Goal intended to identify the goods and

Goal of this literature review is to evaluate the
existing literature of the main subjects under investigation in this project.
The first section focuses on Social media brand community. Then, concepts of
brand trust, brand image are presented. In order to understand how those
elements interact with each other.


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In order to understand the concept of brand
community, one has to first understand the concept of brand and the concept of
community separately. In strategic marketing, it is considered that brand plays
an essential part in the creation of a product or service’s value. In fact, a
brand’s name helps customers identify a company, its products and services, as
well as the expected quality. Kotler, Armstrong, Saunders & Wong (2013),
give a general definition of what is a brand: “a brand is a name, term, sign,
symbol, or design or a combination of them intended to identify the goods and
services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate from those of
the competitor”

“A brand is
the meaningful perception of a product, a service or even yourself –either
good, bad or indifferent — that marketers want people to believe based on what
they think they hear, see, smell, taste and generally sense from others around
them. Josh Moritz (2012).


is defined by three main elements: locality, social interaction and bond (Jang, Olfman, KO,
Koh & Kim, 2011). Locality refers to the geographical region
where the community is implanted and permits the community and its members to
differentiate from other communities. Social interaction refers to the fact
that community’s members create relationships with other members of the
community. Finally, bond means that being a member of a specific community
gives a feeling of comfort and belonging. Thus, a community is defined by a
location where members can meet and build relationships between themselves
based on their interactions, collective identity or atmosphere of community.


answer the question of what a brand community is, Muniz & O’Guinn (2012) give one
element of the answer based on previous definitions (Muniz & O’Guinn, 2012). For the
authors, brand communities are built around three core elements. The first core
element is the consciousness of kind and is described by the authors as: “an
intrinsic connection that members feel toward one another and difference from
others not in the community. Members differentiate themselves from users of
other brands or members of other communities” (Muniz & O’Guinn, 2012). In this
sense, the element that differentiates members from one brand community to
another must be the brand. The second core element is the presence of shared 6
rituals and traditions that supports community’s history, culture and
consciousness (Muniz
& O’Guinn, 2012). In the context of brand community and modern
marketing, this is supported by advertisement and story telling around the
brand and its products. When based on shared or similar experiences among
members, story telling enhances connections between the community members and increases
the feeling of belonging to the brand and the community. Furthermore,
advertisement is essential to the community rituals and traditions as it
materializes the image of the brand among members (Muniz & O’Guinn, 2012). The third core element is: “a sense of moral
responsibility, duty or obligation to the community as a whole and its
individual members” (Muniz & O’Guinn, 2012). It takes the form of
support shared among the community members regarding problems encountered with
the brand’s product or it takes the form sharing specific information related
to the product or to the brand.












Brand community is
represented by two ways regarding customers and the product. In this model, two
types of relationships are highlighted: first, the relationship established
between the brand and customers and second the one established between Product
and customer.

In web-based social
networking period, buyers’ connection with brands and with each other in
content creation exercises drives organizations to change their correspondence
and branding practices to mirror a more inclusive approach. Research on
communities within brands was focused on distinguishing particular properties
of those communities (Muniz and O’Guinn, 2001) and brand communities’
commitment (Hur,
Ahn, and Kim, 2011) and in addition connections that are shaped
inside brand groups (Habibi, Laroche, and Richard, 2014); such research
has additionally centered around investigating the connections between mark
utilize, mark groups, and informal communities (Schau, Muñiz, and Arnould, 2009).
Past examinations have demonstrated a positive connection between online brand
community investment and customer (Gummerus, Liljander, Weman, and Pihlström, 2012).

Regarding brand group
support, past examinations have inspected the impacts of activities of group (Schau et al., 2009)
and brand community commitment (Hur et al., 2011). In a report of brand
communities that show both on web and off the web activities, Schau et al. (2009)
showed how brand communities aggregately create esteem through the procedures
of community commitment, social organizing and impression administration, i.e.,
(WOM) conduct.

The European
Communication Indicator (2012) featured the significance of online brand communities
furthermore, stressed the need to build ability in the utilization of this
medium for branding activities.

Brand community is
firmly associated with social conduct between community individuals that make
an incentive for an organization and its consumers (Oestreicher-Artist and Zalmanson, 2013).

Prior research has
inspected particular parts of online brand communities and conduct inside
groups, for example, community attributes (Zaglia, 2013),


Brand trust, is defined
by Moorman,
Deshpande & Zaltman (2012) as: “the willingness of a consumer to
rely on the ability of the brand to perform its stated function” (Moorman, Deshpande
& Zaltman, 2012).

Trust, from a business
perspective, is characterized by Morgan and Chase (2014) as: “when one
gathering believes in a trade accomplice’s unwavering quality and
respectability” (Morgan and Chase, 1999, p. 23). Other gathering of
creators Moorman,
Deshpande and Zaltman (2012) characterize it as: “the ability
to depend on a trade accomplice in whom one has certainty” (Moorman,
Deshpande and Zaltman, 1992, p. 315). These two definitions feature the
significance of dependence, uprightness and dependability of the members
engaged with a trade.

From customer’s point
of view, trust can be seen as expectations about the company’s trustworthiness
that results from its skills, reliability or intentions. Moorman et al. (2012) highlight the
importance of trust and define it as determinant for the relationship’s quality
between the parties involved (Moorman et al., 2012). When customers build trust toward a
brand or a company, they also create positive thoughts and feelings. For their
next purchases, customers rely on their previous experiences and trust plays an
important role influencing the purchase behavior.


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