In1970’s the competitiveness, effectiveness & flexibility of

theorists became more focused on the study of effective behaviours. One
well-known theory is Fiedler’s (1967) contingency theory, which states that
leadership behaviours vary from situation to situation. The other one is
House’s (1971) path-goal theory that the effective leader indicates, through a
series of transactions with followers, the path they need to follow to achieve
the valued goals. Currently, the field of leadership research is in transition
regarding the essential behavior of leaders, shifting from earlier versions of
initiating structure, consideration, & transactional leaders to
transformational leaders (Posner & Kouzes, 1990). According to Oakland,
(1993) states that effective leadership is an approach to improve the
competitiveness, effectiveness & flexibility of the whole organization through
planning, organizing & allows participation of all members at the
appropriate level. The transformational leadership theory was derived from
Bums’ (1978) qualitative classification of transactional & transformational
political leaders & was extended by Bass (1985). In transactional,
leader-follower relationships are based on a chain of exchanges or bargains
between leaders & followers. On the other hand, transformational leadership
emphasizes the changes leaders instill in their needs & by providing opportunities
for them to develop capabilities (Bass, 1985). Unlike the traditional
leadership theories that focused on rational processes, the transformational
leadership theory emphasizes emotions & values (Shamir, 1999).

      Leadership Effectiveness is usually accepted as being a key component
in achieving school progress. The evidence from the international literature
demonstrates that effective leaders exercise an indirect but powerful influence
on the effectiveness of the school and on the achievement of students
(Leithwood et al 1999).  Nadarasa & Thuraisingam (2014) found that
autocratic leadership has negative impact on teachers’ job satisfaction as
compared to democratic leadership style which has positive impact on teachers’
job satisfaction. Alhourani (2013) argued that gender has not impact on
leadership effectiveness. No significant difference was established between
gender and leadership effectiveness. Thus female leaders were found as
effective in those universities as male were the research was carried.
According to UNESCO (2009), much attention has been gained by the gender issues
worldwide. The issue of inequality will only be redressed effectively by
strengthening primary & higher education management in developing
countries. To Armstrong (2004) leadership can be defined as influence, power
& authority which enable the leader to effectively transform the
organization through the direction of the human resources that are essential
organizational assets, for achieving the desired results. Teachers & support
staff include human resources. Thomas & Inkson (2004) in their findings
revealed similarities between men and women leadership behavior, & they are
effective equally. Even as the quality of education has strong influence
students achievement motivation, some researchers argue that leadership plays a
vital role in shaping the teachers motivation & class room teaching
(Fullan, 2001; Segiovanni, 2001). A preface glance at the leadership research
literature however showed that it is mostly premised upon individual drive
rather than mutual action & offers a particular view of leadership mainly
bound up with administration. Murphy (2000) stated that the ‘great man’ theory
of leadership prevails in spite of expansion towards leadership as empowerment,
change & society building. One of the most harmonious conclusions from
studies of effective leadership is that power to lead need not be located in
the person of the leader but can be dispersed within the school in between
& among people (MacBeath, 1988; Day, Harris & Hadfield; Harris,2002). In
this sense leadership is separated from person, role & status & is
largely concerned with the relationship between individuals within a school.

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      Leadership effectiveness is a topic that
continues to stimulate huge attention in common & scholarly literature
(Waldman et al 2001). Contemporary
trends & effects of globalization, democratization, commoditization &
other challenges in higher education have made the hunt of effective leadership
& governance even more relevant in the academia. Developing an undertaking
of what constitutes effective leadership, however, has been a complex
undertaking.  Effective leadership is crucial
for the overall success of any organization. Voilet, (2016) revealed that
democratic and autocratic leadership styles are very effective. Further,
administrative competences & school administrative skills of principals are
also effective. Momoh & Osagiobare (2015) found that although all quality assurance
standards were not implemented in Edo & Delta public secondary schools, but
the level of principals’ administrative effectiveness is high and performance
significantly has relation with experience. A study conducted by Adeyemi &
Bolarinwa (2013) examined principals’ leadership style and students’ academic
performance in high schools of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The results of the study
revealed that school principals use democratic style of leadership. The study
also revealed that autocratic leadership has significant relation with academic
performance of student. Furthermore,
Akinola (2013) conducted a study sought to find out the leadership skills
possessed by principals of public secondary schools in South Western Nigeria
and the relationship between these leadership skills and school effectiveness
in terms of student academic achievement. The results of the study found that
principals in south western schools of Nigeria possessed practical, interpersonal,
theatrical, & and organizational skills. Similarly, Akomolafe (2012) conducted a study to investigate the
level of administrative effectiveness of principals of public and private
secondary schools. The result of the study revealed that there was moderate
level of administrative effectiveness in public schools while there was high
level of administrative effectiveness in private secondary schools. It also
revealed that schools with high level of administrative effectiveness manifest
high level of discipline. It was recommended that the principals of public
schools should be more skillful in their administrative strategies to enhance
the level of students’ discipline. It was also recommended that private schools
should show more interest in sporting activities. Alimi, Alabi & Ehinola
(2011) conducted a study to investigate teachers’ perception of principals’ leadership
effectiveness in the important salient aspects of school management:
Pedagogical skill, Administrative skill and community relation skills
effectiveness. The results showed that there is a significant difference in the
teachers’ perception of principals’ leadership effectiveness in public and
private secondary schools, with the principals of public secondary schools
having low level of leadership effectiveness in pedagogical and community
relation skills effectiveness, but high administrative skill effectiveness
while the reverse is the case in private secondary schools.  


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