Information organisation is a process of ordering, surrogating, or description information and information objects. Information Organization processes can involve the assignment of contextual metadata to documents, structuring of information objects via some document model, a creation of new materials which serve specific roles, or creation of abstracted data structures including indexes, databases, and data-objects which help the primary tasks of ordering, surrogating, and description. Information Technology plays a significant role in Information Organization practices by influencing elements of creation and use of document derivatives. Organization tasks include annotation of documents directly creation of print or electronic surrogates in the form of catalogue records, abstracts, and digital libraries, and the physical or virtual ordering or grouping of resources using the processes of categorisation and classification.
Libraries have to organise their items and the information about them in a systematic approach to facilitate the retrieval of the needed resources. The chapter focuses on the organisation of information. First, bibliographic control is defined and the data in a bibliographic record is specified. Then the role of catalogues in information organisation, the principles they rely on and how these evolved from the Cutter rules to the Paris Principles and the latest IFLA statement are discussed. Card catalogues and OPACs are examined and the concepts of cataloguing and classification are described. Finally, some cataloguing services and the main cataloguing and classification codes are introduced.
The essential code for descriptive cataloguing is the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR), first developed in 1967 and regularly updated until 2005. The revisions and updates of the standard are referred to as AACR2. RDA is a new standard for descriptive cataloguing aimed to be a replacement for AACR2. This chapter first presents the evolution of codes from Panizzi’s Rules to RDA and then focuses on the structure of AACR2. The main aim of the text is to provide an overview of the structural parts of AACR2 and the process of describing resources with the standard.
Metadata definitions sometimes focus on specific uses “structured information that feeds into automated processes” (Brand, Daly, ;
Meyers, 2003, p. 1) and sometimes on context “the total of what one can say about any information object at any level of aggregation” (Gilliland, 2000). The conception of metadata can be as general as any contextual representation of an object or, in other words, anything about anything. Wright’s definition of information, for instance, seems more appropriate for this perspective on metadata “the juxtaposition of data to create meaning” (2007, p. 10). The establishment of this relationship, while on its surface, seems somewhat trivial, can be seen to have dramatic implications on data use and re-use in both print and electronic environments. Within the context of this literature review, the investigation of this relationship between content and context, information and language, symbols and their meaning, looks to the core relationship between ideas of literacy and their impact how individuals conceptualise and use information.
Metadata creators, in their study, tend to emphasise subjects style descriptors over the descriptive fields and that business and industry metadata creators managed to create more metadata than other fields found that authors both created reasonably good metadata and valued the metadata they created. In investigating the extent of use of metadata by participants, Poore (1999) found that metadata is widely used in GIS circles and makes three key points regarding the impact of metadata on end-user efficacy in system use.
MARC Format stands for MAchine Readable Communications Format, and is usually used to refer to the way in which information regarding library information is coded. There are different, but related formats designed to record information for authority records, bibliographic data, classification information, community information and holdings data. Slightly different versions of the MARC format exist for different countries. Queen’s University uses the NOTIS USMARC format, with a few local variations.
They are two Content of MARC; Fixed fields and variable fields. Fixed fields contain certain specific elements which are represented by codes that are set in length. Fixed Fields include Leader, Directory and control fields. The Leader is the first field of a MARC record. It contains the information required to allow for the machine processing of the record. In the NOTIS system, the information in this tag appears in a staff mode record with mnemonic labels as the first line of a bibliographic record. The Directory Fields represents a series of entries that contain the tag, length, and starting location of each variable field within a record. Tag sequences these entries in increasing numerical order. The Control Fields may contain either a single data element, or a series of fixed-length data elements identified by their relative character position.
The variables Field include Indicators and subfield codes. The indicators may be represented by a blank character in one or both positions. The information in positions are interpreted independently. Subfields Codes are variables codes that are represented by two element and an alphanumeric character.
A call number is like an address: it tells us where the book is located in the library. Call numbers appear on the spines of books and journals and in the library’s catalogue. Note that the same call number can be written from top-to-bottom, or left-to-right. Subject classifies the call numbers used by the library, so you can often find several helpful books on the same shelf, or nearby. The first sections of the call number represent the subject of the book. The letter-and-decimal section of the call number typically represents the author’s last name. The last section of a call number is often the date of publication.