FACULTY 3 classes which are liquidity ratios,



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Seminar Engineer in Society was divided into four topics which the first slot
presented by Prof. Dr. Syed Noh Bin Syed Ahmad CA(M) about the Financial
Statements. The second slot was all about CyberSecurity, the third slot about Sharing
Working Experience and Involvement in Society by Ir. Mohamad Faizal Malek and the
last slot about Industry Talk in Engi neering by Dr Zainal Fitri Bin Zainal Abidin .
For the first slot was about Financial Statement Analysis . Financial statement
was including income statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement, statement of
changes in equity and notes to accounts. For analysis of primary financial statements
ratios it also can be categorised into 3 classes which are liquidity ratios, profitability
ratios and leverage ratios. It is available to the listed company which is company listed
in Bursa Malaysia. Liquidity ratio is measure of the short -term ability of the enterprise
to pay the liabilities. Liquidity ratios we re including cur rent ratio, acid test ratio,
average collection period, receiv ables turnover ratio, inventory turnover ratio and
average days in inventory. Formula of inventory turnover ratio is
����� �� ������ ���� (������ )
�������� ����������� . Inventory turnover ratio i s mean that the ratio is measures the
number of time on average the inventory is sold. In addition, it also measure the
efficiency of the company while managing the inventory. Formula of receivables
turnover ratio accesses the liquidity of the receivables by indicating the numbers of
times on average.
Ratio analysis is important part of fundamental. The essence of ratio analysis is
comparison either using diff erent period for the same company or comparison with
another company. Current ratio does not take into account the composition and the
different degrees of liquidity of the current asset. Limitation of current ratio and acid
test is introduced as variation of the liquidity ratio. Formula of average collection period
is 365 d ays divided by receivables turnover. The ratio should be used in conjunction
with the credit terms of the company. Financial ratios can be classified into several
categories which are management efficiency, profitability, leverage and solvency and
market v alues. The acid test ratio is a measure of a company’s immediate short -term


liquidity. It’s mean a more refined or accurate measure of liquidity. The formula of
aci d-test ratio is �������� ������� ?����������
�������� ������������ ���� . Therefore, the acid -test ratio will be less than
the current ratio due to the deduction of inventory from Current assets. Gross profit
ratio is defined the amount of gross profit for each dollar of sales while the gross profit
margin means the tota l of expenses that can be sustained by the enterprise before this
enterprise suffer a loss. Formula of gross profit ratio is ������ �������
����� . In the complex
investing environment, both the quantitative as well as the non -quantitative info rmation
are essential in arriving at i nvestment or funding decisions. Sometimes, the non –
quantitative information will be important in the decision -making process.
Next, net profit ratio is the ratio of after -tax profits to net sales. It exposes the
left over profit after all costs of production, administration, and financing have been
subtracted from sales, and income taxes known. T he formula of net profit ratio is
��� �������
����� . Big company that is those with high inventory turnover such as super markets
usually have low profit margins. However, low volume business such as jewellery
stores and fashion houses have high profit margins. Further, the profitability ratios
measure the income or operating capabilities of a business. This is a pri mary ratio used
by investors and to providers of finance to the company . The ability of the firm to
survive to a large extent is dependent on the amount of profit that could be obtained
from the normal operations of the business. The profitability ratios a re consists of gross
profit ratio, net profit ratio, return on assets and return on equity. Other than that, the
debt to total assets ratio measure the percentage of the total assets provided by outside
financiers. This ratio shows the degree of financial leverage which is the percentage of
the assets that are financed by outside financiers. The formula is ����� ���� (��������������� )
����� ������� .
Equity is defined as the shareholders’ funds and include the Share Capital as
well as the reserves of the company. The formula of debt to equity is
;#3627408455;;#3627408476;;#3627408481;;#3627408462;;#3627408473; ;#3627408465;;#3627408466;;#3627408463;;#3627408481; (;#3627408473;;#55349;;#56406;;#3627408462;;#3627408463;;#55349;;#56406;;#3627408473;;#55349;;#56406;;#3627408481;;#55349;;#56406;;#3627408466;;#3627408480; )
;#55349;;#56376;;#3627408478;;#3627408482;;#55349;;#56406;;#3627408481;;#55349;;#56422; . If the ratio is high, it means that the company is dependent on
outside funders and is therefore perceived to be risky. Also, form ula for return on assets
ratio is ;#3627408449;;#3627408466;;#3627408481; ;#55349;;#56406;;#3627408475;;#3627408464;;#3627408476;;#3627408474;;#3627408466;
;#55349;;#56372;;#3627408483;;#3627408466;;#3627408479;;#3627408462;;#3627408468;;#3627408466; ;#3627408455;;#3627408476;;#3627408481;;#3627408462;;#3627408473; ;#55349;;#56372;;#3627408480;;#3627408480;;#3627408466;;#3627408481;;#3627408480; . The return on assets ratio measures the whole profitability
of assets in terms of the salary earned on each ringgit invested in assets. This ratio is
main to both sha reholders and the providers of finance of the company. The higher the
returns, the more confident they will have in investing in the company. Days in


inventory measures the average number of days that it takes to sell the inventory. Its
formula is 365
;#55349;;#56380;;#3627408483;;#3627408466;;#3627408475;;#3627408481;;#3627408476;;#3627408479;;#55349;;#56422; ;#3627408455;;#3627408482;;#3627408479;;#3627408475;;#3627408476;;#3627408483;;#3627408466;;#3627408479; . The number of days depends on the type of industry that
the company is in. For high value items, the inventory turnover is low. The reverse is
true for low value, easily marketable items. Last but not least, a leverage ratio s hows
the level of debt gained by a business in funding the business. The higher the level of
debts, the more risky the company is perceived to be. There are two main leverage ratios
which are debt to total assets and debt to equity. Hence, this category of ratio is useful
to both the outside financiers as well as investors .

The second slot is about CyberSecurity Malaysia which presented by Megat
Muazzam Mutalib form CyberSecurity Malaysia. He is the head of MyCERT which
have experienced in IT Security for 10 years and actively involved in Incident
Handling, Log Analysis, Network Monitoring, Malware Analysis and Threat Hunting.
In his talk, he explaining about the risk of cyber threats to digital citizen comes in
va rious forms such as hack threat, intrusion, fraud, spam, malicious code and denial of
service attack. Nowadays, there are 2.5 million active user that using the internet.
Therefore, they are vulnerable to cyber -attack and the incident’s cases increasing ye ar
by year.
The core service of CyberSecurity Malaysia are cyber security emergency
service, security quality management service, info security professional development
and outreach and strategy engagement and research. Furthermore, as we know, the
cyber threat evolves with technology. For example, they have specific target, more
professional and have specific motivations. A part from that, the risk of cyber threats
involving women and children are also increasing. For instance, online child
pornography an d love scams. In the year of 2017, CyberSecurity Malaysia received
case during SEA Games, the hacker changed the Indonesian flag to Poland flag.
Nowadays, people are more interested in online shopping but the truth is
actually they have exposing themselve s to online fraud. There is a case where the victim
loss almost RM 21.6 million and suspects were caught in Malaysia and Singapore.
Hence, we need to take precaution steps to avoid being scammed. For example, before


purchasing through online, make sure tha t the website a certified or trusted and search
background of the dealers.
Therefore, the way forward to reduce or prevent the cyber threats is through
awareness and education to all level of communities. Educate people on what is cyber
threat and how to prevent it. Thus, they will be more aware about these cases. Besides,
any incident’s cases related to cyber threats that occur to ourselves need to refer to some
else that professional on the cases.

Ir. Mohamad Faizal Malek addresses two scenarios that usually fresh graduated
engineer will face. The first scenario was finding job and the looking for a higher salary.
The second scenario was to find a job, gain experience and the salary offered w as RM
3000. Ir. Mohamad Faizal Malek advised the students to choose scenario 1. This is
because when choosing job with higher salary, will get a difficult task that it is hard
work to do and it is hard to ask for help from senior and also the job will beco me even
more boring day by day.
Next, experience and challenge that he discussed as an engineer first of all was
to find the right company. He discussed was whether to choose first job at a big
company or small company. Again, he advised us to choose smal l company because
there are many engineers in a big company. Hence, as a junior engineer, any problem
or situations occur on the worksite, the management department will send senior
engineers to cut some times as they are having more experience compared to junior
engineers. Secondly was to find the right job. He gives an example to students if the
company offers position for job but in civil engineering, for the first 3 months, he
advised the students to grab the opportunity. Then, after 3 months , it is rec ommended
to talk to the boss to change our job scope to more mechanical based. If the management
refuses to give the position, it is recommended to find another company.
Next, was to find a right boss and a right senior. Choosing a right boss and a
right senior will guide us to the right path and will get more benefit of our carrier.


Moreover, Ir. Mohamad Faizal Malek advised us to explore the world. For the first until
third year of working was a period that as a junior engineer need to explore.
According to Ir. Faizal Malek, the first until third year of working was a period
that as a junior engineer needs to explore. Even after 4 years of working, he advised us
to not to stop explore such as working at overseas. Moreover, the challenges that the
engineers will face was a good communication skill because it is an essential skill and
communication skill can be developed. Next, was to go out of our comfort zone. It
means t he challenge was to continuously learn even after 10 years working and at the
same times can improve our project management skills. He also advised us to throw
away our relax habit because we need to be competent along the way we work so that
we always giv e our best. However, he claimed that 70% of engineers work was
technical while another 30% was other skills. Other than that, he stresses that an
excellent mechanical engineer need to have a good attitude because it is most important
things that need to be inside someone. Good attitude is a first sight and main criteria to
take on work
In addition, as an engineer, we need to contribute to the society for example
register to Institute Engineer Malaysia (IEM) and conduct a technical talk, write
technical pa pers and always help others. We will become a good an engineer in the

The presenter for this section is Dr. Zainal Fitri bin Zainal Abidin . In this section
we can found that engineering disciplines consist of mechanical engineering, civil
engineering, electrical engineering and chemical engineering. The career path for every
engineer can be becoming the independent entrepreneur, working outs ide from the
engineering course. Thus, the function of engineer is categories in 3 which is research,
development and design. In researching, they must exploring, discover and apply a new
principles. For development, the need to transform idea and concepts into reality. In
designing, they must make a new design and prototype that more reasonable.
Next, the presenter talk about the characteristic of good engineer which is an
engineer must creative in solving the problem, have good interpersonal skills, have a


good attitude and also good at team play while in group. The presenter also talk about
the life of automotive engineering (R;D), their working section include in styling
department, design department and styling department. Thus, their working
environme nt quite noisy and have so many thing that involving with vibration.
In conclusion that we got in this talk, as a future graduate in mechanical
engineering, we must understand the obstacle that we must overcome and find the
solution and survive in enginee ring world.


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