EVALUATIONOF INTERVENTIONS TO PROMOTE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH THE IMPROVEMENT OFSANITATION AT GATANGA SUB-COUNTY RURAL AREAS. NAME: EUGENE KAMBO MURAGEREG NO: E108/0686G/14 Researchproposal submitted to department of social sciences in the school of educationand Social Sciences Karatina University for the degree in Bachelor of Arts incommunity development. 2017/2018 DECLARATION Thisproposal/thesis is my original work and has not been presented for a degree inany otherUniversity…………………. ……………………………………………….Signature Date Thisproposal/thesis has been submitted for examination with my approval asUniversitySupervisor……………… ………………………………………………..
Signature Date AbstractThemain problem that is going to be dealt will be the poor behavioral patternsthat are experienced at the hygienic sector especially on sanitation. The mainoverall objective will be to integrate sanitation with community development.The target populations will especially communities in rural areas that maybeexperiencing some kind poverty. Thesignificance of this research is that it will pave way in ideas for improvingthe health of the target population through behavior change mobilization thatwill reduce the amount of funds spent in medical and burial bills and divertresources to community development. Table of contentsList of tablesList of figuresAcronymsDefinition of terms CHAPTER 1Introduction-1.1 BackgroundAdequate sanitation isthe foundation of development—but a decent toilet or latrine is an unknownluxury to half the people on earth.
Sanitation refers to hygienic and safedisposal of human excreta in order to prevent any contact with the human infuture whatsoever. Sanitation as defined by World Health Organization refers tothe provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urineand faeces. Water supply and sanitation in Kenya is characterized by low levelsof access to water and sanitation, in particular in urban slums and in ruralareas, as well as poor service quality in the form of intermittent watersupply. Seasonal and regional water scarcity exacerbates the difficulty toimprove water supply although even with the shortage of water supply,sanitation can be still improved if the relevant, doable actions are put inplace like water recycling and utilization.The Ministry of Waterand Irrigation remains in charge of policies for water supply, while theMinistry of Public Health and Sanitation is in charge of policies forsanitation.
The total number of people lackingaccess to sanitation in 2015 was 32 672 000 people. Countrywide estimates for 2015indicate that 30% (31% of urban and 30% of rural) Kenyans had access to privateimproved sanitation, including sewerage. In urban areas an additional 27% ofthe population used shared latrines or shallow latrines.
In rural areas, opendefecation was estimated to be still practiced by 15% of the population. In2006–2007 it had been reported that half of the Kenyan population within theservice areas had access to improved sanitation facilities (this definitionincludes flush, pour flush toilets connected to a piped system, septic tanks,VIP latrines and pit latrines). 1.2 statement of the problem The percentage of those with accessto hygienic sanitation facilities has declined slightly over the 1990s, asconstruction has fallen behind population growth. Poor sanitation has negativeeffects like consuming funds in health care costs, preventing families andnations from climbing the ladder of development. For instance, 1 gm.
of faeceshas 10 million viruses, 1 million bacteria, 1000 parasite cysts and 100 wormeggs which can be spread through fluids, flies to foods, fingers causingcholera. When people defecate in the open, flies will feed on the excreta andcan carry small amounts of the excreta away on their bodies and feet. When theytouch food, the excreta and the germs in the excreta are passed onto the food,which may later be eaten by another person. Health impacts are diarrhea/cholera deathssince it approximately kills 2.2 million children a year globally due to lackof safe water/sanitation/hygiene, poor health extending even psychologically,retarded growth/stunting in children .
in Kenya, approximately 19,500 Kenyansincluding 17,100 children under the age of 5 die each year from diarrhea. The most affected arethe populations in developing countries, living in extreme conditions ofpoverty, normally peri-urban dwellers or rural inhabitants. The main problemswhich are responsible for this situation are: lack of priority given to thesector, lack of financial resources, lack of sustainability of water supply andsanitation services, poor hygiene behaviors, and inadequate sanitation inpublic places including hospitals, health centers and schools.Failing to address theproblem adequately will continue compromising the health and economic incomesof the societies at risk even if other development projects are implementedbecause they will not be able enough to utilize them. Therefore this will helpidentify locally available resources in poverty stricken areas in helpingachieving a minimum standard sanitation requirement and turning sanitation intoa communal profit making economy. 1.3 ObjectivesToget an understanding of the relation between sanitation and mortality rates.Topropose the doable ways that deaths resulting from poor sanitation can beminimized.
Tolearn how proper sanitation can contribute to community development.Toidentify local resources a community can utilize in order to promotesanitation.Toidentify the opportunities that sanitation promotion can be open to.Topromote, foster equity and inclusion on sanitation promotion initiatives. 1.4 ResearchquestionsWhat is the relationbetween sanitation and mortality?What actions can betaken to minimize deaths resulting from poor sanitation facilities?How can propersanitation contribute to community development?Which resources areavailable locally for improving sanitation?Which opportunities canbe utilized in sanitation promotion?Can sanitation promotion integratevalues like equity and inclusion? 1.
5 JustificationsIview this research as appropriate because as a community developer I find ituseful as one of the strategy to promote growth of communities that areunder-developed and may have the resources and abilities to use sanitationmarketing as one of holistic approach to development. The impacts should beindicated by a sustainable new behavior and community who are enjoying maximumhealth benefits by using a latrine. 1.6 scope/context1.
7 limitationThe process is likelyto encounter limitations for instance, since this process is supposed toinvolve all the community members ranging from the children, adults, elderly,leaders and the physically challenged from both sexes hence making it a hardtask to collect much data.Another limitation isthat not many people may be likely ready to speak about sanitation issues. CHAPTER 2.Literature review2.1 introductions2.2 theoreticalreview/conceptual framework2.3 critique of theexisting literature relevant to the study2.4 summary2.5 research gapsCHAPTER 3Methodology3.1 research design3.2 population3.3 sampling frame3.4 sampling andsampling technique3.5 instruments3.6 data collectionprocedure3.7 pilot test3.8 data processingand analysis