Fourier’s collisions of the particles within the system.

Fourier’s Law is also known as the law of heat conduction which refers to the transfer of heat, or internal energy. This occurs from the microscopic collisions of the particles within the system. These particles may include but are not limited to molecules, atoms, and electrons. Conduction is the transfer of heat through direct contact and it takes place in all phases such as solid, liquid, and gas. Heat will always flow from a region of higher concentrated energy to a region of lower concentrated energy. For example, heat is conducted from the hotplate to the bottom of a beaker in contact with it. There is a temperature difference between the hotplate and the beaker. With the absence of an external driving source to the beaker, this temperature difference decays over time. In other words, the heat is being transferred from the hot plate to the beaker via direct contact. As a result, thermal equilibrium is achieved and both the temperature of the hot plate and the beaker are more uniform.
According to Fourier’s Law, the time it takes for the heat to transfer through a material is proportional to the temperature gradient. The equation below shows that the density flux density is equal to the product of the thermal conductivity and the negative temperature gradient.

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