GCET_EC_26646 1 | P a g eCHAPTER-1INTRODUCTION1.1 GENERALThere are more than 9.5 million paralyzed people in India. Most of them constantlyrely on their family members or caretakers to move to different places.This brain controlled robot is based on Brain–computer interfaces (BCI). BCIs aresystems that can bypass conventional channels of communication (i.e., muscles andthoughts) to provide direct communication and control between the human brain andphysical devices by translating different patterns of brain activity into commands inreal time.
With these commands a robot can be controlled. The intention of the project work isto develop a robot that can assist the disabled people in their daily life to do somework independent on others.1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT.
Millions of people around the world suffer from mobility impairments and hundredsof thousands of them rely upon powered wheelchairs to get on with their activities ofdaily living.However, many patients are not prescribed powered wheelchairs at all, either becausethey are physically unable to control the chair using a conventional interface, orbecause they are deemed incapable of driving safely.1.
3 PROBLEM SPECIFICATION? According to 2011 census, 2.21% of total population in India has disability.? 2.41% of male population is disabled.? 2.01% of female population is disabled.
? Overall there are 2 crores 68 lakhs persons with disability.GCET_EC_26646 2 | P a g e1.4 LITERATURE REVIEW AND PRIOR ART SERACHPATENT: (US7260430B2) Architecture of an embedded internet robot systemcontrolled by brain waves? Embedded internet robot system that is controlled by brain waves.? Brain Computer Interface? System cooperate with the alertness level detection technology and instructiontranslation technology, so the user can control a distal-end robot purely viaconsciousness activities.
? Can interact with the environment as if there were an entity representing theuser’s consciousness appearing in the distal end.PATENT: (US9211078B2) Process and device for brain computer interfacea) Non-invasively obtaining brain signals.b) Processing said signals with an electroencephalograph (EEG).c) Transducing said signals into functional commands by means of featureextraction from EEG signals.d) Providing the signals further for application through serial communication overbluetooth, etc.PATENT: (US9092055B2) Platform and method for BCI control? The BCI(Brain Computer Interface) control is utilized to control a plurality ofbrain control devices. The brain control devices are capable of executing anoperation.
? A brain-wave control supplying a first signal and a second signal, wherein thefirst and second signals are utilized to visually evoke a user’s first and secondbrain waves, respectively.? The brain-wave control selects one of the brain control devices as a to-becontrolleddevice by the first brain wave, and the to-be-controlled device iscontrolled to finish an operation by the second brain wave.PATENT: (US9962837B2) System and method of controlling robot by brainelectrical signals? The BCI (Brain Computer Interface) control is utilized to control a plurality ofbrain control devices. The brain control devices are capable of executing anoperation.
GCET_EC_26646 3 | P a g e? A brain-wave control supplying a first signal and a second signal, wherein thefirst and second signals are utilized to visually evoke a user’s first and secondbrain waves, respectively.? The brain-wave control selects one of the brain control devices as a to-becontrolleddevice by the first brain wave, and the to-be-controlled device iscontrolled to finish an operation by the second brain wave.PATENT: (US9539118B2) Brain-controlled body movement assistance devicesand methods? Systems including computer programs encoded on a computer storagemedium.? A device includes a brain-controlled body movement assistance devicewith a brain-computer interface (BCI) component adapted to be mountedto a user.? Then connected to the BCI component and adapted to be worn by the user.
? The feedback mechanism being configured to output information relatingto a usage session of the brain-controlled body movement assistancedevice.1.5 METHODS/TOOLS TO BE USEDElectroencephalograph (EEG):• Electroencephalography is an electrophysiological monitoring method torecord electrical activity of the brain.• EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting within the neurons of the brain.• The brain waves fall in the range of 1 – 20 Hz.• The waves are subdivided into band widths known as? Alpha,? Beta,? Theta and? Delta.GCET_EC_26646 4 | P a g eApplications of EEG:• It is used to evaluate several types of brain disorders.
• It is also used to determine the overall electrical activity of the brain toevaluate trauma, drug intoxication, or during surgical procedures.• Brain-Computer Interfacing based on EEG was primarily focused on Neuroprostheticsapplications.• Increasingly more alternative applications in healthyhuman subjects are proposed and investigated.NeuroSky MindWave :• The MindWave, safely measures and outputs the EEG power spectrums (alphawaves, beta waves, etc), NeuroSky eSense meters (attention and meditation)and eye blinks.• The device consists of a headset, an ear-clip, and a sensor arm. The headset’sreference and ground electrodes are on the ear clip and the EEG electrode ison the sensor arm, resting on the forehead above the eye (FP1 position).• It uses a single AAA battery with 8 hours of battery life.Features:• Single Sensor on FP1• Can detect multiple mental states simultaneouslyGCET_EC_26646 5 | P a g e• Reference electrode on Ear clip to remove ambient noises• IP involves noise cancellation and signal amplification• Provides EMG feature for Eye Blink detectionSpecifications:• Bluetooth TM Wireless communication• Passive Dry Sensor EEG• Single AAA battery• 10 Hours Run Time eSense.
GCET_EC_26646 6 | P a g eCHAPTER – 2DESIGN: ANALYSIS, DESIGN METHODOLOGY ANDIMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY3.1 GENERALDesign Engineering is a subject based on Design Thinking that will change the mindsetof young engineers to create innovation, entrepreneurship, skill developmentculture in India. Design Thinking is Human Centred process with specific steps likeObservation, Empathy, Ideation, Product Development, Prototype and Test with lotsof iterations. All Canvases, framework, tools & techniques are useful to enhancecreativity and innovation in the projects.
Design Engineering must be considered asphilosophy rather a subject3.2 AEIOU SUMMARY CANVAS.GCET_EC_26646 7 | P a g e3.3 EMPATHY MAPPING CANVAS.GCET_EC_26646 8 | P a g e3.
4 IDEATION CANVAS.3.5 PROUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS.GCET_EC_26646 9 | P a g eCHAPTER – 3IMPLEMENTATION3.1 GENERALThe brain controlled robot basically works on the principle of capturing the brainwave signals utilizing it for the movement of robot.Steps:1.
The EEG signals are captured by the MindWave sensor.2. The signals are sent to microcontroller with the help of Bluetooth through serialcommunication.3. The signals are processed by the microcontroller and according to the signals,motors are operated.4. Hence the robot movement takes place.3.
2 BLOCK DIAGRAM.GCET_EC_26646 10 | P a g e3.3 FLOWCHART.GCET_EC_26646 11 | P a g eCHAPTER – 4CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE4.1 CONCLUSIONBrain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a method of communication based on voluntaryneural activity generated by the brain and independent of its normal output pathwaysof peripheral nerves and muscles. The neural activity used in BCI is recorded usingnoninvasive techniques (Mindwave sensor).
The BCI will provide better alternativesfor individuals to interact with their environment in an efficient way. Thus enablingthe control of robotic wheel chair by using EEG.3.
2 FUTURE SCOPE.• Voice Recognition can be used.• Obstacle detection• Take the images through distal end robot and give it back to personGCET_EC_26646 12 | P a g eREFERENCESJournal References:? EEG Based Brain Controlled Robot Lavanya Thunuguntla et al Int. Journal ofEngineering Research and Applications ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 4( Version1), April 2014, pp.
195-198 Lavanya Thunuguntla1 , R Naveen Venkatesh Mohan2 ,P Mounika3? International Journal of Innovative and Emerging Research in EngineeringVolume 3, Issue 3, 2016 R.S.Shekhawat1a, Rajat Sharma2b and Ravi Rao2b aAssistant Professor Department of Electrical Engineering, B. K. Birla Institute ofEngineering & Technology, Pilani, India bStudent, Electrical, B. K.
Birla Instituteof Engineering & Technology, Pilani, India? Brain Controlled Mobile Robot Using Brain Wave Sensor IOSR Journal of VLSIand Signal Processing (IOSR-JVSP) e-ISSN: 2319 – 4200, p-ISSN No. : 2319 –4197 PP 77-82 V. Rajesh kannan1 , K.O.Joseph 2 1PG Student, CommunicationSystems, Department of ECE, G.
K.M College of Engineering and Technology,India. 2Professor, Department of ECE, G.K.M College of Engineering andTechnology, IndiaWeb References:• http://www.kscst.iisc.ernet.in/spp/41_series/40S_awarded_&_selected_projs_further_devpt/40S_BE_0571.pdf• http://www.uninettunouniversity.net/allegati/1/CommonFiles/Eventi/it/30/705/Brain%20Computer%20Interface%20System.pdf• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bz1BF9yEXXI&feature=youtu.be