electronics, to connection to the grid system.

electronics, electric vehicles can be used as an alternative distributed energy resource (DER) to allow the consumer to minimise their energy costs.With the growth in the use of EV’s, infrastructure like fast charging stations need to be addressed. In the past, it was only considered for grid-to-vehicle (G2V) connections. It is now that a bidirectional flow of power is being taken into consideration, with respect to connection to the grid system.

Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) as it is now being labelled, where power can be used to charge EV batteries at off peak hours and during peak hours power can be returned to the grid to reduce peak loads. As most vehicles are parked during most of the day, plugged in vehicles can be used to support utilities and ancillary services. There are different modes of charging that have been researched and implemented with direct current (DC) fast charging stations appearing to be the most efficient solution. Utilities companies are devising strategies to cover for any adverse effects when these vehicles supply power back onto the electric grid. Some of the aspects of integration of EVs using smart charging bidirectional units onto the grid are;

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