Final of Trait ranging from the 1930’s to

Final Capstone Project
Issues Organization Leadership
Oscar Tamez
South Texas College

Intelligence has been managed as something that is born, something that is acquired during gestation and that is reflected in the course of the life of the person, often since childhood, the most common intelligence and currently used is emotional intelligence. In the same way it has been managed that leadership is something with which one is born, because it is also reflected when a person is followed unconditionally for the accomplishment of goals in common and in a collective form, the leadership is reflected in many cases from an early age.
The goal of this project is to explore the relationship between intelligence and leadership to assess the relationship between intelligence in effective leadership.

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Intelligence has been constantly associated with leadership, an intelligent person can be a leader, for being a leader a person can be considered intelligent. There are theories of leadership that try to obtain the most effective leader, but when conducting an academic research, six types of leadership are described, which we will review to determine which theories are closer to the relationship between intelligence and leadership
Among the theories of leadership are:
Great Theory from the 1840’s, Theory of Trait ranging from the 1930’s to the 1940’s, Theories of Behavior born in the 1940’s and extended until the 1950’s, Contingency Theories in the 1960’s, and Transactional Leadership Theories in the1970’s.
Theories of Transformational Leadership (1970s).
According to Mandell ; Pherwani (2003), the most recent theories are the transactional leader and transitional leader theories. In transformational leadership there is a process of exchange between leaders and followers, while in the transactional leadership a process of reward or punishment takes place.
Goleman (1995) has sought to locate the factors that determine the marked differences that exist, for example, between a worker considered outstanding and any other located in a middle point, or between an asocial psychopath and a good leader with charisma, and that is where the emotional intelligence of people intervenes.
Definition of Intelligence
Intelligence, intellect or faculty of rational thought; or more usually, the ability to learn, understand or analyze.
In psychology, intelligence is specifically defined as the ability to acquire knowledge or understanding and use it in novel situations. (Funk ; Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia). In a strictly scientific and general sense, intelligence is defined as the innate ability that the human being has to analyze and acquire a certain degree of learning throughout his life. In spite of this, an acceptance has not yet been accepted as such regarding what intelligence really is. This term comes from the Latin word “intellegere”, being “inte” between and “come” to read or choose.
Emotional intelligence
There are several models of emotional intelligence but the most accepted model of emotional intelligence (EI) is the theory of multiple intelligences by Sternberg (2003). This study concludes that interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence is exclusive, and dissimilar from any type of logical reasoning which is measured today through “IQ”, or general intelligence. Peter Salovey and John Mayer came up their own EI theory in 1990 and Reuven Bar-On (1988) in terms of personality, health and well-being. Daniel Goleman proposed in emotional intelligence (EQ) as another option to traditional IQ. Goleman (1998) reformulated EI in terms of a theory of organization and performance at work. According to Goleman (2000), “the unique job of a leader is to have results.” Although all the leadership training and expert advice programs are readily available, effective leadership still evades the public, such that experts offer advice based on inference, experience and instinct, both quantitatively and not qualitatively.
Leadership and Leadership
Leader, an English leader, is a person who acts as a guide or leader of a group. For their leadership to be effective, the rest of the members must recognize their capabilities.
H1 – There is a relationship between intelligence and effective leadership.
Types of Leadership
In order to understand the relationship between intelligence and effective leadership, it is necessary to know the most common types of leadership.
Great Man Theory (1840s)
This theory became popular in the mid-nineteenth century. Made popular by Thomas Carlyle. I thought that leaders are born are not made, that the great leaders would be known when there was a great need among them. He opposed the possibility that leaders could be made. On the contrary in 1860 Herbert Spencer thought that the theory of the great man was the product of the time of the leaders and the actions the result of the social conditions.
Theory of Trait (1930’s – 1940’s)
This theory analyzes the physical, mental and social characteristics that the leaders have to have. The theory of traits explains that leaders are born or born. If you do not have a certain profile you are destined to be a lifelong follower. Today we know that leadership can be learned and that we can all develop as leaders.
Theories of Behavior (1940 – 1950’s)
This theory proposes that it is possible to teach an administrator the behavior of a leader. This theory is based on the behaviors of the leaders in comparison with their mental or social physical characteristics and the evolutions in psychometrics. Anyone with the right conditioning could be a leader.

Contingency Theories (1960)
The Contingency Leadership theory explains there is not one universal form of leadership, and reflects on the ways leadership is highly dependent on the specific circumstances involved in a scenario; but with minimal performance when removed from its element. In this leadership the leader is more likely to express his or her direction when they feel that their followers will be responsive.
Transactional Leadership Theories (1970’s)
It is called so because the transaction would be what the organization pays the team members in exchange for their effort and fulfillment. The basis of transactional leadership is a process of exchange between leaders and followers. Transactional leaders are more effective because they find a way to reward or punish a follower by doing the task assigned by the leader.
Theories of Transformational Leadership (1970s)
It is a process in which leaders and followers work together to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation. The leader motivates and transforms the followers by their charisma and individual consideration.
Relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership
Several studies show a constant improvement of the leaders in their technical skills on the people who are at the same level by having a better emotional intelligence.

What does a person do to be a leader?
Goleman (1998) states that the five components of Emotional Intelligence at work are: Empathy, Self-Regulation, Self-Awareness, Motivation, and Social Skills.
The Big Five Project, Personality Test
There are some ways to determine the personality of employees, including their own personality, for that is used the big five Project, Personality Test, because, through the results of this test, the leader can identify how to address them in certain circumstance.
In this Test are asked some questions that are assigned a value according to the answers that are chosen by determining the following personality traits:
High scorers have a higher tendency to be unique, inventive, inquisitive, intricate; low scorers tend to be unoriginal, humble, with few interests, and conventional.
High scorers tend to be dependable, ordered, self-disciplined, cautious; Low scorers tend to be messy, unpredictable, and neglectful.
High scorers tend to be friendly, outgoing, fun loving, chatty; Low scorers tend to be shy, kept, reserved, and silent.

High scorers tend to be good natured, kind, merciful, considerate; Low scorers tend to be serious, impolite, strict, and insensitive.
Negative Emotionality
High scorers tend to be anxious, high-strung, self-doubting, distressing; Low scorers tend to be peaceful, calm, and confident.
I think the course has been very helpful, because I have been able to learn how leadership can be so important in an organization, as well as being able to notice the importance of emotional intelligence in order to face the problems that may be present in an organization.
In my previous jobs I did not know many of the leadership concepts learned during this class, and I think they could have been very useful if I had known them before. Because they would have helped me to make better decisions and have a better position to face the problems that come my way.
In my personal experience I have been able to apply the knowledge acquired during the course, since I started this course I started working in a school where I worked as an assistant in the kitchen area and thanks to the knowledge acquired during the course I am requesting as an assistant manager in the school where I currently work, all this while I meet the necessary requirements to be a teacher.
I think the big five project (personality test) has been very helpful because it has helped me to identify characteristics that I did not know about my personality and the personality traits of other people who work with me and thus I have been able to identify strengths and weaknesses both of my companions as mine.
There is a close relationship between intelligence and leadership, but even more between emotional intelligence and effective leadership, it is very important to apply intelligent leadership in order to obtain better results as this can lead to a positive impact on the organization’s objectives.
We must remember that being a leader implies a great responsibility, because leadership can be exercised both to do good, like the proposal of Pope Francis to commit the countries in helping to solve climate change, and to do evil, such as the detonations of nuclear tests by North Korean President Kim Jong-un.
In this project we have been able to observe how knowing people better can lead us to improve our performance when we want to motivate them or face some conflict situation both in our personal life and in our work.

-Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
-Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia
-Sternberg, R.J. (2003) Multiple Intelligence Theory (2017).
Leadership Theories – In Chronological Order
-Nandan, K. Theories of Leadership (2012)

-Wagner, K. 8 Major Leadership Theories (2011)
– Barrett, D. J. (n.d). Leadership Communication: A Communication Approach for Senior-Level
– Anyamele, S. C. (2004). Institutional Management in Higher Education: A Study of Leadership
Approaches to Quality Improvement in University Management. Nigerian and Finnish Cases. Doctoral Dissertation University of Helsinki. E-thesis.


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