In · Helping pupils overcome possible barriers

order to understand the school’s beliefs and guidelines towards children in
need of learning support it is important to review the school’s policy. It was stated
that it is the responsibility of all teachers to ensure that all children are
able to access the curriculum by:


·      Differentiating for students’ diverse needs

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·      Helping pupils overcome possible barriers to

·      Planning suitable learning challenges

·      Building on students’ strengths

Department for Education (2015) supports this
as it mentioned that when a pupil is identified as having a special educational
need (SEN), the school is responsible for taking action to remove or reduce
their barriers to learning and establish effective educational provisions that
would help fill the gaps.

The school recognizes that
at any stage of development a student may have additional educational needs.
They arise from communication and interaction, cognition and learning,
behavioural, emotional and social development, sensory and physical needs. Additional
support maybe available from the Student Support Services depending on the
extent of the need and the availability of resources. When a teacher has any concerns
regarding a student a referral form is opened by contacting the Special
Educational Needs Coordinator (SENCo).  The
student is then assessed to identify the learning gaps, provisions are planned
according to the needs, and finally students are assessed continuously
throughout the interventions to insure improvement tracking. If the school’s
resources cannot provide for the additional needs of a particular student then
the parents will be guided to seek external provision. According to the
Department for Education (2015) the SEN support should be done in the form of a
four-part cycle (assessment, planning, doing and reviewing) through which
earlier conferences and actions are reconsidered with a growing understanding
of the student’s needs and of what supports them in positive improvement and acquiring
good outcomes.


The impact of Response to
Intervention on early Literacy intervention programs


According to Reid (2011, p.
5) RTI is an ‘evidence-based’ proactive model that seeks to avoid academic
failure through developing early interventions and frequent measurements of
progress. He also states that RTI attempts to prevent the ‘wait-to-fail’ method
that is usually used in many assessment areas for children with dyslexia. Reid added
that RTI leads to early identification of student’s needs, which can then
facilitate early intervention. On the other hand, it may not differentiate
between a child having dyslexia or any other learning difficulty. Neanon (2002,
p.16) supports this as he explained that it is challenging to differentiate
between a dyslexic child and children with more generalized learning
differences. On the other hand, it is important to remember that strategies,
which are helpful for dyslexic learners, are useful for any child who is striving
to become literate.

See et al. (2015) stated that teachers,
pupils and achievement coaches suggested that RTI has positive effects on
student’s Literacy especially as a catch up literacy programme. One of the
schools claimed that the data they gathered revealed that their students
completed a growth equal to 5 months progress in comprehension and spelling within
4 weeks and in particular cases as much as a 1 year’s progress. Patrikakou et
al. (2016) supports this as the study found that 63% of the respondents who
participated in the study agreed and 13% strongly agreed that RTI could improve
the academic results of all students. It was indicated by fewer participants
that RTI positively improves the behavioral outcomes for students as 53% agreed
and 13% strongly agreed with RTI causing improved behavioural outcomes. And 75%
of participants agreed that RTI is the greatest decision for supporting
struggling learners.

Use of multi-sensory
resources to help children’s learning

The children within the intervention play a
multisensory game called Trugs once a week; it teaches reading in a fun way
using multiple games. Trugs is adaptable so that it is suitable for anyone who
falls off pace. Students can then be assessed and can use Trugs at any stage. It
presents the fundamental principles of root needs for group interventions as
well as one to one interventions to enable a fast approach to obtaining good
phonics understanding. Trugs insures that these multi-sensory activities are
enjoyable and engaging, yet firmly focused on strengthening the learning
connected with its phonics goals. Trugs offers students the practice they need
in writing, spelling and reading in a great engaging way.

There was also a focus by some staff on
supporting students to find enjoyment in reading activities. In primary
settings it was suggested that using activities students would enjoy, such as
playing phonics games could build confidence.

Reid (2012) supports this
by mentioning the need to use multi-sensory techniques such as auditory, kinesthetic,
visual and tactile. This is to ensure that at least some of the activities will
be of the child’s learning preferences leading to better understand and
learning. Neanon (2002, p.33) agrees that visuals and prompts should be used to
back up verbal teaching, encouraging students to repeat what the teacher says,
paraphrasing it in their own words, leading the students to hear their own
voice which was proved by research to be one of the most powerful motivations.
He also explained that having movement within tasks enhances the multi-sensory
experience, he clarified that we remember 10 percent from what we hear, 20% of
what we see, and 90% of what we see, hear and do.





Supporting pull-out
Literacy programs in schools


One can say that students
at times suffer with reading comprehension because the instructional delivery
they have received does not meet their needs of learning which requires more
explicit and organized instruction. Also when a student is pulled out there is
a focus on the key skills by targeting the student’s needs and giving them
repeated practice on the specific skills where needed. Klingner, Vaughn & Boardman (2015) support this as they
explained that when instruction is delivered in small groups or in one to one
settings, the learning achieved by students with significant reading
comprehension problems is enhanced as they will be given additional time,
feedback and instruction which is appropriate to the students’ specific
learning need.

This Literacy programme is
based on a pull-out provision as children are pulled out 4 times a week for 40
minutes where the learning support teacher focuses on the students’ core
difficulties which involve word recognition, reading fluency, spelling and

The impaired ability to
read with fluency and accuracy impacts their reading comprehension.


(, no date) also
explains that although it is not impossible it is much more difficult for a
classroom teacher to provide specialized lesson plans to multiple students
within the classroom. One of the benefits of the pull-out instruction method is
flexibility, it is a huge burden for the classroom teacher to be able to
provide it to individual children. By using a pull- out method a student in
need is able to receive great flexibility in his or her education. Not only
does the teacher have the ability to change the way something is taught but they
also have the ability to change the way they teach on a daily or hourly basis
depending on the students’ needs. It also mentioned that the pull-out method
allows specialists to support the student with their individual special need
and not only the academic needs of the child, which means that students can get
the counseling they need as part of their normal school day. This is something
that would be impossible for a classroom teacher to provide considering the
number of children and different needs.


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