Global warming is the term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperatures of the Earth’s atmosphere and its oceans

Global warming is the term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperatures of the Earth’s atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed to be permanently changing the Earth’s climate forever. It is caused by natural and human activities. It has effects such as Polar Ice Caps Melting, species loss habitat and so on (Christopher & Richard; 2009). Average temperatures around the world have risen by 0.75 degrees Celsius over the last 100 years about the two thirds of this increase has occurred since 1975 (U.K. Met Office .2014). According to the report by IPCC AR4(2007) ‘warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as in now evident from observations of increase in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread of melting of snow and ice and rising of global average sea level’ ( IPCC WGI 2007:2). I will tackle more about global warming on causes of global warming such as natural causes, human influence effect and ways to prevent global warming.
Causes of global warming
Global warming is a serious issue and is not a single issue but a number of environmental issues. It is a rise in the surface temperature of the earth that has change various life forms on the earth. The issues that causes global warming are categorized into ‘natural’ and ‘human influences’ of global warming.
Natural causes of global warming
The climate has continuously changing for centuries. Global warning happens because of the natural rotation of the sun that changes the intensity of the sunlight and moving closer to the earth.
It is also caused by greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are carbon monoxide and Sulphur dioxide that traps the solar hearts rays and prevent it from the surface of the earth. This causes earth’s temperatures to increase.
Volcanic eruption is another issue that causes global warming. For instance, a single volcanic eruption will release amount of carbon dioxide and ash to the atmosphere. Once carbon dioxide increases, the temperature of the earth increases and greenhouse trap the solar radiations in the earth.
Methane is a greenhouse gas also that causes global warming. It is more effective in trapping heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide by twenty times. Usually methane gas can be released from many areas. It can be from cattle, landfill, natural gases, petroleum systems, coal mining, mobile explosion or industrial waste process.
Human influence on global warming
Human activities causes global warming. Human influence is a serious issue because they do not take care of the earth. The earth has been changing for many years until now, it is still changing because of modern lifestyle of human we rely on. Human activities including industrial production, burning fossil fuel, mining, cattle rearing or deforestation.
Industries have been using fossil fuels for power machines. Everything we use is involved in fossil fuel. For instances when we buy a mobile phone, the process of making mobile phone involve machines and these machines uses fossil fuels, during the process carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere. Beside industrial transportation as cars are also releasing carbon dioxide from exhaust.
Another issue is deforestation. It is a human influence because human have been cutting down trees to produce papers, wood, build houses and to make furniture. It is clear that if human continuing deforestation, carbon dioxide will concentrate in the atmosphere because trees can absorb the atmosphere. Human release carbon dioxide when they breath, which is needed by trees we cut in order to survive. Therefore the amount of millions of people’s breath release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. So if human continue deforestation, human breathing that release carbon dioxide will stay in the atmosphere. (Global response to climate change 2005)
Effects of global warming
The greenhouse gases will stay in the atmosphere for many years since hundred years ago. However, the effect that global warming will cause on the earth are extremely serious. There are many effects that will happen in the future if the if global warming continues. That includes polar ice caps melting, economic consequences, warmer waters and more hurricanes, spread of diseases and earthquakes. .( U.K. Met Office Hadley Centre, 2010 and National Research Council, 2008)
First effect is polar ice caps melting. As the temperature increase, the ice at the North Poles will melt. Once the ice melt, the first effect will be raise in the sea level because the melting glaciers become oceans. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Centre ‘if the ice melted today the seas would rise about two hundred and thirty feet’. It affects many low lying areas such as Netherlands. In future, the Netherland will be covered by water once the North Pole is melted. However, it is not going to happen so fast but the sea level will continue to rise. (Yu, and Ping-g-Gin Chiu23, no. 3 2011:303.)
Species loss habitat is another effect. Polar bears and tropical frogs will extinct due to climate change. Besides, various birds will migrate to other places because animals are not like human beings. They cannot adapt the habitat that changes their living temperatures. (J. Wilson, 2005, Extinctions)
Harm to ocean life is an effect of global warming. Warming seas have damaged marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. High ocean temperature can cause coral bleaching. In this process corals lose colorful algae that live inside them and provide them with food. If temperatures remain too high, the corals turn white and die. (Alison, K. p 232; 2001)
Hurricane causes damage houses and government need to spend billions in damage and people need places to stay or have been killed. Once a disaster happens many people die and disease happen. Diseases can be more serious because it can spread to other people very fast and more people will get sick and disease can be serious because of different weather (R. Thomas, 2003).
Ways to curb global warming
There are methods to be used in order to limit global warming, first to limit carbon dioxide emission. Another method called Carbon sequestration, involves preventing carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere, or removing the carbon dioxide already there. A third method is called geoengineering, it involves altering the environment in ways that counteract warming… (Precision, 2007).
In order to stop global warming people and government need to come forward to implement global warming solutions. We can reduce global warming by reducing the contribution of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Reducing gasoline, electricity, and our activities that causes global warming can reduce global warming.
We have to choose a hybrid car that reduces the use of gasoline. Besides petrol prices are increasing. If one drives to work every day need to pump petrol after three days and that causes carbon dioxide to be released in high amount. Another way to reduce gasoline is to take public transport or carpool to work. That can help to reduce carbon dioxide and save cost (Davidson, 2012:22-23).
Recycling is another way to prevent global warming. It can reduce garbage by reusing plastic bags, bottles, papers or glasses. For instances, when people buy foods can use their bags instead of plastic bags. For instances after finishing a drink from the bottle we can reuse it. Humans must reduce deforestation and help save environment. There must be a plantation of trees. Turning of electricity when not in use. Buy product that have energy saving because it saves cost and environment. ‘So if you have colleagues who live in the same area then you can combine the trips, let’s not use energy geysers, avoid products with a lot of packaging. Installation of programmable thermostat. Use of clean fuel. Use of energy star appliances, wrap water heater insulation.’ (Conserve energy Future n. d.)
In order to prevent global warming human should stop open burning such as burning dry leafs or burning garbage. It will release carbon dioxide and toxic if burning garbage with plastic. Besides government should reduce deforestation because the earth temperatures are increasing. Trees will help to improve temperatures on earth (Conserve energy Future; n. d.).

Conclusion
In conclusion of this assignment as a whole, we understood that our earth is getting denatured and we are the ones who have a duty to take care of it. Global