Emerging customer’s demand. Main goal of OM would be

Technologies in Operational Management

Nicklaane Krishnamoorthy 1, a, Noor
Adlin Afiq Bin Noordin 2,b, Nur Iman Bin Kamal 3,c,          Nur Ainun Mardhiah Binti Amran 4,d,
Nik Nor Aznizam Bin Nik Norizam 5,e

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2, 3, 4 Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN),
Kajang, Malaysia


a [email protected], b [email protected], c [email protected],                                d [email protected], e [email protected]



Developing technologies, Emerging
Technologies, Business Operation, Operation Management, Goods and Services.


Technologies that will be
developed or currently being developed is known as emerging technology. They
include educational, information, biotechnology up to artificial intelligence. Operation
management is set of activities that transform inputs to outputs in the form of
goods and services that can help add value to the organization.
Examples of inputs would be labors, equipment or materials and examples of
outputs would be goods and services. Two main terms of operation management are
logistics and supply chain management. Emerging technologies in operation
management can help and organization to improve productivity and quality,
reduce cost and improve customer satisfaction.


1.0 Introduction


      Operational management (OM) is mainly
about organizing, supervising in the production field, manufacturing, and
provision of services and planning. Limited resources should be used to ensure
business operations are efficient and effective to meet customer’s demand. Main
goal of OM would be to support and fulfill shortage of goals using least
resources without sacrificing efficiency or quality. There are 4 key areas on
developing operations practices, they are, goods and services, process
management, supply chain and inventory and quality control. Effective OM can
help to reduce cost, increase revenue and also improve customer satisfaction. Operation
management would be explained precisely using two terms, they are, supply chain
management and logistics. Supply chain management means meeting client demand
would be critical when understanding global trends whereas logistics simply
means the use of resources and cost have become very important because shortage
of supply and disappoint customer’s expectations.


      Emerging technologies are technologies
that already currently in the process of being developed or will be developed
in future. They can be explained as radical novelty, fast growth, coherence,
prominent impact and uncertainty 1.
The technology will be advanced in all different systems to achieve targets or
goals. Hence, emerging technology in operational management is an alternative
way to enhance the process control of system with systematical operational

Figure 1 Operation


Methodology on How Emerging Technologies Were Conducted


Two industries which are food and automotive sectors in the Europe were
chosen as case study to study how manufacturing or engineering apps (eApps) can
help to improve their operations. Detailed business process analysis was
conducted in order to identify critical operation through the use of eApps.
Interviews, workshops and deep analysis in the shop floor took place, and as
for interviews, they were conducted with relevant representatives from specific
areas of roles, this interview’s objective was to gather different opinions on
current practices. Besides that, business model by Osterwalder was used to map
important blocks that influence the eApps. A set of questionnaire was also
created in order to guide them in selecting the suitable model 2.


Figure 2 The eApps
developed for both case study


main two methods; to enable predication and explanation of behavior and to be
useful in theoretical advance (in the social sciences). These methods been
tested to private and public interest in promoting metal additive manufacturing
in aviation. Methods such as ground theory-building were used. 37 interviews
and 80 hours of observations on participant was done. The 37 interviews was
primary information to help identify themes of study whereas the participant
observations took place at various meetings that was organized by America
Makes. A meeting was organized as final method with 25 leaders from the
government to discuss how to overcome challenges of the technology 3.

          Traceability technology can be used as a
mechanism for quality wood trade and shows the current trend and future
perspectives. The methodology where it was starting with doing revision on
traceability as a tool of quality wood trade. Then, next step is collecting and
studying all the systems of traceability. After that, the summarizing of the
results that shows all the traceability technologies in the form of chronology,
price evaluation, the technology efficiencies and the characteristics. There
are a few of main types of wood traceability which are the marking method of
punching, marking logs with paint, barcodes, QR codes and innovative
experimental technologies which are Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID), microwave sensor to identify system and also fingerprint
methods 4. 

     Methods involved are assessing response
patterns and scheduled responses over online data capture tools. This looks at
consideration checks and control validations to identify oblivious respondents
in essential experimental information collection. These prima facie
consideration checks run from the straight forward such as invert scaling to
begin with proposed a century back to later and included strategies such as
assessing reaction designs and coordinated reactions through online information
capture instruments. The consideration check validations moreover run from
effectively executed components such as programmed location through coordinated
questions to profoundly examination of reactions by the analyst. The latter has
the potential to present accidental analyst inclination as the researcher’s
judgment may affect the interpretation of the information 5.

creation through engagement and design apply a plan science approach to offer
assistance a Northern European city move forward the proficiency of its
domestic care conveyance framework 6.


The process of problem framing and solution development


of 64 challenges that were split into two categories; Processing Challenges and
Metrology Challenges, these challenges represent possible problems, barriers
and areas of concern for future silicon photovoltaics technologies.
Participants were told that these challenges are within content of emerging
materials 7.


Results and Discussions of the Analyzed Methods

   For the automotive case study,
eApps have been applied to support flexible work environment and activities
such as planning. As for the food industry case study, this app have helped
that industry to reduce planning times, improve packaging and storage processes
especially in monitoring suitable temperature for meat. This eApps have proved
that it is a better alternative than the current digital tools, they not only
can prove consistent information but they make information understandable and
reusable 2.

the result, regulators (in the case of aviation) of emerging technologies are
faced with balancing increasingly tight safety requirements, risks associated
with technological uncertainty, and opportunities for innovation, which could
bring extended social bene?ts. There were 3 base, technology-based,
performance-based, and management based regulation each have advantages and
disadvantages. These o?ers a series of policy mechanisms to balance technology
uncertainty and the need for innovation, independent of regulatory style. However,
not all ?rms in the same industry necessarily have the same knowledge, or less
the same capabilities. Regulators obtain their knowledge directly from
trailblazers. At the same time, suppliers have economic incentives to implement
the technology but do not have the ?nancial resources and human capital to
internally develop the same level of knowledge as the leading companies. 3.

This traceability is one of emerging technology that can be used now to
increase the efficiency of the production of wood trade. The process was
starting prom punching, painting, using barcode, QR code, microwave sensor,
RFID and lastly DNA fingerprinting. Hence, this paper proves that using this
traceability technology may improve the supply chain of wood become more
efficient 4.     

 The experimental discover of the
show work uncover that build and scale validations appear reliably critical
change in the fit statistics
finding of extraordinary utilize for analysts working predominantly with scales
and builds for their observational models. This result shows that, by their
exceptionally nature, consideration checks may trigger an inborn trade-off
between misfortune of test subjects lowered control and expanded Type II error
and the potential of capitalizing on chance alone the plausibility that the
already critical comes about were in truth the result of Type I blunder. The
investigation moreover appears that the steady loss rates due to consideration
checks upwards of 70% in a few watched samples are distant bigger than
ordinarily accepted. Such misfortune rates raise the specter that ponders not
approving consideration may incidentally increment their Type I mistake rate 5.


Table 1 Summary of data validation and
attention check options

are two results obtained; leveling capacity utilization and improved
productivity. Home care system for senior citizens in two cities in Finland was
able to be improved 6.

  By entering input from RV
R&D members, total of 14 critical challenges were identified for the six
sub categories under to main challenges categories. This Pareto analysis can
help to provide some objectives into PV community’s area of interest and as
industry, R topics need to push for higher efficiency and inexpensive
c-Si modules 7.


Advantages/Benefits of the Emerging Technologies

are many benefits or RFID technology which is simultaneous multiple readings,
there are no requirements on line of sight and also the capabilities of read
and write that includes longer range of read. 8.

          Digital technologies for operation
management are to be implemented by using manufacturing or engineering apps
(eApps) for the purpose of manufacturing process and product design. This
application can be used on smart devices, which could be a plus point for any
decision support on the shop floor. This helps support life cycle activities
and increase production efficiency. Besides, this app can also be used for
production planning and scheduling 2.

2 Benefits of implementing eApps



Disadvantages/ Limitations of Emerging Technologies     

are some limitations on this technology which is in term of the read rate,
reliability of data, lack of unified standard, high prices according to the
hardware and software of technology and also on security issues. Another
limitation on RFID technology is it still needs human intervention for a few
activities 8.

        Since the model is still at its nascence,
many interesting and important topics have not yet been fully explored causing
several disadvantages. Perhaps the most notable one is the lack of empirical
studies to test established theories. The existing supply chain management
model focuses on bounded rationality from supply chain participants. In
practice, however, customers may exhibit bounded rationality to a larger
extent. This is because customers are usually less informed about the market,
they interact with the market less often, and they are not aided by dedicated
decision-making systems. Based on these considerations, incorporating customer bounded
rationality can provide new insights to interested industries 9.







The future recommendation from this paper is when applying the RFID
technology at the store level, the visibility may give permission the members
of supply chain to collect the information on the real demand, hence allowing
lean assembling at the level of suppliers and optimizing the replenishment
methods at the centre of distribution. Besides, RFID technology has a
capability to increase the responsiveness of organization in order to manage
the urgent situations. 8.

         Technology forecasting is currently
one of the famous area of research, even though it offers many opportunities
but accurate forecasting is still an issue due to lack of historical data. To
overcome this, they recommended and have proved that it’s possible to predict
emerging technologies by using supervised learning methods. They overcome that
lack of data problem by labelling data using patents that have been published
in the United States Trademark and Patent Office. Time lag have limited most
studies and this was overcome by depending on backward citations that are
available once patent is published 10. 


Summary (Strength and Weakness)


is definitely non deniable that emerging technologies will constantly take
place due to constant innovations by researchers. From all the journals, it can
be concluded that the strength of such emerging technologies can help
production to be a lot easier in terms of helping improving productivity,
quality, stand a place to be unique than existing technologies, improve
customer’s demand, and so on. Whenever there is strength in a technology, there
will always be a weakness. One weakness of emerging technology is that even
though it has abundance of usefulness, but it will not be used my many due to
its implantation cost, or sometimes because it is dubious and may not be so
convincing for many people as it could be quite high tech. Nevertheless,
emerging technologies should constantly take place, researches should constantly
innovate and find something new for the country to be compatible with many
developed countries. When a country has advanced technologies, it will be
looked up to by many people to be followed as example. 


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