In the field of propaganda

In the field of propaganda, it is in the neutral countries where the direct confrontation between the two
sides takes place, and where each side must advertise itself in order to tip undecided minds in its favor. In
this sense, during the First World War the propaganda deployed in Spain by the belligerents was something
more than just a paper war, but one where words were supplemented by images supplied by the new
technical resources of the day. Employing different approaches, pragmatic propagandists, as well as
opportunistic and even (frustrated) idealistic ones, used all the means to hand; moreover, assisted by their
respective diplomatic services, journalists, politicians, intellectuals and professional publicists also
participated in this story. This was also a struggle marked by a clash of different principles and material
interests, also quite diverse, supported in this case by vast amounts of money that crisscrossed the face of
Spain to purchase opinion, especially that expressed in the press, for immediate reward. We shall here
address the issue from the perspective of Spain’s international relations and foreign policy during the First
World War and aim to produce some new insights based on the analysis not only of the factors governing
propaganda in Spain during the war, but also of the objectives, models and instruments of this propaganda.
In this sense, we shall consider propaganda as an integral aspect of the foreign policy of the belligerents.
Finally, we shall present some conclusions yielded by this approach.

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