme to creativity of graduate What are the perceived problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme What are the measures suggested to solve challenges of Entrepreneurship Development 1.4 Aim and Objective of the Study This study therefore aim at examine the influence of NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Programme (SAED) on Entrepreneurship Development of Graduates in Ibadan. The specific objectives are to determine the number of skills under NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development ( SAED) programme, examine the problems of NYSCs Skills Aqusition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme, determine the benefits derived from Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurial Development (SAED) by graduates, examine the relative contribution of NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurial Development (SAED) programme to Creativity of graduates, examine measures suggested to solve challenges of entrepreneurship development. 1.
5 Scope of the Study This research work focuses on the influence of NYSCs Skills Acquisition and entrepreneurial development Programme (SAED) on Entrepreneurship development of Ex- corpers in two faculties in University of Ibadan. The two selected faculties are Faculty of Education and Faculty of Agriculture, postgraduate Students from three department in each selected faculty will be the respondent. 1. 6 Significance of the Study. The significant of the study cannot be over-emphasis, it lies on the fact that a graduate can either take on a paid employment no matter how little its remuneration or start up his or her own business. Rather, the outcome of this study will enable us know the one to pursue or how to balance between both. The research will help to address the current low level of knowledge, inadequate understanding of SAED issues from Corp member, the research will drive active participation in the SAED programmes and interventions.
It will help the corps member, civil servants, National public, private sector partners and international community to achieve positive behaviour toward Skills Acquisition programme. The result will also educate the public on the important of job and wealth creation and the role of entrepreneur in economic growth and development. More also, the findings of this research will be useful to relevant authorities in youth empowerment through entrepreneurial such as government agencies and nongovernmental organizations, research institutes, job seekers and other stake holders to examine the societal state of unemployment and entrepreneur development. 1.
7 Definitions of Terms Entrepreneurship It involves the possession or acquisition of skills, ideas and management abilities necessary for the entrepreneur to mobilize the needed resources to exploit the enterprise opportunities within his reach. Entrepreneurship is the ability to create or build up a new business through personal effort, creativity and innovativeness. National Youth Service Corps It is an organization set up by the Nigerian government to involve the countrys graduates in the development of the country. It is a programme designed for fresh graduates of universities and polytechnics to undertake one year mandatory national service in various public and private institutions/establishments at the of which they are discharge into labour market. NYSC SAED It is a nationwide programme initiative targeted at young Nigerian graduates mobilized and deployed in the NYSC one year mandatory service. Skills Acquisition Is the ability to be trained on a particular task or function and become expert in it. Empowerment It is defined as the strengthening and activation of the role of human beings in development in relation to his/her relationship with oneself, with the groups around him/her, and with the community as a whole. The individuals ability to access development opportunities (such as education, training, employment and income generation).
The individuals capacity for participation and decision making resolution (at the levels of the family, labor market, state and civil society). Development This means positive changes occurring in society encompassing of all economic, social and cultural fields. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.
1 Theoretical Framework Theories of Entrepreneurship The historical evolution of ideas about the entrepreneur is a wide-ranging subject and one that can be organized in different ways theorist by theorist, period by period, issue by issue and so forth. What follows is a compromise between these possibilities. The paper starts with some very broad reflections about economic change over several thousand years and the connections between these changes and the economic thinking of the time. A recognizably modern idea of the entrepreneur begins to emerge in the eighteenth century and the following two sections are devoted to the role of entrepreneurship in classical and neoclassical economic theory. In the next five sections, the paper looks at particular areas that have been associated with debates about the entrepreneurial role uncertainty, innovation, economic efficiency, the theory of the firm, and economic development.
A final section presents a brief summary and comments on the place of the entrepreneur in evolutionary models. A reader who is already familiar with important distinctions between capitalist, innovator, uncertainty bearer, judgmental decision-maker, market-maker and so forth should be aware that these will be discussed in greater detail as the paper advances. The following section does not examine entrepreneurship through the ages using a constant and clearly defined concept throughout. Rather it provides some historical context and links this to contemporary attitudes towards trade, economic change and the perceived agents of change. It shows that advances in pure analytical thought were required before helpful definitions of entrepreneurship could be derived, and that without these advances an important ingredient of any theory of economic change was missing.
2.1.2 The Entrepreneur in Economic History Entrepreneurship is not a concept that has a tightly agreed definition. In modern common usage an entrepreneur is a person who undertakes an enterprise, especially a commercial one, often at personal financial risk.
1 It is the product of a modern post-enlightenment world in which continual change has become the norm, where progress (technical, social and economic) has become expected and where notions of liberal individualism predominate. The ancient and mediaeval worlds seem not to have developed a concept of entrepreneurship that could plausibly be seen as similar to the modern notion. Philosophers gave only limited attention to economic matters and, in so far as agriculture, industry and trade were discussed, much thinking would have been a sub-branch of politics or ethics. In the Aristotelian tradition, economic thought was highly normative. Trade was a suspect activity liable to undermine the good order of society and sterile in itself. Even if the reality was more complicated, early social thought concerned static societies built upon caste or social position where justice was the outcome of each group faithfully performing its allotted function. In the hierarchy of social esteem, the noble warrior took pride of place, agriculture was respected and compatible with the inculcation of certain virtues, industry in support of military power was too useful to neglect, but commerce was the province of less respected if not completely despised social groups.
It is not difficult to understand this early suspicion of commerce and the trader. The landed aristocrat had large, illiquid and specific (to a geographical region) investments to protect. Like a player in a modern game theoretic model of oligopoly, such a person could plausibly commit to fight interlopers. For the widely traveled merchant with access to ships and with assets in liquid and non-specific form, the temptation simply to move elsewhere when the fighting started and to deal with the winners would have been compelling. The result would tend to be an association of the merchant with frippery on the one hand and ruthless exploitation on the other.
In the mediaeval era the authority of St. Augustine held that it was unjust to buy below or sell above the just price, while usury interest on the use of money was condemned in the religious teaching of the era. Each of these doctrines should be seen in the context of the conditions of the time and scholars have argued about their precise interpretation and force, but even allowing for scholarly refinements, the doctrine of the just price would appear to be highly subversive of entrepreneurial activity. When the whole of society is viewed in terms of duty and obligation in the performance of divinely assigned and sanctioned roles and when preparation for the next life rather than the improvement of material conditions in this one has the higher priority, entrepreneurship could hardly be expected to feature prominently in the prevailing economic thinking.2 Absence of a well developed conception of the entrepreneur in the philosophy of the time in no way implies that economic conditions were completely static, trade suppressed or technology totally unprogressive. Roman law, for example, developed highly individualistic concepts of private property and contract which permitted the development of an extensive and sophisticated European trading network. Venetian dominance of Mediterranean trade in the early middle ages could not have developed without an environment sufficiently conducive to entrepreneurial activity.
Even the mediaeval economy outside the city-states, which in its social stratification and apparent stability is popularly seen as stagnant, is now regarded by historians as having experienced considerable technological advance.3 Nevertheless the distinct notion of an entrepreneurial role awaited an era in which success in commerce and the political power of the state were more closely associated. With the rise of the modern nation states of France, Spain and England from the late 15th century onwards, rulers began to take on at least one characteristic of the merchant. No longer able to rely on feudal obligation from the nobility to protect their interests, the accumulation of treasure and hence the ability to pay armies became associated with the maintenance and projection of political power. The mercantilist doctrine that emerged from this era was criticized by later classical economists for confounding money with real national wealth although it is doubtful whether mercantilist writers succumbed fully to such a fallacy. For present purposes, however, it is relevant to note that the building of the power and revenue of the state was the central concern. Such a project is unlikely to be conducive to the growth of decentralized and competitive markets and thus might be seen as inimical to the social development of the entrepreneur.
Bureaucratic intervention, the selling of monopolies, licensing and taxation are not the most obvious routes to the entrepreneurial society. However, compared with the world that had preceded them, the 16th and 17th centuries were the more conducive to entrepreneurship. The state as an economic organization, an idea which underlay mercantilist thinking, and the accumulation of treasure that was seen as a means of building state power, required the input of entrepreneurial and not merely bureaucratic talent, at least in the context of the competitive states of Europe.4 The whole enterprise may have been statist at heart but it relied on people to develop overseas markets, to build great trading companies, to strengthen domestic industry and to generate a large tax base. People of energy and talent could migrate between jurisdictions and the willingness of other places to receive them placed limits on the exploitation that they would tolerate in any given location.
English words now often used to describe entrepreneurs such as buccaneer and privateer derive from this period as the state tolerated or even encouraged the piratical disruption of the trade routes of other nations. As the profits of trade increased, the old aristocracy in England began to accept trade as a respectable activity. Money talked. Defoe commented that Trade is here so far from being inconsistent with a gentleman, that, in short, trade in England makes gentlemen while Voltaire observed that It is only because the English have taken to trade that England can have two hundred men of war and subsidize allied kings.5 It was, however, the agricultural and industrial revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries that finally produced the modern multi-faceted image of the entrepreneur. As rulers gradually submitted to constitutional constraints on their power and property rights became more secure within the nation states entrepreneurial energy was released at a historically unprecedented rate. Especially in England, major advances in agricultural productivity and innovations in transport, mining, textiles, steel, shipbuilding, engineering and banking became associated with particular names. The Duke of Bridgewater in the construction of canals, Richard Arkwright in the transformation of the cotton industry and the evolution of the factory system, Mathew Boulton, John Roebuck and James Watt in the development of steam power, George Hudson in the promotion of railways these and others introduced the revolutionary changes that still colour our image of the entrepreneur.
The men of business of the 19th century represented a new social phenomenon. Checkland (1964, p.103) writes that It is probably not far from the truth to say that the period from 1815 to 1885 in Britain represents the range of human experience in which individual economic initiative had its greatest opportunity to operate upon men and things, and in so doing to remake an ancient society. From this period derives the idea of the heroic entrepreneur, a transformer or founder of industries, an undertaker of massive feats of engineering, an opener of continents. Such activities required the raising of enormous quantities of capital, the development of new organizational methods and the coordination of vast numbers of people. The failures could be as spectacular as the successes. Entrepreneurship of this order required as much strategic insight, tactical awareness, personal energy, power of leadership, organizational flair, ruthlessness and determination as military conquest. And like the military commander, the entrepreneur began to be studied and respected.
In the twentieth century the cult of the entrepreneur initially receded. The large-scale organizations established in the 19th century and the corporations developing in the newer electrical, chemical, communications and motor industries began to look more managerial and professional than heroically entrepreneurial. The entrepreneurs having blazed their pioneering trail it began to be seriously considered that professional scientists, technicians and managers would be able to maintain momentum. By the 1940s Schumpeter (1942) was advancing this view and others such as Jewkes (1948) were specifically asking the question Is the Businessman Obsolete6 Later developments in the century were somewhat to redress the balance. In the UK, for example, the shipbuilding, coal, steel and cotton industries all but disappeared and this substantial and continuing restructuring undermined the notion that change of this degree could be brought about by managerialism alone. The growth of the service sector of the economy and the development of computer technology and communications may also have contributed to a rise in self-employment and small-scale entrepreneurship. From this brief historical review it is apparent that popular conceptions of the entrepreneur have evolved over time.
The somewhat varied notions that still prevail reflect this history. The small-scale trader and peddler, the selfemployed craftsman, the buccaneering chancer, the innovator and improver as well as the founder of entirely new technologies and industries are all seen as entrepreneurs. It is evident, however, that a coherent theoretical treatment of entrepreneurship is not automatically suggested by the history of economic and social change. The birth of classical political economy coincided with the upheavals of the agricultural and industrial revolutions of the 18th century and an interest in The Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Yet, both in its classical and later neo-classical formulations, economics as a discipline has not found it easy to find a formal place for the entrepreneur.
According to Priya (2010), Theory of entrepreneurshiphelps to comprehend phenomena better. Understanding theory one can apply the same in practice more effectively. Various theories of entrepreneurship have been propounded by thinkers. They can be classified in three categories Sociological. Economic.
Cultural. Sociological Theories of Entrepreneurship Max Webers theorySalient features of his theory are Spirit of Capitalism is highlighted, Adventurous spirit facilitate taking risk, Protestant ethic embodying rebellion is conducive, Inducement of profit is the criterion. E.E. Hagens theory, Reveals general model of the social- interrelationship among physical environment, social structure, personality and culture, Thinks economic theories are inadequate, Political social change catalyst for entrepreneurs, Rejects followers syndrome imitating western technology. Technology is an integral part of socio- cultural complex, Historic shift as a factor initiates change.
Israel Kirtzners Theory of Entrepreneurship Israel Kirzner (1935) hold spontaneous learning and alertness two major characteristics of entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurship is the transformation of spontaneous learning to conscious knowledge, motivated by the prospects of some gain. Kirzner considers the alertness to recognize opportunity more characteristic than innovation in defining entrepreneurship. The entrepreneur either remedies ignorance or corrects errors of the customers.
His entrepreneurship model holds The entrepreneur subconsciously discovering an opportunity to earn money by buying resources or producing a good, and selling it, Entrepreneur financing the venture by borrowing money from a capitalist, Entrepreneur using the funds for his entrepreneurial venture, Entrepreneur paying back the capitalist, including interest, and retaining the pure entrepreneurial profit. Economic Theories of Entrepreneurship Mark Cassons Economic Theory (1945) holds that entrepreneurship is a result of conducive economic conditions. In his book Entrepreneurship, an Economic theory he states the demand for entrepreneurship arising from the demand for change. Economic HYPERLINK https//www.brighthub.com/office/entrepreneurs/articles/73616.aspx t _self factors that encourage or discourage entrepreneurship include taxation policy, industrial policy, easy availability of raw materials, easy access to finance on favorable terms, access to information about market conditions, availability of technology and infrastructure, marketing opportunity Peter Druckers Theory of Entrepreneurship HYPERLINK https//img.bhs4.
com/57/0/5704a04c04ee1b798ef4f933a4f33cb34fbbf5ca_large.jpg o Entrepreneurship Theories Peter Drucker (1909-2005) holds innovation, resources, and an entrepreneurial behavior as the keys to entrepreneurship. According to him entrepreneurship involves, increase in value or satisfaction to the customer from the resource, creation of new values, combination of existing materials or resources in a new productive combination HYPERLINK https//www.projectguru.in/publications/cultural-theories-of-entrepreneurship/ t _blank Cultural Theories of Entrepreneurship Explains that the supply of Entrepreneurship is governed by cultural factors culturally minority groups are the spark plugs of entrepreneurial economic development, Marginal men- Reservoir of entrepreneurial development. Ambiguous positions from a cultural or social statement make them creative, Emphasis on skills- Who possess extra-ordinary skills. Function of managerial additional personal traits leadership skills.
Additional personal traits. Exportation of profit ability to lend, Contribution of social classes-Socio-economic economic background of specific classes make them entrepreneurs. Peter F Drucker on EntrepreneurshipAn entrepreneur is one who always searches for change, rapidness to it and exploits it as an opportunity. He emphasizes on Innovation, ResourceA thing is regarded as resource when its economic value is recognized. Example- Fixed salary can also be an opportunity. Thus installment purchase was introduced. ECO Model Figure 1 Eco Analysis Framework Entrepreneurship, Creativity, Organization, J.
J. Kaos conceptual model forms the basis of the ECO Model. The ECO analysis is derived from three key points which are Entrepreneurship, Creativity and Organization. Kao had stated that entrepreneurship and creativity are derived from the interrelationship between three components which are the person, the task and the organizational context (Dacin 2010).
The person is regarded as the most important element of this model where new ideas are implemented by the efficient persons. The entrepreneurial talents of a person include skills, motivation, experience and psychological factors (Alvarez and Busenitz, 2007). The task emphasizes on acquiring opportunities, management of resources and implementing leadership qualities which are necessary for the entrepreneurial growth, The organizational context is the concatenation of the creative and entrepreneurial work. For example, the organizational structure affects the entrepreneurial environment, There is no single entrepreneurial theory that would be enough for any entrepreneur to operate in the competitive environment yet most of the theorist fail to explain different aspects of the entrepreneurship. The cultural theories are one such example where the cultural aspects are considered to motivate the entrepreneurs. 2.
2 Conceptual Review 2.2.1 Skill Acquisition The human factor is the real wealth of a nation. It is through human creativity, initiative, capability and commitment that true development can be achieved. Skill acquisition is the process and the means of releasing. The United Nation Development Report (1990) says enhancing human energy, it means providing an opportunity for people to make the maximum contribution to their own development and to the self-development of their communities. Asante (1991) skill acquisition will help to improve social -economic status of youth and reduce the poverty rate if people are trained in diverse areas and they in turn create wealth for themselves and their immediate environment. Entrepreneurial skill acquisition is a process whereby a person acquires or learns a particular skill or type of behaviour needed for business through training or education (Amadi, 2012 Chukwunenye and Igboke, 2011) in order to identify and exploit entrepreneurial opportunity for self-employment.
(Samian and Buntat, 2012 Stohmeyer, 2007). It also helps entrepreneurs to acquire self-confidence, self-esteem and participate in decision-making at household and community levels (Cheston and Kuhn, 2002 Rufai, 2013). Skill training and tertiary education could lead to business opportunities and impact on entrepreneurship (Emaikwu, 2011 Gatewood, 2004). Exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunity also depends on the entrepreneurs level of education, skills or knowledge acquired through training, work experience and social network (Shane, 2003 Shastri and Sinha (2010).
Training and/or education produce prior experience which leads to preparedness for entrepreneurial activity (Shane, 2003). The awareness of the need for entrepreneurial skill training and supports in order to stimulate entrepreneurial activity and reduce business failure have been increased among stakeholders in the industry, business and government of many countries because entrepreneurs could be born or made (Abdullah, 2009). It is also a vital source of developing human capital (Brana, 2008 Ikegwu, 2014). Entrepreneurship graduates could not get employment because they possessed low skills and low self-confidence required by industries since there was no industrial exposures while in school, however numerous studies asserted that skill training and tertiary education could lead to entrepreneurial activity or self-employment (Amadi, 2012 Salman, 2009 Stohmeyer, 2007). Skill acquisition training was found to have positive effect on entrepreneurial activity in Nigeria (Ebong, 2011 Ekpe and Mat, 2012 Ibru, 2009 Ikegwu, 2014).
Skill acquisition training was found to have positive effect on entrepreneurial activity in Nigeria (Brana, 2008). Skill acquisition training had positive impact on entrepreneurial opportunity in Nigeria (Stohmeyer, 2007). Skill acquisition training was also found to have positive effect on entrepreneurial activity in Nigeria (Samian and Buntat, 2012).
We therefore hypothesized that 2.2.2 Concept of Entrepreneur An entrepreneur is an agent who champions a novel combination of productive resources as a means of achieving an economic end. Entrepreneurs are people who perceive profitable opportunities, are willing to take risks in pursuing them and have the ability to recognize the needed resources to start and operate a business. Entrepreneurs are single individuals or a group of people who gather resources for the purpose of exploiting a market opportunity in order to make profit for themselves. Entrepreneurial tailored to blend with the theory in order that each complements the other to promote the development of personal qualities such as creativity, risk-taking and responsibility.
The desired blend should provide the technical and vocational skills that are needed by graduates in order to start new business (Nwanosike and Oko, 2014). Entrepreneurship is more than creating a new business enterprise, acquiring or expanding an existing business. It is a process through which individuals identify opportunities, allocate resources, and create value. This creation of value is often through the identification of unmet needs or through the identification of opportunities for change. It is the act of being an entrepreneur which is seen as one who undertakes innovations with finance and business acumen in an effort to transform innovations into economic goods hence Entrepreneurs see problems as opportunities, and then take action to identify the solutions to those problems and the customers who will pay to have those problems solved.
Entrepreneurial success is simply a function of the ability of an entrepreneur Entrepreneurship can be seen as the process of creating values. Entrepreneurship requires skills and ability of an individual to achieve the set goals and objectivities of the enterprise regardless of business size. The technological advancement or transformation in any country mostly can be made possible through innovative sciences, ideas and utilizing uncommon opportunities and entrepreneurship is the best way to achieve this. People become gainfully employed through vocational training and skill acquisition (Ebong and Asodike, 2011 Ikegwu, 2014 Nwanaka and Amaehule, 2011).
Robert C. Ronstadt in Kuratko (2009) state a summary description of entrepreneurship as A dynamic process of vision, change, and creation. It requires an application of energy and passion toward the creation and implementation of new ideas and creative solutions. Essential ingredients include the willingness to take calculated risks in terms of time, equity, or career the ability to formulate an effective venture teams the creative skills to gather the needed resources the vision to recognize opportunity where other people see contradiction and complete disorder and the fundamental skill of building a strong business plan. The study of entrepreneurship helps entrepreneurs to better fulfill their personal needs as well as the economic contribution they make. Beyond increasing the national income through job creation, entrepreneurship acts as a positive force in economic growth by serving as a bridge between innovation and the market place.
Although an entrepreneur frequently lacks both technical and business skills, they nonetheless serve as the major link in the process of innovation, development and economic growth. The literatures suggest that success in highly competitive business environment depends on entrepreneurship and managing a small business is different from entrepreneurship, just as not all business managers are entrepreneurs. Many governments show a tendency toward preventing external competition as a way of protecting local industries especially during economic downturn. Another policy action may involve granting subsidies to both failing and inefficient industries. But Ernst and Young (2009) argue that such fiscal policy may not only invite greater inefficiency but also deter innovation which is critical to economic growth.
In other words, innovators depend on societys appetite for constant improvement. Awareness of the need for entrepreneurial skill training and supports in order to stimulate entrepreneurial activity and reduce business failure have been the increased among stakeholders in the industry, business and government of many countries because entrepreneurs could be born or made (Abdullah ,2009). It is also a vital source of developing human capital (Brana, 2008 Ikegwu, 2014). Though Rufai (2013) and Dasmani (2011) found that entrepreneurship graduates could not get employment because they possessed low self-confidence and low skills required by industries since there was no industrial exposures while in school, however numerous studies asserted that skill training and tertiary education could lead to entrepreneurial activity or self-employment (Amadi, 2012 Salman, 2009 Stohmeyer, 2007).According to Obi (2010) for the Nigerian youth to survive in Entrepreneurship the following skills are required he/she must be a high achiever, risk-taker, self- confident, resourceful, goal setter, task oriented, innovative, future oriented communication ability and technical knowledge. Skill acquisition training was found to have positive effect on entrepreneurial activity in Nigeria (Ebong 2011 Ekpe and Mat, 2012 Ibru, 2009 Ikegwu, 2014). Skill acquisition training was found to have positive effect on entrepreneurial activity in Nigeria (Brana, 2008). 2.
2.3 Self-Motivation Weihrich et al. (2008) refers to motivation as a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. Therefore, one can be motivated by personal/self-drive or desire to achieve success.
Attitude towards behaviour means the degree to which an individual has a favourable or unfavourable evaluation of the behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). For entrepreneurial intentions to be translated into self-employment, it depends on the entrepreneurs personality and abilities (Majumdar, 2008). Studies, such as Crisp and Turner (2007), found that attitude and behavioural intentions are positively related and attitude towards behaviour leads to intention which eventually leads to actual behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). It has also been posited by previous literature (Emaikwu, 2011 Onuoha et al.
2013 Salman, 2009 Shane, 2003 Stohmeyer, 2007) that tertiary education and skills traning could lead to entrepreneurial activity or self-employment. Other studies also found a positive relationship between skill acquisition and self-employment (Kickul et al., 2007 Ojo, 2009 Samian Buntat, 2012). However, self-motivation can aid or hamper these variables relationship because an entrepreneurship graduate may not venture into self-employment if he/she is not determined to work hard, is risk-averse or misuses the acquired skill (Udida, 2012). This is in line with attitudinal studies place the individual at the Centre of employees motivation hence the introduction of a moderator in this study, in line with Baron and Kenny (1986).
Self-motivation moderates the relationship between entrepreneurial skill acquisition and self-employment practice among the university graduates. 2.2.
4 Skills Acquisition in Ensuring Self-Reliance Among Youth. The importance of skills acquisition are Self-Employment A skill acquire man is a self-employed man. A self-employed person can never lack or hungry because the skill he or she acquired serves as source of income for him or her on daily basis whereas someone who lacks skill acquisition will find it hard to be self-employed because has nothing to offer. There many tailor today who do not stress themselves of carrying files from one office to another in search for job, they make huge money from tailoring. A self-employed person has freedom to plan his business the way he likes because they are the boss of their own. They relax whenever they feel like because no higher authority to question them. Diverse Job Opportunities Up and doing person is someone who acquires many skills. Those who have many skills have the chance of gain job from many establishments.
Honestly speaking, many companies do search for people who have many skills. This is similar to happens in the world of football. Footballers like Portugal, Christiano Ronaldo, Rooney, Argentina and many others because of the excellent football skills they possess make many football clubs fight over them in every football season. A situation like this it is left to the footballer to choose from many opportunities that come his way.
He decide which club to play for, he is not searching for job but job is searching for him. That show how powerful skills acquisition is all about. Employment Generation Government are still finding it hard to provide job for citizens because the citizen are lacking important skills they need.
If the youth are well equipped with skills there will be more jobs generated for the Nigeria citizen. This is why it is important for government to organize skills acquisition programme for the masses as this will be helpful in providing jobs for others. Someone who is well equipped on catering can train his fellow citizens. They become master of their skill, and will train other youths and employment generation keeps on growing in such circle. They start earing from the skills they acquire from their master, they generate employment opportunities for other youths by employing other to assist them in their business.
Crime Reduction The rate of crime in many nation is reduces by skill acquisition. Unemployment makes youths to think on many dirty activities they will do to make a money. But, with an acquired skill by an individual, he work and make money from his acquired skill. This will improve his standard of living and the skill acquired by the citizens who were indulging in crime before Effective Function Organizations that employ skilful workers to assist in their organizational duties lose nothing at all because there will be always perform effective functions performed by the employee. The knowledge he or she gained from the training on that specific skill make him or her to perform the organizations works as desired by the management of the organization. From the importance of skills acquisition discussed above, skills acquisition and entrepreneurship development programme has ensure self- reliance among youth and reduce the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.
A skilful man speaks with confidence while the unskillful is filled with fear of unemployment. Skill Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in ensuring Creativity among graduate. A person becomes more inspired, more innovative, more entrepreneurial, more productive, more resourceful, more globally aware, more inventive, a more effective member of society and ultimately more human with creativity skills. Contrary to the age- long opinion that can one was either born naturally creative or not, research as shown that anyone can learn to be creative. Every person can be taught techniques and behavior that help them generate more ideas.
Creative exercises can help graduate to reconnect with the natural creativity (Akinboye, 2016). NYSCS Intervention – The SAED Programme The National youth Service Corps (NYSC), created by the Nigerian government to increase the contribution of the countrys graduates to the development and growth of the country. The NYSC was inculcated into the Nigerians Educational System in 1973.
Since 1973 it has been made compulsory for graduate of Universities and later Polytechnics to take part in the National Youth Service Corp Programme for one year. This period is known as service year. Participants are often called Corpers or Corp Members. They posted to cities or villages far from their cities of origin. Corpers are expected to work as directed, mix with people of other tribes and different social cultural backgrounds.
Nigerian graduate are ineligible for employment until they have completed the mandatory one year of service under the NYSC scheme. Only those graduate that are over the age of thirty and with physical disabilities are exempted from this compulsory one year of service. For those people who fall into this category are given NYSC Exception Letter. The NYSC, by the virtue of their mandate, is unarguably the most critical influencer in the development of Nigerian Youth. They recognize that they must play a major part in supporting the other government initiatives to tackle the unemployment challenge. The scheme has been grappling with strategies to deal with this challenges with a long shot at skill acquisition, economic empowerment activities and entrepreneurship development for self-employment initiatives.
This is calling on the experience that the Nigerian Educational System place little or no emphasis on skill acquisition. NYSC has close the gap which led to the creation of the skills acquisition programme called Skills Acquisition and entrepreneurship development (SAED) in the year 2012. NYSCs SAED is designed to be implemented within the framework of the Corp member camping exercises during orientation course all over Nigeria with various skills teachers of different kinds of skills. The competence of the in-camp programme focus largely on Creating the entrepreneurial and self-reliant spirit in the Corps members, created helping Corps members explore various income generation opportunities available with a view to identifying the one that best suits their personality/circumstances, Introducing Corp members to hand-on skills across twelve (12) different sectors of the economy and Sensitizing Corp members on the development of bankable business plans.
The post component would provide more support to the Corp member in various dimensions with a view to equipping them with necessary competence and providing access to opportunities they can use to convert these competence into meaningful economic value, for them to become self-reliant, achieve their dreams and contribute meaningfully to the society. Functions of NYSCs SAED department include Sensitize and mobilize 200,000 youth graduates for acquisition annually. Facilitate the training and monitoring of 100,000 young graduates in Skill Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development, Promote public- private partnership for entrepreneurship development and self reliance amongst Nigerian youths, Sensitization and mobilization of corps members for enrolment into the skill acquisition and entrepreneurship development programme, According to Mr. Temple Onwukwe the skills needed for the 21st century include entrepreneurship skills, technical and vocational skills, effective communication skills, social skills, management skills, numerical skills, leadership skills and ICT skills.
The Corps members need discipline, determination, diligence, numerical skills and diversification to be 21st-century compliant. 2.2.5 SAED (Sector) Focus Area Opportunity are given to interested Corp member to choose a skill of their choice from twelve (12) available sectors. These sector are Food Processing and Preservation Catering services, Cakes (sponge cake, fruit cake, lower molding, rolled fondant). Snacks (plantain chips, meat pie, buns, bread, pop-corn, sausage rolls), Beverages and drinks (juices, zobo, ice cream, yoghurt, soya milk) Catering services. Agro-Allied Fish production, Cattle fattening, Bee keeping and honey production, Crop production, Snail production, Piggery, Poultry farming, Culture and Tourism Leather works (making shoes, belts), Exterior decoration (hall decoration, bridal decoration) Beads making, Arts (hand-made cards, tie and dye, painting, basket weaving), Cosmetology Production of body cream, soap, powder, perfume, disinfectants, detergents, Hair barbing and dressing, Laundry Service, Information and Communications Technology Comp Appreciation, Software installation, Computer Programming, Computer Repairs, Online businesses (ATM, forex), Business Centre, Website development, GSM technology, Recharge card production, Fixing common GSM problems, Internet technology, Construction Aluminum and steel works, Construction of public toilets, Electrical installation, Environment Building, Plaster of pairs (pop), molding, celling and scrading, Painting mixing, house painting, interior decoration, Inter- locking, tiles production, Concrete block production, Carpentry/ furniture making, Horticulture and Landscaping Power and Energy Equipment Maintenance and services, Generator set servicing and repairs, Manufacture of inverters, Plumbing and pipe fitting, wielding/fabrications, Oil and gas, Education Training, Establishment of day care Centre, Driving schools, Nursery and primary schools, Film And Photography Film/ video editing, Location manager, Photographer, Programme Automobile Auto electrician / wiring, Spray painting, Upholstery, wheel alignment and balancing, Engine overhaul and servicing, Auto air conditioner.
Evolution of Entrepreneurship in Nigeria First and foremost, entrepreneurship began when individuals created a large number of items more than that they can use so in this instant they needed to trade off their surpluses. For example, when a metal worker created a more considerable number of tools more than required, then the surplus is traded for what is needed. Possibly, he needed a few yams, goat and so forth, he would search for somebody who requires his items to trade for it. These producers then came to understand that they can move in their regions of creation to deliver progressively and after that trade with what they required. So, through this trade of items, business began. A commonplace Nigerian business visionary is an independent man who may be said to have the robust will to succeed. He or She may connect with the other administrations through their relatives to aid him in his work or production. (Ebo 2012.
) Nigeria was customarily an agrarian country with the people exposed to entrepreneurship opportunities inside and outside their native regions. The northern region entrepreneurs are specialists in leather works, pastoral farming and metalworks. The western region is majorly predominantly town dwellers who practised small-scale, subsistence agriculture and are well known as traders and craftsmen producing masterpieces of woodcarving and bronze casting.
The finished products were traded on as business ven- tures and enterprises. Just like the west, the Eastern region entrepreneurs were expertise in trade, and they specialised in inventory control, management and distribution all of which they are still known for today (Ejiogu and Nwajiuba 2012, 9.) Recent development of entrepreneurship in Nigeria Since the mid-1980s there has been an expanded responsibility of government to entrepreneurship development particularly after the presentation of the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) in 1986. In additional are the formulation of national training and employment program to focus is on the development, coordination and integration of SMEs so they can achieve their full potential (Thaddeus 2012, 33.) Essentially the Nigerian government advances entrepreneurial culture through activities that construct business certainty, uplifting mentality, pride in progress, support and consolation of new thoughts, social duty, giving innovative backings, empowering between firm linkages and advancement of innovative work. In Nigeria education system, entrepreneurship studies got more attention in the mid-2000. The Centre for Entrepreneurship Development (CED) was established with the sole aim of teaching and encouraging students of higher institutions to acquire entrepreneurial, innovative, and management skills so that these graduates can be independently employed, more job opportunities can be created for others and more wealth generated.
Thaddeus proceeded with that enterprise improvement in Nigeria. Toward the ending of the country civil war, the second national development plan concentrated on the improvement of the 3Rs goals of reconstruction, re-advancement and reconciliation. The exercises in the arrangement tested/entrusted the creativity and innovative aptitude of the people. (Thaddeus 2012, 35.) Thaddeus explained that entrepreneurship development in Nigeria wound up noticeably noteworthy simply after the Nigerian civil war. After the war, the second national development plan made focused on the development of the 3Rs objectives of reconstruction, re-advancement and reconciliation.
The activities in the plan challenged the ingenuity and inventive skill of the individuals. In that period of industrialization which was achieved by technical progress and investment was the ultimate source of economic growth. After the countrys independence in 1960, the government saw from the experience of the developed world that economic growth is due to the quality and efficiency of the entrepreneur hence they realized the need to promote indigenous entrepreneurs.
Hence, various support institutions were established to provide aid to SMEs, but they all lack purpose function today. (Thaddeus 2012, 38- 41). 2.2.6 The Skills Entrepreneurial Need to Build a Great Business What makes someone a successful entrepreneur It certainly helps to have strong technology skills or expertise in a key area, but these are not defining characteristics of entrepreneurship. Instead, the key qualities are traits such as creativity, the ability to keep going in the face of hardship, and the social skills needed to build great teams.
If anyone want to start a business, its essential to learn the specific skills that underpin these qualities. Its also important to develop entrepreneurial skills if he is in a job role where he expected to develop a business, or take things forward more generally, The skills entrepreneur need to be a successful entrepreneur, and explore resources that can be use to develop the traits needed for success. Personal Characteristics First, examine personal characteristics, values, and beliefs. He/she have the mindset thats typical of successful entrepreneurs. Optimism person is an optimistic thinker, Optimism is truly an asset, and it help get an entrepreneur through the tough times that many entrepreneurs experience as they find a business model that works for them, Visionary is a person who can easily see where things can be improved. He/she can quickly grasp the big picture, and explain it to others. And can create a compelling vision of the future, and then inspire other people to engage with that vision Initiative He/she have initiative , and instinctively start problem-solving or business improvement projects Desire for Control He enjoy being in charge and making decisions.
He/she is motivated to lead others, Drive and Persistence He/she is self-motivated and energetic. And he is prepared to work hard, for a very long time, to realize your goals, Risk Tolerance He/she is able to take risks, and make decisions when facts are uncertain, Resilience He/she is resilient, can pick himself up when things dont go as planned. And learn and grow from his/her mistakes and failures. Interpersonal Skills As a successful entrepreneur, he to work closely with people this is where it is critical to be able to build great relationships with his team, customers, suppliers, shareholders, investors, and more. Some people are more gifted in this area than others, but, fortunately, he can learn and improve these skills.
The types of interpersonal skills an entrepreneur need include Leadership and Motivation He/she can lead and motivate others to follow him and deliver his vision. And are able to delegate work to others. As a successful entrepreneur, one will have to depend on others to get beyond a very early stage in business Communication Skills He/she is competent with all types of communication. He need to be able to communicate well to sell your vision of the future to investors, potential clients, team members, and more, Listening He/she hear what others are telling him. His/her ability to listen can make or break him as an entrepreneur. He make sure that he is skilled at active listening and empathetic listening, Personal Relations He /she is emotionally intelligent.
The higher he/she grow in business, the easier it will be for him to work with others. The good news is that he/she can improve his/her emotional intelligence, Negotiation He/she is a good negotiator. He/she only do what one need to negotiate keen prices, he/ also need to be able to resolve differences between people in a positive, mutually beneficial way, Ethics He/she deal with people based on respect, integrity, fairness, and truthfulness. He can lead ethically. He/she will find it hard to build a happy, committed team if he/she deal with people staff, customers or suppliers in a shabby way.
Critical and Creative Thinking Skills As an entrepreneur, need to come up with fresh ideas, and make good decisions about opportunities and potential projects. Many people think that youre either born creative or youre not. However, creativity is a skill that you can develop if an entrepreneur invest the time and effort. Creative Thinking He/she is able to see situations from a variety of perspectives and come up with original idea, Problem Solving He/she is good at coming up with sound solutions to the problems he is facing, Recognizing Opportunities He/she recognize opportunities when he present himself.
He can spot a trend. And he is able to create a plan to take advantage of the opportunities he identify. Practical Skills One also need the practical skills and knowledge needed to produce goods or services effectively, and run a company. Goal Setting She/she regularly set goals, create a plan to achieve them, and then carry out that plan, Planning and Organizing He/she have the talents, skills, and abilities necessary to achieve your goals Can one coordinate people achieve these efficiently and effectively Effective project management skills are important, as are basic organization skills. And do one know how to develop a coherent, well thought-through business plan, including developing and learning from appropriate financial forecasts, Decision Making He/she is good in at making decisions.
Do you make them based on relevant information and by weighing the potential consequences And are confident in the decisions that make, Core decision-making tools include Decision Tree Analysis, Grid Analysis, and Six Thinking Hats, Knowledge in several areas are needed when starting or running a business. For instance Business Knowledge One should have a good general knowledge of the main functional areas of a business (sales, marketing, finance, and operations), and be able to operate or manage others in these areas with a reasonable degree of competence, Entrepreneurial Knowledge One should understand how entrepreneurs raise capital. And understand the sheer amount of experimentation and hard work that may be needed to find a business model that works, Opportunity-Specific Knowledge One should understand the market one is attempting to enter, and know what you need to do to bring product or service to market, Venture-Specific Knowledge One should know what is needed to do to make this type of business successful.
And understand the specifics of the business that one is about to start. This is where its often useful to work for a short time in a similar business, Practical, therefore, is a necessity students desired choice of vocation. Entrepreneurial tailored to blend with the theory in order that each complements the other to promote the development of personal qualities such as creativity, risk-taking and responsibility.
The desired blend should provide the technical and vocational skills that are needed by graduates in order to start new business (Nwanosike Oko, 2014). What are entrepreneurs offer to their country Entrepreneurship can influence the economy of a country in various ways. Discussed below are some of the ways entrepreneurs are beneficial to their country. Entrepreneurs seek to resolve economic problems by making available products and services needed by the country. These commodities are made possible through entrepreneurs active innovations to the market leading to increased productivity and intensified competition among the various industries within the economy. Entrepreneurship makes use of the countrys resources by bringing factors of production to active use and creating value. Identifying invention then converting it to commercial value from entrepreneurs enable new markets to be developed and create job opportunities in their countries.
When an entrepreneur starts a venture, he must employ people to work with him, as time passes the business venture may need to expand and therefore employ more people thereby creating more job opportunities in their country. Entrepreneurs strive for solution, innovation and create wealth putting together the factors of production needed to produce, offer and sell desired products and services. They invest and risk the resources available to them to generate wealth for themselves and their country. By creating job opportunities for people, an entrepreneur provides wealth to the people. With their innovation, the use of countrys resource, market competition, payment of levies, duties and tax generated wealth for their country. (Seth 2015.) Entrepreneurs reshape quality of life and economic value by modifying the traditional method of system and technology used to create efficiency. For example, smartphones have revolutionised work and play all over the world. As the growth of the mobile industry shows, technological entrepreneurship will have profound, long-lasting impacts on the entire human race. Another example is the supply of water in an area without water with a low-cost, flow-based pump that can build in peoples homes automatically. This kind of innovation will improve the quality of life of people and ensure that they are more focused on their core jobs without worrying about base need like water. Entrepreneurial activities provide strength to the small business, healthy market competition which in turn ensure that the best product and service are available to the people. Some other ways the entrepreneur can impact the economy of a country are proper utilisation of resources, the creation of new business, community development and addition to national income. Entrepreneurs are the heart of any countrys economy, and a country that invests in entrepreneurship has a better chance of an improved economy. (Seth 2015.) 2.2.7 Entrepreneurial Development and Paid Job Entrepreneurs are business persons who have evolved from being merely business owners to successful business leaders. Difference between an entrepreneur and employee attempt to determine which of the two gives the best offer. Although this study tries to examine differences between an entrepreneurial and a paid job, it isnt intended to give a bias description of an employee. Moreover, companies and enterprises cannot operate without employees. The purpose of this comparison is to readers decide what choice they needs to fully succeed in his life as a complete human being. The entrepreneur described in this study is not just a self-employed person or one who merely owns a business, but a real entrepreneur who has transformed his business into a true entrepreneurship. There are many factors to be considered in choosing the best occupation for us. It doesnt only include personal considerations, but also national consideration, such as the economic condition of our country. Like in the Nigeria there need more entrepreneurs who will strongly promote capital, create more wealth, and provide more employment in the country. But again the choice lies in the youth entrepreneurial ability and intent. In the business world, an entrepreneur identifies a new business venture, comes up with the required resources and takes all of the risk in starting this company. Some refer to entrepreneurs as self-employed, since they work for themselves and do not rely on others for a pay cheque. Many business owners take this risk because they no longer wish to associate themselves with the corporate world. As an employee, these individuals would receive the same financial reward, no matter how well the company does. By taking the leap and becoming an entrepreneur, however, these individuals have the chance to make unlimited income, depending on the success of the company. Some people feel safer in a role as an employee, since a steady pay cheque arrives each week. As long as these people do not lose their jobs or the business stays afloat, they will continue to receive payment for each days work. For an entrepreneur, no such guarantee exists, since payment depends on how much the business profits. Some view being an Entrepreneur as taking unnecessary risks but what it really comes down to is a certain mentality and way of life that not everyone is built for. Employees are threatened by people smarter than them Entrepreneurs try to get them on payroll. The corporate world is survival of the fittest and if you arent the smartest or hardest working person in your department you will see people leap frog you for promotions. Employees view the smarter people as competitors where Entrepreneurs mind-set is one that attracts success. Steve Jobs has been quoted saying that he would always be looking for people smarter than him and convince them to come work for him. Next up is the concept of a perfect work/life balance. Employees punch a clock and when they leave the work environment they are officially off duty and it is time with friends and family. They are always chasing the dream of a perfect balance between work and life. Entrepreneurs cant live in this fantasy land because it isnt realistically achievable. At different times throughout life or during a start-up one of these will always take precedence over the other. It isnt fair sometimes to our families or friends, but we cant help it Its like asking a heroin addict of 30 years to stop cold turkey, withdraw will eat us alive. Entrepreneurs are looking to fit 30 years of work into a 15 year span so they can retire early and find true wealth. Not riches, but wealth. There is a difference. Amount of Hours Worked As an employee an average full time job consists of 40 hours per week. You go into work, keep busy for eight hours, and come home. After factoring in your commute, the time youre committing to your day job maybe a little bit higher. As an entrepreneur your hours will vary greatly. When youre first starting up your business you may put in 60 -80 hours of work per week. But once you establish yourself and/or outsource parts of your business the amount of hours you work can be greatly reduced. Also, you may be able to replace the income from your day job in much less time than 40 hours giving you a significant amount of free time if you dont wish to increase your workload. Work/Life Balance As an employee when you clock out youre done with work. You can go home to your family and forget about your job. When youre working for yourself it can be really hard to get out of work mode. Especially one you work at home. Your computer and phone are always near you and its so tempting to check your email or do a little more work. The advantage is that depending on your business, you may get to work fewer hours than an employee would and therefore get to spend more time with your family and friends. Work Stress As an employee my stress level was always pretty low. I went into work, knew what was expected of me, put in my hours, and came home. As an employee you dont have to worry about where your next pay cheque is coming from or running the daily operations of a business. When you work for yourself, especially when you just get started, youre a one man (or woman) team. Your pay fluctuates and if you dont build multiple streams of income it can diminish overnight. You also have to wear many hats. You have to provide a product or service, market, network, find suitable employees when necessary, and be your own accountant. The direction of your business is up to you. This is exciting and stressful. In my opinion theres a clear cut winner here being an entrepreneur is more stressful than being an employee. General Work Life This is similar to work stress. As an employee you know whats expected of you. A lot of employees put in their time and go home. They dont go the extra mile, especially if the extra mile isnt going to get them anywhere. As an entrepreneur its up to you to earn your own. Nobody is going to earn money for you. If you want to get paid you work. The amount of work you do and your product or service will be the determining factor in how much money you bring in. You have deadlines to meet. So it doesnt matter if you dont feel like doing much work on a particular day. You have to or you risk losing an income source. Money Now to the big one money. As an employee your income is limited. You put in your required hours and in return you get a pay cheque for the same amount each week. Sure, you can move up the chain at work but eventually your income will be capped. As an entrepreneur the possibilities are endless. The amount of money you bring in and the rate your business grows is all up to you. The sky really is the limit. 2.2.8 Challenges of Entrepreneurship Development in Ibadan A number of challenges had been observed to hinder the growth and development of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria. These no doubt has adverse effect on unemployment among the youths in our society. They are Social/Cultural attitudes of Youths The fear to take risk and the stigma of failure are key factors why young people dont engage in entrepreneurship. Some who engage in small scale business usually discontinue after a little while if it does not prosper as they wish. Many are highly inpatient to see their business grow at a snail speed. The entrepreneurship culture of taking risk is not built in them and to develop it overnight had been a great challenge. The influx of foreign goods into the local market and corresponding unfortunate development of the uncontrollable local demand for foreign goods are disincentives that militate against the growth of start-up business by youths. Entrepreneurship Education Most Nigeria youths do not have access to entrepreneurship training materials, teachers, and equipment. The learning environment and support tools are not available in our schools. Adequate teachers to provide the needed appropriate skills and attitudes are not available. The entrepreneurship programs are not included in the school curricular. The current educational system although to some extent teaches entrepreneurship, does not promote youth entrepreneurship development in any sense. A comprehensive entrepreneurship education in all discipline should be introduced so that all disciplines can learn how to make money on their own without seeking for jobs. It is generally observed that when a business is seen to be flourishing everybody then divert to it. If after sometime the business is flooded and it is no longer flourishing people rush out of it again. As a result of this entrepreneurship becomes a failure. Poor saving Culture among the Youth Poor saving culture among the youth serves as a major setback for accessing credit for start-ups. Young people hoping to be entrepreneurs must be made to understand that commercial banks and lending institutions are there primarily to protect and add value to shareholders investment. They are neither charity institutions nor funding agencies. To access funds, therefore they must prove to such banks that they own equities in their enterprises rather than expecting full scale financing of their enterprises. The idea of taking loans with the mind-set of not willing to pay back possibly because it is government money is also very common among Nigerians both youth and adults. Some micro finance institutions had been indebted while some ventures like this championed by the government had failed because those who take such loans failed to pay back. The loan which is supposed to revolve is no longer revolving because of indebtedness as such necessary financial assistance could not be given to deserving entrepreneurs. Get Rich Quick Menace The desire for quick riches and material gains by young Nigerians has made the initiation of their enterprises unattractive and delaying. Youths of nowadays are too ambitions to get rich quick. They look for money by all means either through robbery, prostitution, stealing etc. Rather than investing what they have, they buy big cars, live flamboyant life, build house at the expense of expanding their business. What some adults spent many years to achieve is what they will want to do within a very short time. This could pose a big challenge on their entrepreneurship development. Economic, Social and Political Factors Economic factors such as policy reversals, high and double taxation, difficulty in procuring licenses, high inflation, and unstable exchange rates are some concern areas for potential entrepreneurs. Registering business is also incredibly difficult. Politically, some governments policies favour friends and associations especially when it comes to awarding government contract and other benefits this result in social malaise from systemic corruption which dissuades many people from venturing into business. Frustrated youth look away from entrepreneurship and turn to the public sector where they are certain they will collect their pay at the end of every month without the worries associated with running a business. 2.2.9 Development Institution for Entrepreneurship in Nigeria It has to be said that various programs and institutions have been initiated in the past by both military and civilian administrations in the country aimed at functional entrepreneurship, skill acquisition, job creation, poverty reduction, wealth creation, food adequacy, reduction of unemployment, youth empowerment and reduction of crime in the society. The success rate of these programs could be best imagined than discussed. However, they have become historical records with lessons to draw from them. Some of them include Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), Green Revolution, National Directorate of Employment (NDE), Directorate of Foods, Roads, and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI), Oil Minerals Producing Areas Development Commission (OMPADEC), Mass Transit Programmes, National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS), The New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD), Industrial Training Fund (ITF), The Education Tax Fund (ETF) (Now TETFund) Cooperate Affairs Commission (CAC), The Industrial Development Centres (IDCs), National Open Apprenticeship Scheme (NOAS), Waste to Wealth Scheme (WWS), Small Scale Industries and Graduate Employment Programme (SSI/GEP), Agricultural Sector Employment Programme (ASEP) National Economic Reconstruction Fund (NERFUND) Peoples Bank of Nigeria (PBN), Micro Finance Banks (MFB) etc. The organizations and programmes stated above have been established by both the federal and state governments. The CAC performs the registration of entrepreneurship business name and other related roles, for private individuals and groups. The Industrial Development Centres (IDC) aim at promoting and developing entrepreneurs in Nigeria, this is achieved through training, technical advice on machinery and equipment, manager advice in the area of marketing, finance, credit arrangements, preparation of feasibility studies or business plan, creating training opportunities for the unemployed youths in the society, encouraging the conversion of waste products to useful sellable products, providing funds and loans to entrepreneurs after training. These organizations and programmes were in existence to combat mass unemployment, development of work programs for a pool of entrepreneurs, encouraging self-employment, creating employment for others, up-grading the social status of youths in Nigeria, offering consultancy services (usually to advice on problem areas) at implementation stages of development to other non-economic ventures. 2.2.10 Entrepreneurial and Empowerment Programs in Nigeria There is no doubt that what needs to be done now for us as a nation to win and enjoy the future is to immediately invest in youth entrepreneurship and empowerment since our population currently is youth dominated and inclined. But the big question remains has the entrepreneurial path and empowerment programs for the youths not been accessed in Nigeria. If yes, why the gaps of failure and what needs to be done to reassess as well as restructure the strategy and design. Here there is urgent need to evaluate critically some the entrepreneurial and empowerment programs floated by successive Nigerian governments empowerment interventions probably adjudged noble at conception but with little closing impact on the youth group. Idam, (2014) unequivocally contends that Nigerian governments, particularly since the structural adjustment programme of mid 1980s, have put in place policies and programs aimed at entrepreneurship development, as a means of employment generation, poverty alleviation and rapid economic development in Nigeria. Small nd Medium Industries Equity Investment Scheme (SMIEIS) It was the bankers decision mainstreamed by the Central Bank of Nigeria in 1999 that this youth entrepreneurial/empowerment program came to life. (Central Bank of Nigeria, 2003). The scheme was designed for all banks in the federation to set aside 10 of their profit after tax for investment in small and medium enterprises, Nigerian Agricultural Co-Operative Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) To continue to support entrepreneurship especially amongst the Nigerian youths, three Federal Government development finance institutions namely, The Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative Bank (NACB), Peoples Bank (PB) and Family Economic Advancement Program (FEAP) were merged in 2000 to form NACRDB, which took off in 2001 with authorized capital of N1billion (Central Bank of Nigeria, 2011). The three merged institutions were rural based, with similar functions of providing easy-to-access credit facilities and agricultural inputs to rural farmers, cooperative societies and small businesses (Idam, 2014), Bank f Industry The BOI was established by the Federal Government of Nigeria in 2000 by the merger of Nigerian industrial development bank (nidb), the nigerian bank for commerce and industry (nbci) and national economic reconstruction fund (nerfund). boi officially perform the functions of these former three finance institutions. (Central Bank of Nigeria, 2001), National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy Needs is a strategic intervention of the Nigerian government to alleviate poverty especially amongst the rural dwellers. It rests on four key pillars, one of which is Growing the Private Sector. Private sector is widely considered as the engine of economic growth of a nation. It is under this aegis that the Nigerian Universities Commission initiated curriculum academic plan to produce entrepreneurial graduates who will drive the private sector economy. (NUC, 2004), Small and Mediums Enterprises Development Agency Of Nigeria (Smedan) Established by Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency Act of 2003, the Agency has the mandate to stimulate, monitor and coordinate the development of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in Nigeria, by initiating and articulating policies, programmes, instruments and support services for the development of MSMEs subsector. (Egwu, 2014), Youth Enterprise with Innovation in Nigeria (Youwin) YouWin entrepreneurship program is one of the latest empowerment initiatives of the Federal Republic of Nigeria aimed at developing entrepreneurship in Nigeria. It is targeted at job creation and youth empowerment. (YouWin, 2013). Youths between ages 18 to 45 years compete for award of N1 million to N10 million to execute their business ideas. The first competition was held in 2011, with 1200 successful businesses. The second involved only women while the third will feature both men and women entrepreneurs in Nigeria within the age bracket. (YouWin, 2013), Microfinance Bank Microfinance institution was established by the Central Bank of Nigeria and same was revised in 2011. The Microfinance Policy, Regulatory and Supervisory framework transformed community banks into microfinance institutions with the aim of meeting specified targets. The microfinance institutions were strategized to provide empowerment loans for entrepreneurship growth especially amongst the urban and rural youths at affordable interest rate, Commercial Agriculture Credit Scheme (Cacs) N200 billion Commercial Agriculture Credit Scheme was inaugurated by the Federal Government to provide alternative entrepreneurial arrangement for the youths along the agriculture value chain in addition to the older Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (ACGS). The CACS has disbursed over N158.39 billion for 203 projects owned by 175 private promoters and 27 state governments and the FCTA, with 5.910 jobs created, Npower The N200 billion Small Medium Scale Enterprises Guarantee Scheme (SMECGS) was equally gazetted by the Federal Government through CBN as intervention fund for entrepreneurship engagement especially amongst the youths. In barely two year, the scheme has distributed over N1 billion to 20 qualified applicants with attendant boosts in business and employment generation, Skill-Based Theories of Second-Language Acquisition Skill-based theories of second-language acquisition are HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theories_of_second-language_acquisition o Theories of second-language acquisition theories of HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second-language_acquisition o Second-language acquisition second-language acquisition based on models of HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.phptitleSkill_acquisitionactioneditredlink1 o Skill acquisition (page does not exist) skill acquisition in HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_psychology o Cognitive psychology cognitive psychology. These theories conceive of second-language acquisition as being learned in the same way as any other skill, such as learning to drive a car or play the piano. That is, they see practice as the key ingredient of language acquisition. The most well-known of these theories is based on HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Robert_Anderson_28psychologist29 o John Robert Anderson (psychologist) John Andersons HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptive_control_of_thought o Adaptive control of thought adaptive control of thought model, according to HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skill-based_theories_of_second-language_acquisition l CITEREFVanPattenBenati2010 VanPatten and Benati (2010).Adaptive Control of Thought The adaptive control of thought model assumes a distinction between ( HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declarative_knowledge o Declarative knowledge declarative knowledge), knowledge that is conscious and consists of facts ( HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skill-based_theories_of_second-language_acquisition l CITEREFRichardsSchmidt2009 Richards Schmidt 2009)and ( HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procedural_knowledge o Procedural knowledge procedural knowledge), knowledge of how an activity is done ( HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skill-based_theories_of_second-language_acquisition l CITEREFRichardsSchmidt2009 Richards Schmidt 20090.In this model, skill acquisition is seen as a progression from declarative to procedural knowledge. ( HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skill-based_theories_of_second-language_acquisition l CITEREFRichardsSchmidt2009 Richards Schmidt 2009). Adaptive control of thought is a general model of cognition, and second-language acquisition is just one application of a wide area of research in cognitive psychology. ( HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skill-based_theories_of_second-language_acquisition l CITEREFVanPattenBenati2010 VanPatten Benati 2010) Second-language acquisition is seen as a progression through three stages, declarative, procedural, and autonomous. ( HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skill-based_theories_of_second-language_acquisition l CITEREFVanPattenBenati2010 VanPatten Benati 2010). 2.3 Empirical Review 2.3.1 Influence of NYSCs skill acquisition and entrepreneurship development of graduate in Nigeria Unemployment (or joblessness), as defined by the International Labour Organization, occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively sought work within the past four weeks. In a 2011 news story, BusinessWeek reported, that more than 200 million people globally are out of work, a record high, as almost two-thirds of advanced economies and half of developing countries are experiencing a slowdown in employment growth. There remains considerable theoretical debate regarding the causes, consequences and solutions for unemployment. Classical economics, neoclassical economics and the Austrian School of economics argue that market mechanisms are reliable means of resolving unemployment. These theories argue against interventions imposed on the labour market from the outside, such as unionization, minimum wage laws, taxes, and other regulations that they claim discourage the hiring of workers. Keynesian economics emphasizes the cyclical nature of unemployment and recommends interventions which it claims will reduce unemployment during recessions. This theory focuses on recurrent supply shocks that suddenly reduce aggregate demand for goods and services and thus reduce demand for workers. Keynesian models recommend government interventions designed to increase demand for workers these can include financial stimuli, publicly funded job creation, and expansionist monetary policies. These financial stimuli, publicly job creation and expansionist monetary policies are what Schumpeter argued will enable entrepreneurship to create jobs and help quell unemployment crisis in any economy. There is a relationship between the classical economists and Schumpeter and his cohorts in the theory of entrepreneurship hence many entrepreneurial theoretical insights have come from economics including a rediscovery of the work of Schumpeter. While the explanations of entrepreneurship have adopted different theoretical assumptions, most of these concern three central features of entrepreneurial phenomena the nature of entrepreneurial opportunities, the nature of entrepreneurs as individuals, and the nature of the decision making context within which entrepreneurs operate. Therefore, the theoretical foundation of this paper is based on the psychological theories of the Refugee and Schumpeter effects. These theories posit that the ability to make good judgment about the future leads an individual to become a successful entrepreneur. The need for achievement psychological approach of McClelland was particularly dominant in driving people for entrepreneurship. According to McClelland (1987), motives seem to influence the individual to select entrepreneurial career. He opines that the presumed mechanism by which achievement level translate itself into economic growth is the entrepreneurial class. If the need for achievement is high, there will be more people who behave like entrepreneurs (Islam, 1989, Raimi, 2010). The second theory is Richard Cantillon and John Stuart Mills psychological theory of entrepreneurship, otherwise called risk taking theory (RTT). The theory considers entrepreneurship as a mentality to take chance or calculated risk, because people taking a very big risk also have a great responsibility (Alam and Hossan, 2003, sexton and Bowntown 1983). This fact can be observed in the avalanche of misplaced risky undertakings of unemployed Nigerian youth in order to engage themselves the forms of hostage taking, kidnapping, pipeline vandalism, and economic sabotage, internet frauds and bombing. This fact was corroborated by Aduba (2011) reporting for the Akwa Ibom State government as saying that one of the major factors of restiveness in the Niger Delta region is high rate of unemployment. The traits of creativity, risk-loving, innovation, strategic thinking and constructive engagement against the government by discontented Nigerians could as well be directed to entrepreneurship development (Raimi, 2010). Many scholars have written widely on entrepreneurship and its potency to generate employment, thus, underscoring the quintessence, significance and relevance of this sub-sector in the development of any given economy. The experiences of developed economies in relation to the roles played by entrepreneurship buttresses the fact that the importance of entrepreneurship cannot be overemphasized especially among the Developing Countries. In order to highlight its significance in relation to the growth and development of a given economy, entrepreneurship has been variously referred to as a source of employment generation. This is because Entrepreneurial activities have been found to be capable of making positive impacts on the economy of a nation and the quality of life of the people (Adejumo, 2000). Studies have established its positive relationship with stimulation of economic growth employment generation and empowerment of the disadvantaged segment of the population, which include women and the poor (Oluremi and Gbenga, 2011 Thomas and Mueller, 2000 Reynolds, 1987). Nigeria as a country has numerous business and investment potentials due to the abundant, vibrant and dynamic human and natural resources it possesses. Tapping these resources require the ability to identify potentially useful and economically viable fields of endeavours. Nigerians have made their marks in diverse fields such as science, technology, academics, business and entertainment. Thus, entrepreneurship activities and innovative ingenuity in Nigeria have developed enterprises in the following areas. Agricultural/agro-allied activities where there are foodstuffs, restaurants, fast food vending etc. In the area of solid minerals, there are quarrying, germ stone cutting/polishing and crushing engineering. In power and transport, there are power generations, Haulage business (cargo and passengers). In the area of information and telecom business, there are manufacturing and repairs of GSM accessories and the printing and selling of Recharge cards. In hospitality and tourism business, there are hotels, accommodation, resorts centres, film and home video production in oil and gas business, there are construction and maintenance of pipelines, drilling, refining bye products. In the area of environmental and waste management business, there is refuse collection/disposal, recyclement, and drainage/sewage construction job. In the area of financial banking services, there are banking, insurance and stock trading. In engineering and fabrication work, there are machines and tools fabrications. There is also the building and construction, where there are plan and design services and material sourcing (Agbeze, 2012). These human and natural resources notwithstanding, Nigeria is still one of the poorest countries in the world and has one of the highest rates of youth unemployment in sub-Sahara Africa, and despite its alleged strong economic growth Chukwubuikem (2008) notes that youths full-time unemployment rate for 2006-2008 was 55.9 percent, 4 time higher (Salami, 2011). Many other countries have been able to energize and transform entrepreneurship sub-sector to such a vibrant one that they have been able to reduce to the barest minimum their unemployment and poverty level because of the immense contribution of the sub-sector to their economic growth and development, but such cannot be said of Nigeria (Onugu, 2005). In respect of the above sad and deplorable situation, the government has done little to reduce the misery and frustrations of the citizenry. This has foisted a state of hopelessness on majority of young people who have resorted to any means including crime to succeed in life. They resort to vices because they are not gainfully engaged. In other words, they are unemployed unemployed, not because they lack the qualification but because the system has been crippled politically, economically, socio-culturally and even religiously. People especially youths and graduates became displaced economically (Kuratko, 2009), a situation that clearly negates the Millennium Development Goals for 2015, I and II to halve the proportion of people living in extreme poverty and to halve the proportion of people suffering from hunger respectively. The dexterity with which hunger and poverty have devastated lives and future ambition of youths especially graduates in Nigeria, have led to scholars prescribing entrepreneurship development as the permanent cure for extreme hunger and poverty necessitated by unemployment hence economic displacement is one of the external forces that influence the development of entrepreneurship. The great need for entrepreneurship development in Nigeria today, more than ever, is necessitated by the rate of unemployment and its effect on both the people and the nation and the need for small and medium enterprises. In spite of the fact that entrepreneurship development has been regarded as the bulwark for employment generation and technological development in Nigeria, the sector nevertheless has had its own fair share of neglect with concomitant unpleasant impacts on the economy. Against this backdrop, entrepreneurship when and if gallantly developed in Nigeria will take its pride of place in quelling unemployment and thus generating employment among Nigerian youths especially the graduates and once again, place the economy on a proper footing. It is in this respect that this paper seeks to investigate the connection between entrepreneurship and employment generation in Nigeria assessing the level of unemployment in Nigeria and how far entrepreneurship has thrived, and also examines the major problems of entrepreneurship and thus proposing some plausible strategies that can promote effective entrepreneurship that will help quell unemployment and thus generate employment for the Nigerian youths especially. 2.3.2 Entrepreneurship development programme and entrepreneurship development of graduate in Nigeria Anietie (2012) investigated the issues and challenges to the growth of entrepreneurship in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Based on the findings, Anietie concludes that entrepreneurship in the Niger Delta region is at its lowest ebb. In other words, a number of practicing and the would be entrepreneurs are faced with great difficulties in their entrepreneurial pursuit. These difficulties are occasioned by poor state of infrastructure, difficulty in accessing finance, socio-cultural factors such as superstitious believes and ignorance. Anietie then recommends that a rural- development programme such as Entrepreneurial Skills Development (ESD) and institutions such as Small Business Development Centers (SBDC) should be established to educate villagers/Niger Deltans on the need for and advantages of innovations in their economically productive activities such as entrepreneurship while government is advised to shift its efforts and policies toward addressing these impediments especially the inadequate and deteriorated state of infrastructural facilities which are at the cradle of any meaningful advancement in entrepreneurship. Duru (2011) examines Entrepreneurship opportunities and challenges in Nigeria. The paper sees entrepreneurship as the process of creating something new with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, with the accompanying financial and social risks, and receiving in return monetary rewards and personal satisfaction and independence. Duru finds out that there is increasing interest on Entrepreneurship by consumers, business people and government officials which is manifested in increasing research on the subject and the realization that it quickens the process of industrialization, employment creation and poverty reduction. The analytical tool adopted for this paper is descriptive method, which centered on looking at the different theories of entrepreneurship and drawing inferences from them. The paper identified three main ingredients that can facilitate entrepreneurship opportunities in Nigeria. It include Creating a Vision, Leveraging Your Strength, and Figuring out What the Market s Needs. Duru concludes that entrepreneurship is essential for rapid and sustained economic growth and development. It creates the required Man power and skills necessary for accelerated growth, reduce unemployment and poverty. It is therefore strategic and wise for Nigeria to assign a significant and increasing role to entrepreneurship in their effort to revamp the economy. Duru recommends that for entrepreneurs to be effective in creating wealth and employment opportunities. The government needs to create an investor-friendly environment encompassing stable macro- economic policies. Government need to address urgently the dilapidated infrastructural facilities in the country, starting with the power sector, roads and railways, provide adequate security and give every citizen the sense of belonging. The educational sector needs to be revamped with emphasis on science and technology. There is need to change the mind set of young people to embrace self employment rather than waiting for non-existing government job. Lastly, there is the need to ensure that those with innovative ideas are provided with the financial support to translate such ideas into reality. CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Results Research Questions One What are the available skills graduate are been exposed to during NYSCs (SAED) programme Table 4.1 Available Skills during NYSCs (SAED) Programme S/NSkill Exposed toFrequencyMeanSt. Dev1Education 45220.127.116.1192Environment 189.01.090.2873Food processing and preservation2613.01.130.3374Culture and tourism3216.01.160.3685Cosmetology 3015.01.150.3586Information and communication 2518.104.22.16827Construction 189.01.090.2878Horticulture and landscaping157.51.070.2649Power and energy147.01.070.25610Film and photography20101.100.30011Automobile52.51.020.15712Agro-allied2322.214.171.1249 Table 4.1 shows the available skills graduate are been exposed to during NYSCs (SAED) programme. It is shown in the table that 45 (22.5) of the respondents indicated that they are exposed to educational skill, 32 (16) are exposed to culture and tourism, 30 (15) are exposed to cosmetology. However, skills that received lower patronage among graduates during NYSCs (SAED) programme indicated in the table are horticulture and landscaping 15 (7.5), power and energy 14 (7) and 5 (2.5) indicated power and energy. Other skills are as shown in Table 4.1 Research Questions Two Is there any benefits derived from NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) by graduates Table 4.2 Benefits of NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) S/NBenefit of NYSCs SAEDSAADSDMSD1The programme promotes self-reliant and independent114 5767 33.519 9.5-3.480.6642The programme reduces criminal behaviours48 24128 6420 104 23.100.6423The programme exposes graduate to wealth creation65 32.5105 52.529 14.41 0.53.170.6814The programme helps participants to become resourceful person in life87 43.587 43.523 11.53 1.53.290.7275The programme inculcates entrepreneurial skills in graduates95 47.569 34.530 156 33.270.8246It promotes risk taking in business ventures70 3581 40.546 233 1.53.090.7977It increases the level of productivity and persistence of the business ventures55 27.102 5140 203 1.53.050.7328It makes the youth to become innovator and value creator in his or her community66 33112 5619 9.53 126.96.36.19979It makes graduates to be self-employed81 40.593 46.523 11.53 1.53.260.718 Table 4.2 shows the benefits derived from NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) by graduates. The table revealed that 114 (57) strongly agreed that the programme promotes self-reliant and independence as against 19 (9.5) who disagreed with the item. 95 (47.5) strongly agreed that the programme inculcates entrepreneurial skills in graduates. Also, 87 (43.5) strongly agreed that the programme helps participants to become resourceful person in life as against 3 (1.5) who disagreed to the statement. However, 46 (23) disagreed that the programme promotes risk taking in business ventures and 40 (20) disagreed that the programme increases the level of productivity and persistence of the business ventures. Other benefits derived from NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) by graduates as indicated by the respondents are that it promotes community development, reduction of pressure on the job creation by government, provision of financial freedom, addition of value to Nigerian youth, promotion of professionalism and healthy competition among others. Research Questions Three What is the relative contribution of NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme towards Entrepreneurship Development graduates Table 4.3 Contribution of NYSCs SAED towards Entrepreneurship Development of Graduates S/NContributionsYesNoMSD1I listen to ideas from people of wide spectrum of background189 94.511 5.51.950.2292I jot down every ideas that comes to my mind139 69.561 30.51.690.4623I see positive outcome of business161 80.539 19.51.810.3974I visit places of interest often for ideas generation154 7746 231.770.4225I banish fear of failure160 8040 201.800.4016I see mistakes and failure as mere stops on the way to success163 81.537 18.51.810.3897I always ask the question for better way151 75.549 24.51.760.4318I have the ability to rise above the daily routines170 8530 151.850.3589I see failure as the chance to learn how to succeed177 88.523 11.51.880.31910I see opportunity around to improve my well being184 9216 81.920.272 Table 4.3 shows the relative contribution of NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme towards Entrepreneurship Development graduates. It is shown in the table that 189(94.5) listen to ideas from people from wide spectrum of background. 184(92) see opportunity around to improve their well-being. Also, 177(88.5) see failure as the chance to learn how to succeed and 170 (85) have the ability to rise above the daily routines among others. Research Questions Four What are the perceived problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates Table 4.4 Perceived Problems of the NYSCs SAED S/NProblems of NYSCs SAEDTrueFalseMSD1Inadequate provision of time for the programme in NYSC curriculum164 8236 181.820.3822Poor support from parent and guardian120 6080 401.600.4913Long distance to cover to access a desired skill programme during NYSC service year147 73.553 26.51.740.4424Language barrier between the programme facilitators and graduates105 52.595 47.51.530.5015Poor attitude of graduates towards the programme157 78.543 21.51.790.4126Unstable power supply do not encourage innovation of new ideas125 62.575 37.51.630.4857Poor monitoring by NYSC officials156 7844 221.780.4158High cost demanded for the training by external facilitators140 7060 301.700.4599No specific NYSCs skills acquisition and entrepreneurship development(SAED) programme centre for trainee136 6864 321.680.46810Lack of resource persons in NYSCs skills acquisition and entrepreneurship development programme131 65.569 34.51.660.477 Table 4.4 shows the perceived problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. The table revealed that 164 (82) indicated that truly inadequate provision of time for the programme in NYSC curriculum is a problem of NYSCs skill acquisition entrepreneurship development(SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates as against 36 (18) who indicated that the item is false. 157 (78.5) indicated that truly poor attitude of graduates towards the programme is another problem of NYSCs skill acquisition entrepreneurship development(SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates as against 43 (21.5) who indicated the item is false. Also, 156 (78) indicated truly poor monitoring by NYSC officials is a problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates as against 44 (22) who indicated the item is false. However, 95 (47.5) of the respondent indicated that it is not true that language barrier between the programme facilitators and graduates is a problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates and 80 (40) indicated that it is not also true that poor support from parent and guardian is a problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Other problems perceived during NYSCs skill acquisition and entrepreneurship development (SAED) programme indicated are high cost of training materials, no specific time for the training, no long-term vision for the programme by both the corps member and the government among others Research Questions Five What are the suggested solution to solve the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates Table 4.5 Solutions so the Problems of NYSCs SAED S/NSolutions SAADSDMSD1Development of a friendly and less rigorous condition for assessing micro-credit required to start business by corps members123 61.564 324 29 4.53.500.7512Training and re-training of NYSCs staff for effective management of the programme for sustainability72 36119 59.5-9 4.53.270.6853Provision of well-equipped skill centre for post camp training104 5267 33.520 109 4.53.330.8334There should be enough time for the training during the service69 34.595 47.521 10.515 7.53.090.8645There should be effective support for monitoring, supervision and evaluation of corpers entrepreneur activities109 54.569 34.510 512 63.380.8356More awareness of the programme should be made on social media64 3298 49266 1312 63.070.8297Government should make company law/fiscal policy that will suite the youth entrepreneurial106 5363 31.519 9.512 63.320.8778Recorded video and other materials on entrepreneurship should be available for further studies on various skills90 4588 4413 6.59 4.53.290.7829Good internet facilities should be provided94 4782 419 4.515 188.8.131.522Table 4.5 shows the suggested solution to solving the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. The table indicated 123 (61.5) strongly agreed that development of a friendly and less rigorous condition for assessing micro-credit required to start business by corps members is a solution to solving the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates as against 9 (4.5) who strongly disagreed to the item. 109 (54.5) strongly agreed that there should be effective support for monitoring, supervision and evaluation of corpers entrepreneur activities is another solution to solving the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates as against 12 (6) who strongly disagreed to the statement. Also, 106(53) strongly agreed that government should make company law/fiscal policy that will suite the youth entrepreneurial is another solution to solving the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates as against 12 (6) who strongly disagreed to the statement. And 104(52) strongly agreed that provision of well-equipped skill centre for post camp training is another solution to solving the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates as against 9 (4.5) who strongly disagreed to the statement. Other solution to solving the challenges of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates are setting up of after-training compensation in form of seed capital from government, follow-up after NYSC for continuity, grading of performance during training, opportunity for multiple choice of skills among others. 4.2 Discussion of Findings Finding on the available skills graduate are been exposed to during NYSCs (SAED) programme shows that they are exposed to educational skill, culture and tourism, cosmetology highly. However, skills that received lower patronage among graduates during NYSCs (SAED) programme indicated in the finding are horticulture and landscaping, power and energy. The finding of this study is in line with that of Agbeze (2012) who submitted that Nigeria as a country has numerous business and investment potentials due to the abundant, vibrant and dynamic human and natural resources it possesses. Tapping these resources require the ability to identify potentially useful and economically viable fields of endeavours. Nigerians have made their marks in diverse fields such as science, technology, academics, business and entertainment. Thus, entrepreneurship activities and innovative ingenuity in Nigeria have developed enterprises in the following areas. Agricultural/agro-allied activities where there are foodstuffs, restaurants, fast food vending etc. In the area of solid minerals, there are quarrying, germ stone cutting/polishing and crushing engineering. In power and transport, there are power generations, Haulage business (cargo and passengers). In the area of information and telecom business, there are manufacturing and repairs of GSM accessories and the printing and selling of Recharge cards. The finding also support that of Chukwubuikem (2008) who reported thatIn hospitality and tourism business, there are hotels, accommodation, resorts centres, film and home video production in oil and gas business, there are construction and maintenance of pipelines, drilling, refining bye products. In the area of environmental and waste management business, there is refuse collection/disposal, recyclement, and drainage/sewage construction job. In the area of financial banking services, there are banking, insurance and stock trading. In engineering and fabrication work, there are machines and tools fabrications. There is also the building and construction, where there are plan and design services and material sourcing Result on benefits derived from NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) by graduates revealed that respondents strongly agreed that the programme promotes self-reliant and independence. They also strongly agreed that the programme inculcates entrepreneurial skills in graduates. Also, the programme helps participants to become resourceful person in life. However, they disagreed that the programme promotes risk taking in business ventures and that the programme increases the level of productivity and persistence of the business ventures. Other benefits derived from NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) by graduates as indicated by the respondents are that it promotes community development, reduction of pressure on the job creation by government, provision of financial freedom, addition of value to Nigerian youth, promotion of professionalism and healthy competition among others. This result support the findings of Adejumo (2000) who reported that the experiences of developed economies in relation to the roles played by entrepreneurship buttresses the fact that the importance of entrepreneurship cannot be overemphasized especially among the developing countries. He emphasizes that in order to highlight its significance in relation to the growth and development of a given economy, entrepreneurship has been variously referred to as a source of employment generation. This is because Entrepreneurial activities have been found to be capable of making positive impacts on the economy of a nation and the quality of life of the people. The finding is also in line with that of Oluremi and Gbenga, (2011) Thomas and Mueller, (2000) and Reynolds, (1987) where it was confirmed that there is a positive relationship with stimulation of economic growth employment generation and empowerment of the disadvantaged segment of the population, which include women and the poor. Findings with respect to the relative contribution of NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme towards Entrepreneurship Development graduates indicated that corps members listen to ideas from people from wide spectrum of background and see opportunity around to improve their well-being. Also, they see failure as the chance to learn how to succeed and have the ability to rise above the daily routines among others. The findings of this study is in tune with that of Onugu (2005) who found out that many other countries have been able to energize and transform entrepreneurship sub-sector to such a vibrant one that they have been able to reduce to the barest minimum their unemployment and poverty level because of the immense contribution of the sub-sector to their economic growth and development, but such cannot be said of Nigeria. The finding is also in tandem with that of Oluremi and Gbenga, (2011) Thomas and Mueller, (2000) and Reynolds, (1987) where it was confirmed that there is a positive relationship with stimulation of economic growth employment generation and empowerment of the disadvantaged segment of the population, which include women and the poor. Finding with respect to the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates revealed that inadequate provision of time for the programme in NYSC curriculum is a problem of NYSCs skill acquisition entrepreneurship development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Poor attitude of graduates towards the programme is another problem of NYSCs skill acquisition entrepreneurship development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Also, poor monitoring by NYSC officials is a problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. However, language barrier between the programme facilitators and graduates is not a problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates and poor support from parent and guardian is also not a problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Other problems perceived during NYSCs skill acquisition and entrepreneurship development (SAED) programme indicated are high cost of training materials, no specific time for the training, no long-term vision for the programme by both the corps member and the government among others. The finding of this study is in tandem with that of Anietie (2012) who confirmed that entrepreneurship in the Niger Delta region is at its lowest ebb. In other words, a number of practicing and the would-be entrepreneurs are faced with great difficulties in their entrepreneurial pursuit. These difficulties are occasioned by poor state of infrastructure, difficulty in accessing finance, socio-cultural factors such as superstitious believes and ignorance. Result on the suggested solution to solve the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates indicated that development of a friendly and less rigorous condition for assessing micro-credit required to start business by corps members is a solution to solving the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Effective support for monitoring, supervision and evaluation of corpers entrepreneur activities is another solution to solving the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Also, government should make company law/fiscal policy that will suite the youth entrepreneurial is another solution to solving the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. And provision of well-equipped skill centre for post camp training is another solution to solving the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Other solution to solving the challenges of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates are setting up of after-training compensation in form of seed capital from government, follow-up after NYSC for continuity, grading of performance during training, opportunity for multiple choice of skills among others. Result of this study corroborates that of Duru (2011) who confirmed by identifying three main ingredients that can facilitate entrepreneurship opportunities in Nigeria. It include creating a vision, leveraging your strength, and figuring out what the markets need. The result also agree well with that of Duru (2011) who reported that the government needs to create an investor-friendly environment encompassing stable macro- economic policies. Government need to address urgently the dilapidated infrastructural facilities in the country, starting with the power sector, roads and railways, provide adequate security and give every citizen the sense of belonging. The educational sector needs to be revamped with emphasis on science and technology. Also, there is need to change the mind set of young people to embrace self-employment rather than waiting for non-existing government job. And, there is the need to ensure that those with innovative ideas are provided with the financial support to translate such ideas into reality. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMERY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Summary of the findings This study examine The Influence of NYSCs Skills Acquisition Entrepreneurship Development of graduate in Ibadan Oyo State. Finding on the available skills graduate are been exposed to during NYSCs (SAED) programme shows that they are exposed to educational skill, culture and tourism, cosmetology highly. However, skills that received lower patronage among graduates during NYSCs (SAED) programme indicated in the finding are horticulture and landscaping, power and energy.. Result on benefits derived from NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) by graduates revealed that respondents strongly agreed that the programme promotes self-reliant and independence. They also strongly agreed that the programme inculcates entrepreneurial skills in graduates. Also, the programme helps participants to become resourceful person in life. However, they disagreed that the programme promotes risk taking in business ventures and that the programme increases the level of productivity and persistence of the business ventures.. Findings with respect to the relative contribution of NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme towards Entrepreneurship Development graduates indicated that corps members listen to ideas from people from wide spectrum of background and see opportunity around to improve their well-being. Also, they see failure as the chance to learn how to succeed and have the ability to rise above the daily routines among others. Finding with respect to the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates revealed that inadequate provision of time for the programme in NYSC curriculum is a problem of NYSCs skill acquisition entrepreneurship development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Poor attitude of graduates towards the programme is another problem of NYSCs skill acquisition entrepreneurship development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Also, poor monitoring by NYSC officials is a problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Finding with respect to the problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates revealed that inadequate provision of time for the programme in NYSC curriculum is a problem of NYSCs skill acquisition entrepreneurship development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Poor attitude of graduates towards the programme is another problem of NYSCs skill acquisition entrepreneurship development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Also, poor monitoring by NYSC officials is a problems of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates. Other solution to solving the challenges of the NYSCs Skills Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in developing entrepreneurial skills among graduates are setting up of after-training compensation in form of seed capital from government, follow-up after NYSC for continuity, grading of performance during training, opportunity for multiple choice of skills among others. 5.2 Conclusion Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) programme in Nigeria. This is considering the fact that about 70 of the entire Nigerias 160 Million populace are Youths whose about 81 are unemployed majorly graduates who are from 20 years and above, affecting adversely the workforce utility of the country. It is a pity that these youths and graduate who are qualified, willing and able to work cannot find a job and as such earns nothing. They cannot handle any family or societal responsibility which mopes at them every second. Such individuals are frustrated hence a time bond. They are vulnerable and can be used by unscrupulous elements in the society to pervert all sorts of crime and mayhem, which they would outrightly abhour, however if they were productively engaged or gainfully employed A succor that entrepreneurship brings to both the individuals and the society at large. As obvious as it is that entrepreneurship is the magic wand that can change the story overtime, yet it has not been duly explored and many scholars, commentators and observers have argued that lack of capital is what drives very many people who are unemployed and wants to be self-reliant and self-employed hence inadequate access to loan schemes couple with the issue of collateral and high interest rate on loan from financial institutions, and others arguing that the problem is lack of managerial prowess and the zeal and will to take risks. However, many have argued that in all, the government have key role to play to ensure that entrepreneurship as a means of quelling unemployment thus generating more employment opportunities to the unemployed youths and get them usefully engaged of which we agree and seek to bring to the fore the need for government to put in place some measures in a bid to salvage the situation. Some of these measures include first, an auditing of all the policy programmes aimed at stimulating entrepreneurial activity to avoid duplication and clashes in spheres of operation. Also, NYSCs Skills Acquisition programmes should not be sacrificed on the altar of political expediency, rather, they should be judged by their abilities to accomplish the objectives for which they were designed. Government should get the credit institutions committed to spreading their activities beyond the comfort zones in which they currently operate. Finally, sustained education and enlightenment programmes on the opportunities that abound in the environment should be put in place. If the Nigerian government must revitalize its economy, reduce unemployment progressively, and generate more employment opportunities, a paradigm shift in policy that is critical to effective entrepreneurship development becomes imperative. 5.3 RecommendationsBased on the finding from this study the following are Recommended Following the findings of this work the authors make bold to recommend as following I. That the federal government should hasten the power sector reforms and restabilise the power sector to end the looming energy crisis in Nigeria. This is to encourage entrepreneurial activities in the country as power is a major factor in the economy, in terms of enterprise activities. That Religious, Ethnic and Political violence and crisis should be controlled by all means necessary as it displaces people and cause serious harm on their means of livelihood, many companies have left Nigeria because of violence in certain areas of the country. Therefore, by all means necessary, any act of violence should be checkmated. That there should be a process of or a program geared towards training youths in Nigeria in the act of entrepreneurship. This is in lieu of the assertion that knowledge is power. We are aware that there YOU WIN Nigeria, there is National Directorate of Employment and the inculcation of Entrepreneurial Development Course in all Higher Institutions Curriculum in Nigeria but more still need to be done as these platforms are just being institutional. They ought to be proactive and pragmatic. If they cannot fit in the prescription, a new one can be created to take their place. That there should be a government regulated means of entrepreneurial development sponsorship devoid of politics and the likes that have crippled those erstwhile attempts to encourage entrepreneurship development in Nigeria in terms of financial sponsorship as lack of access of to finance is one of the major problems of entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. 5.4 Implication of the findings 5.5 Limitation of the study The study was limited to Influence of NYSCs Skills Acquisition Entrepreneurship Development of graduate in Ibadan Oyo State the researcher was unable to extend the scope to other state in Nigeria due to enormous cost required and the time limit available for the research and other resources. 5.6 Suggestion for further study It is mostly said that a research begins from where another ends, it is expected that result of the study will open up new areas for further research. 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