In this experiment

In this experiment, the heart rate of a person (one of our group member) with different body position, which are lay quietly, sit quietly and standing up, are counted. Based on the result, the activity lay quietly has the lowest heart rate which is 80bpm while stand up quickly after one minutes has the highest heart rate which is 108bpm. The heart rate of lay quietly is lower than the heart rate of sitting quietly which is 88bpm. This is due to lying is in a horizontal position, it neutralizes the gravity. Hence, the heart doesn’t has to work as hard as in a vertical position. Therefore, the heart rate is lower. The heart rate of stand up quickly which is 104bpm is higher than the heart rate of siting down. When you are in a vertical position which is standing, the heart has to work harder to pump the blood to all parts of the body and back to the heart against the gravity. To overcome the effects of gravity, the heart has to beat harder. The heart rate of siting down quietly is lower than the heart rate of siting down quietly after one minute which is 96bpm while the heart rate of standing up quickly after one minute of standing up which is 108bpm is slightly higher than the heart rate of standing up quickly. The heart rate of siting down quietly after one minute and standing up after one minute has higher heart rate than the heart rate before one minute. The heart rate is counted immediately after changing position. It may due to the nervous system of the person doesn’t adjust properly to a different body position. The heart doesn’t respond quickly enough to the changing of body position. Therefore, the heart rate is lower (Johnson, 2011).

In this experiment

In this experiment, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is used to detect blood glucose non – invasively in earlobe since it is thin. Beer Lambert’s law is applied for calculating amount of light absorbed by glucose and water. Additionally, light intensity ratio declares the absorbance:

Then, intensive light is converted into electric specifically in voltage (V) by using Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) photodiode detector. When light achieves to photodiode, it emits a current which will transform into voltage. Ip represents the current from the photodiode and Rf is the feedback capacitor which minimize the noise gain and keep SNR big. Additionally, op-amp also known as transimpedance amplifier (TIA) circuit which connects with photodiode to decrease high frequency noise. Photodiode voltage directly proportional to intensive light of near infrared which relates to concentration of blood glucose4.
The reason why the absorbance is converted to voltage is solutions transmit more than 90% or less than 10% incident light will deviate from Beer’s law and give unreliable results. Voltage is logarithmically related to the absorbance: A = logVo – logV5.

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