Emerging manufacturing, and provision of services and

EmergingTechnologies in Operational ManagementNicklaane Krishnamoorthy 1, a, NoorAdlin Afiq Bin Noordin 2,b, Nur Iman Bin Kamal 3,c,          Nur Ainun Mardhiah Binti Amran 4,d,Nik Nor Aznizam Bin Nik Norizam 5,e 1,2, 3, 4 Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN),Kajang, Malaysia a [email protected], b [email protected], c [email protected],                                d [email protected], e [email protected]   Keyword:Developing technologies, EmergingTechnologies, Business Operation, Operation Management, Goods and Services. Abstract:Technologies that will bedeveloped or currently being developed is known as emerging technology.

Theyinclude educational, information, biotechnology up to artificial intelligence. Operationmanagement is set of activities that transform inputs to outputs in the form ofgoods and services that can help add value to the organization.Examples of inputs would be labors, equipment or materials and examples ofoutputs would be goods and services. Two main terms of operation management arelogistics and supply chain management. Emerging technologies in operationmanagement can help and organization to improve productivity and quality,reduce cost and improve customer satisfaction.

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 1.0 Introduction       Operational management (OM) is mainlyabout organizing, supervising in the production field, manufacturing, andprovision of services and planning. Limited resources should be used to ensurebusiness operations are efficient and effective to meet customer’s demand.

Maingoal of OM would be to support and fulfill shortage of goals using leastresources without sacrificing efficiency or quality. There are 4 key areas ondeveloping operations practices, they are, goods and services, processmanagement, supply chain and inventory and quality control. Effective OM canhelp to reduce cost, increase revenue and also improve customer satisfaction. Operationmanagement would be explained precisely using two terms, they are, supply chainmanagement and logistics. Supply chain management means meeting client demandwould be critical when understanding global trends whereas logistics simplymeans the use of resources and cost have become very important because shortageof supply and disappoint customer’s expectations.        Emerging technologies are technologiesthat already currently in the process of being developed or will be developedin future. They can be explained as radical novelty, fast growth, coherence,prominent impact and uncertainty 1.

The technology will be advanced in all different systems to achieve targets orgoals. Hence, emerging technology in operational management is an alternativeway to enhance the process control of system with systematical operationalmanagement. Figure 1 OperationManagement 2.0Methodology on How Emerging Technologies Were Conducted      Two industries which are food and automotive sectors in the Europe werechosen as case study to study how manufacturing or engineering apps (eApps) canhelp to improve their operations. Detailed business process analysis wasconducted in order to identify critical operation through the use of eApps.Interviews, workshops and deep analysis in the shop floor took place, and asfor interviews, they were conducted with relevant representatives from specificareas of roles, this interview’s objective was to gather different opinions oncurrent practices. Besides that, business model by Osterwalder was used to mapimportant blocks that influence the eApps. A set of questionnaire was alsocreated in order to guide them in selecting the suitable model 2.

 Figure 2 The eAppsdeveloped for both case study       Themain two methods; to enable predication and explanation of behavior and to beuseful in theoretical advance (in the social sciences). These methods beentested to private and public interest in promoting metal additive manufacturingin aviation. Methods such as ground theory-building were used. 37 interviewsand 80 hours of observations on participant was done. The 37 interviews wasprimary information to help identify themes of study whereas the participantobservations took place at various meetings that was organized by AmericaMakes.

A meeting was organized as final method with 25 leaders from thegovernment to discuss how to overcome challenges of the technology 3.           Traceability technology can be used as amechanism for quality wood trade and shows the current trend and futureperspectives. The methodology where it was starting with doing revision ontraceability as a tool of quality wood trade. Then, next step is collecting andstudying all the systems of traceability.

After that, the summarizing of theresults that shows all the traceability technologies in the form of chronology,price evaluation, the technology efficiencies and the characteristics. Thereare a few of main types of wood traceability which are the marking method ofpunching, marking logs with paint, barcodes, QR codes and innovativeexperimental technologies which are Radio FrequencyIdentification (RFID), microwave sensor to identify system and also fingerprintmethods 4.           Methods involved are assessing responsepatterns and scheduled responses over online data capture tools.

This looks atconsideration checks and control validations to identify oblivious respondentsin essential experimental information collection. These prima facieconsideration checks run from the straight forward such as invert scaling tobegin with proposed a century back to later and included strategies such asassessing reaction designs and coordinated reactions through online informationcapture instruments. The consideration check validations moreover run fromeffectively executed components such as programmed location through coordinatedquestions to profoundly examination of reactions by the analyst. The latter hasthe potential to present accidental analyst inclination as the researcher’sjudgment may affect the interpretation of the information 5.

         Knowledgecreation through engagement and design apply a plan science approach to offerassistance a Northern European city move forward the proficiency of itsdomestic care conveyance framework 6. Figure3The process of problem framing and solution development             Totalof 64 challenges that were split into two categories; Processing Challenges andMetrology Challenges, these challenges represent possible problems, barriersand areas of concern for future silicon photovoltaics technologies.Participants were told that these challenges are within content of emergingmaterials 7. 3.0Results and Discussions of the Analyzed Methods        For the automotive case study,eApps have been applied to support flexible work environment and activitiessuch as planning. As for the food industry case study, this app have helpedthat industry to reduce planning times, improve packaging and storage processesespecially in monitoring suitable temperature for meat. This eApps have provedthat it is a better alternative than the current digital tools, they not onlycan prove consistent information but they make information understandable andreusable 2.         Asthe result, regulators (in the case of aviation) of emerging technologies arefaced with balancing increasingly tight safety requirements, risks associatedwith technological uncertainty, and opportunities for innovation, which couldbring extended social bene?ts.

There were 3 base, technology-based,performance-based, and management based regulation each have advantages anddisadvantages. These o?ers a series of policy mechanisms to balance technologyuncertainty and the need for innovation, independent of regulatory style. However,not all ?rms in the same industry necessarily have the same knowledge, or lessthe same capabilities. Regulators obtain their knowledge directly fromtrailblazers.

At the same time, suppliers have economic incentives to implementthe technology but do not have the ?nancial resources and human capital tointernally develop the same level of knowledge as the leading companies. 3.        This traceability is one of emerging technology that can be used now toincrease the efficiency of the production of wood trade. The process wasstarting prom punching, painting, using barcode, QR code, microwave sensor,RFID and lastly DNA fingerprinting. Hence, this paper proves that using thistraceability technology may improve the supply chain of wood become moreefficient 4.              The experimental discover of theshow work uncover that build and scale validations appear reliably criticalchange in the fit statisticsfinding of extraordinary utilize for analysts working predominantly with scalesand builds for their observational models.

This result shows that, by theirexceptionally nature, consideration checks may trigger an inborn trade-offbetween misfortune of test subjects lowered control and expanded Type II errorand the potential of capitalizing on chance alone the plausibility that thealready critical comes about were in truth the result of Type I blunder. Theinvestigation moreover appears that the steady loss rates due to considerationchecks upwards of 70% in a few watched samples are distant bigger thanordinarily accepted. Such misfortune rates raise the specter that ponders notapproving consideration may incidentally increment their Type I mistake rate 5.

 Table 1 Summary of data validation andattention check options       Thereare two results obtained; leveling capacity utilization and improvedproductivity. Home care system for senior citizens in two cities in Finland wasable to be improved 6.        By entering input from RVR&D members, total of 14 critical challenges were identified for the sixsub categories under to main challenges categories. This Pareto analysis canhelp to provide some objectives into PV community’s area of interest and asindustry, R topics need to push for higher efficiency and inexpensivec-Si modules 7. 4.

0Advantages/Benefits of the Emerging Technologies          Thereare many benefits or RFID technology which is simultaneous multiple readings,there are no requirements on line of sight and also the capabilities of readand write that includes longer range of read. 8.          Digital technologies for operationmanagement are to be implemented by using manufacturing or engineering apps(eApps) for the purpose of manufacturing process and product design. Thisapplication can be used on smart devices, which could be a plus point for anydecision support on the shop floor. This helps support life cycle activitiesand increase production efficiency.

Besides, this app can also be used forproduction planning and scheduling 2.Table2 Benefits of implementing eApps  5.0Disadvantages/ Limitations of Emerging Technologies              Thereare some limitations on this technology which is in term of the read rate,reliability of data, lack of unified standard, high prices according to thehardware and software of technology and also on security issues. Anotherlimitation on RFID technology is it still needs human intervention for a fewactivities 8.          Since the model is still at its nascence,many interesting and important topics have not yet been fully explored causingseveral disadvantages. Perhaps the most notable one is the lack of empiricalstudies to test established theories. The existing supply chain managementmodel focuses on bounded rationality from supply chain participants. Inpractice, however, customers may exhibit bounded rationality to a largerextent.

This is because customers are usually less informed about the market,they interact with the market less often, and they are not aided by dedicateddecision-making systems. Based on these considerations, incorporating customer boundedrationality can provide new insights to interested industries 9.          6.0Recommendation          The future recommendation from this paper is when applying the RFIDtechnology at the store level, the visibility may give permission the membersof supply chain to collect the information on the real demand, hence allowinglean assembling at the level of suppliers and optimizing the replenishmentmethods at the centre of distribution. Besides, RFID technology has acapability to increase the responsiveness of organization in order to managethe urgent situations. 8.         Technology forecasting is currentlyone of the famous area of research, even though it offers many opportunitiesbut accurate forecasting is still an issue due to lack of historical data.

Toovercome this, they recommended and have proved that it’s possible to predictemerging technologies by using supervised learning methods. They overcome thatlack of data problem by labelling data using patents that have been publishedin the United States Trademark and Patent Office. Time lag have limited moststudies and this was overcome by depending on backward citations that areavailable once patent is published 10.           7.

0Summary (Strength and Weakness)           Itis definitely non deniable that emerging technologies will constantly takeplace due to constant innovations by researchers. From all the journals, it canbe concluded that the strength of such emerging technologies can helpproduction to be a lot easier in terms of helping improving productivity,quality, stand a place to be unique than existing technologies, improvecustomer’s demand, and so on. Whenever there is strength in a technology, therewill always be a weakness. One weakness of emerging technology is that eventhough it has abundance of usefulness, but it will not be used my many due toits implantation cost, or sometimes because it is dubious and may not be soconvincing for many people as it could be quite high tech.

Nevertheless,emerging technologies should constantly take place, researches should constantlyinnovate and find something new for the country to be compatible with manydeveloped countries. When a country has advanced technologies, it will belooked up to by many people to be followed as example. 

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