Inorder to understand the school’s beliefs and guidelines towards children inneed of learning support it is important to review the school’s policy. It was statedthat it is the responsibility of all teachers to ensure that all children areable to access the curriculum by: · Differentiating for students’ diverse needs· Helping pupils overcome possible barriers tolearning · Planning suitable learning challenges · Building on students’ strengths Department for Education (2015) supports thisas it mentioned that when a pupil is identified as having a special educationalneed (SEN), the school is responsible for taking action to remove or reducetheir barriers to learning and establish effective educational provisions thatwould help fill the gaps. The school recognizes thatat any stage of development a student may have additional educational needs.They arise from communication and interaction, cognition and learning,behavioural, emotional and social development, sensory and physical needs. Additionalsupport maybe available from the Student Support Services depending on theextent of the need and the availability of resources.
When a teacher has any concernsregarding a student a referral form is opened by contacting the SpecialEducational Needs Coordinator (SENCo). Thestudent is then assessed to identify the learning gaps, provisions are plannedaccording to the needs, and finally students are assessed continuouslythroughout the interventions to insure improvement tracking. If the school’sresources cannot provide for the additional needs of a particular student thenthe parents will be guided to seek external provision. According to theDepartment for Education (2015) the SEN support should be done in the form of afour-part cycle (assessment, planning, doing and reviewing) through whichearlier conferences and actions are reconsidered with a growing understandingof the student’s needs and of what supports them in positive improvement and acquiringgood outcomes. The impact of Response toIntervention on early Literacy intervention programs According to Reid (2011, p.5) RTI is an ‘evidence-based’ proactive model that seeks to avoid academicfailure through developing early interventions and frequent measurements ofprogress.
He also states that RTI attempts to prevent the ‘wait-to-fail’ methodthat is usually used in many assessment areas for children with dyslexia. Reid addedthat RTI leads to early identification of student’s needs, which can thenfacilitate early intervention. On the other hand, it may not differentiatebetween a child having dyslexia or any other learning difficulty. Neanon (2002,p.16) supports this as he explained that it is challenging to differentiatebetween a dyslexic child and children with more generalized learningdifferences.
On the other hand, it is important to remember that strategies,which are helpful for dyslexic learners, are useful for any child who is strivingto become literate. See et al. (2015) stated that teachers,pupils and achievement coaches suggested that RTI has positive effects onstudent’s Literacy especially as a catch up literacy programme. One of theschools claimed that the data they gathered revealed that their studentscompleted a growth equal to 5 months progress in comprehension and spelling within4 weeks and in particular cases as much as a 1 year’s progress. Patrikakou etal. (2016) supports this as the study found that 63% of the respondents whoparticipated in the study agreed and 13% strongly agreed that RTI could improvethe academic results of all students.
It was indicated by fewer participantsthat RTI positively improves the behavioral outcomes for students as 53% agreedand 13% strongly agreed with RTI causing improved behavioural outcomes. And 75%of participants agreed that RTI is the greatest decision for supportingstruggling learners.Use of multi-sensoryresources to help children’s learningThe children within the intervention play amultisensory game called Trugs once a week; it teaches reading in a fun wayusing multiple games. Trugs is adaptable so that it is suitable for anyone whofalls off pace. Students can then be assessed and can use Trugs at any stage. Itpresents the fundamental principles of root needs for group interventions aswell as one to one interventions to enable a fast approach to obtaining goodphonics understanding. Trugs insures that these multi-sensory activities areenjoyable and engaging, yet firmly focused on strengthening the learningconnected with its phonics goals. Trugs offers students the practice they needin writing, spelling and reading in a great engaging way.
There was also a focus by some staff onsupporting students to find enjoyment in reading activities. In primarysettings it was suggested that using activities students would enjoy, such asplaying phonics games could build confidence.Reid (2012) supports thisby mentioning the need to use multi-sensory techniques such as auditory, kinesthetic,visual and tactile. This is to ensure that at least some of the activities willbe of the child’s learning preferences leading to better understand andlearning. Neanon (2002, p.
33) agrees that visuals and prompts should be used toback up verbal teaching, encouraging students to repeat what the teacher says,paraphrasing it in their own words, leading the students to hear their ownvoice which was proved by research to be one of the most powerful motivations.He also explained that having movement within tasks enhances the multi-sensoryexperience, he clarified that we remember 10 percent from what we hear, 20% ofwhat we see, and 90% of what we see, hear and do. Supporting pull-outLiteracy programs in schools One can say that studentsat times suffer with reading comprehension because the instructional deliverythey have received does not meet their needs of learning which requires moreexplicit and organized instruction.
Also when a student is pulled out there isa focus on the key skills by targeting the student’s needs and giving themrepeated practice on the specific skills where needed. Klingner, Vaughn & Boardman (2015) support this as theyexplained that when instruction is delivered in small groups or in one to onesettings, the learning achieved by students with significant readingcomprehension problems is enhanced as they will be given additional time,feedback and instruction which is appropriate to the students’ specificlearning need.This Literacy programme isbased on a pull-out provision as children are pulled out 4 times a week for 40minutes where the learning support teacher focuses on the students’ coredifficulties which involve word recognition, reading fluency, spelling andwriting.The impaired ability toread with fluency and accuracy impacts their reading comprehension.
(Study.com, no date) alsoexplains that although it is not impossible it is much more difficult for aclassroom teacher to provide specialized lesson plans to multiple studentswithin the classroom. One of the benefits of the pull-out instruction method isflexibility, it is a huge burden for the classroom teacher to be able toprovide it to individual children. By using a pull- out method a student inneed is able to receive great flexibility in his or her education. Not onlydoes the teacher have the ability to change the way something is taught but theyalso have the ability to change the way they teach on a daily or hourly basisdepending on the students’ needs. It also mentioned that the pull-out methodallows specialists to support the student with their individual special needand not only the academic needs of the child, which means that students can getthe counseling they need as part of their normal school day.
This is somethingthat would be impossible for a classroom teacher to provide considering thenumber of children and different needs.