EFFICIENT HYBRID BIKE FOR INDIAN ROADS 1Prof.MaliniK.V,HOD2TejasdeepakNaik2MohammadSuhail 12EEEDepartment,SriSairamCollegeOfEngineering,Bengaluru,INDIA Email:hod.
[email protected], ContactNumber::+91-91489037991, Abstract:Themaintargetovertheenvironmentwithrespecttopollution,conservationoffuelresourcesinthe world,the automotiveindustryhasenteredintoanewdimensioninproductionofmorefuelefficient,lowemissionvehicles andnewtechnologies.OneofthegreatestinnovationsisHybridElectricVehicle(HEV).Thehybridelectricvehicle consistsoftwoormoreenergysourcesfortotalpropulsionofthevehicle.Inthispaper,twoindependent propulsions,ICEandelectricmotorareindependentlyoperatedforcombinedeffortderivationintotalpropulsion ofthevehicle.
TheCombinedeffortofICEandElectricmotorinpropellingthevehiclemoresuitableforcountry likeIndiaisbeinganalyzedinthispaper.TheICEwillbeactiveininitialpickupandelectricmotoractsas supportivepropulsionderiver.ThetestareachosenisMysoreCity,Indiainderivingthedrivingcycle. Keywords:HybridElectricVehicle,TwoWheelerHybridVehicle,HybridElectricScooter I.INTRODUCTION PROBLEMS,OBJECTIVE Theinventionofinternalcombustionengineis oneofthegreatestinventionsofmankind.
The conventionalvehicles with ICE provide a good performance andlongoperatingrange. Howevertheyhave caused and continue to cause serious problems for poor fuel economy, environment pollution and human life.Reducing fuelconsumption and emissions is one ofthe most important goals ofmodern design.Thehybridization of a convectional combustion engine vehicle with an advanced electric motordrive may greatly enhance the overall efficiency and achievehigher fuelwith reduced emissions.
Consideringtheurban status in India,a well organized and fuelefficientscooterhastobe designedanddeveloped. II. ELECTRICVEHICLEINGENERAL HEV are the vehicles with more than two energy sources are present. The major challenges for HEV design are managing multiple energysource,highlydependent on driving cycles, battery sizing andbattery management.HEV s take the advantages of electric drive to compensate the inherent weaknessofICE,namely avoiding the idling forincreasing thefuelefficiency and reduce emission during starting and speeding operations,touseregenerativebrakinginstead of mechanical braking during deceleration anddownslopedriving.
HEVcanmeetcustomersneedandhasadded value but cost is the major issue. These vehiclesareofhighcostandcertainprogram should be supported by the specific governmentformarketingHEVs. TheHEVsareclassifiedinto two basickinds- series and parallel.
Recently with introduction of some HEVs offering the featuresofbothseriesandparallelhybrids,the classificationhasbeenextendedtothreekinds- series, parallel and series-parallel. It is interestingtonotethatsomenewlyintroduced HEVscannot be classified into these three kinds. Hereby final classification involves series,parallel,series-parallel,complexhybrid. IIIDRIVINGCYCLEDEVELOPMENT The firststep in developing a driving cycle is to measure and record real driving behaviors. Theobtained data has to be analyzed in forming arepresentative cycle from real conditions. Theobtaineddatais classifiedindifferentsectionsbasedontraffic conditions IV. SPEEDSURVEYRECORDINGMETHODS1The initialneed forthis work is to measure and record the vehicle speed.
The measurement of speed is divided into two groups 1. Using the equipment provided in the vehiclelikespeedometer. 2.Usage ofsome additionalequipmentlike GPSsystem. V.
CLASSIFICATIONOFTRAFFIC CONDITIONS Thetrafficcondition varies with respect to differentparts ofthe city.In classifying the trafficconditionsthe parameters used to be the average speed andpercentageofidletime foreachofthetrip.Thefourtraffic conditions based on the above criteria are asfollows 1. Congestedurban conditions:An average speedof6kmphto8kmphwithlow tohigh idletime.
2. Urban conditions:An average speed of 12kmphto 35kmphwithmoderateto low idletime 3. . Extra urban conditions: An average speed of40kmphwithlowidletime.
4. Highways:An average speed more than 40kmphwithverylow idletime. ANYALYSISOFTHERECORDEDDATA As the primary need for this work is to record thedata,the method ofrecording the speed is donethrough dynamometerprovided in the vehicle.Thetest vehicle is driven in stock condition through thegiventestrouteof Mysorecity,India.Thepropulsionisonlythrough ICErunningonpetrolfuel.Theroutechosenin thetestareaisasshownintheFigure.1. Figure1-DrivingRoutechoseninthetestarea(Ref.
:GOOGLE MAPS) The following data are recorded by making the vehicle to travelin the selected route in anticlockwise direction from start pointmarked on the map.Therecordeddata is as given in table-1 The total distance covered in this trip is 3Km.Thetimetaken for covering this distanceis 272 seconds under moderate traffic condition. The speed-time curve is plotted for the above readings.The obtained speed-time curve is analyzedasquadrilateraltypeas Table-2 From the obtained average speed,itcan be concludedthat,theselectedtestareacomes2under the category of Extra Urban traffic conditions. Table-3 shows the comparison between differentcycles based on statistical parameters. It can beconcluded thatthe obtained values of the currentcycle are much superior comparedtoother in terms ofacceleration,averagespeedandmaximum speed. Tabl-3 VI.
DESIGNANDDEVELOPMENTOF ELECTRICSCOOTER Thedesignconceptisdevelopedfordriving ascooterwith individual wheels of the vehicle separatelypropelledwithdifferent sources.Therearwheelwillbecoupled to the vehicle as in before driven by ICE, whereas thefrontwheelis replaced with an electric motorin-wheeldrive driven by fiveDCbatteries.Thechosentestvehiclefor theanalysispurposeisKineticHondaY2K, made, two-stroke, continuously variable transmission, more suitable for testing purpose. For analysis, the mechanical arrangementswithrespecttosuspensionin thefrontwheelarebeingalteredasperthe requireddesignforholdingthemotorwheel Thecontrollerforthemotorisbeinginterfaced withthe motorspeed regulation.The speed controlling throttle is being interfaced through the motorcontrollercircuit.The motorusedhereis48V,250W,Ampere made hub motor.
The controller for themotor is also Ampere made suitable for controlling thespecified motor.Thethrottleis an ampere made throttle for speed regulation of the specified motor.The inputto the motor is supplied byfive Exide made Electra lead-acid batterieseachof12V,20Ahthroughcontroller for testing purpose. Two independent propelling sources are being employed for obtainingtotalpropulsionofthevehicle. VIII. ANALYSISOFTHEDESIGN The hardware modelis developed forthe testingpurposeasdisplayedbelow. chosenforanalyzingthedesign.
Thevehicleis driven in the testarea with both ICE and motorinrunningcondition forpropelling the vehicle.The observedparameters are given3below in table 4.The drivingcycleanalysis remains the same as describe earlierin this paper. Thedesignedtestvehicleisanalyzedinthetest area route. The area considered for stock vehicle analysis in deriving the above driving cycleisthesamerouteTable-4 RESULT DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Itisobservedthat,theICE inthisbuilthybrid electric vehicle is utilized for obtaining the propulsionofthevehicle from the rest, as the speed is increased; theelectric motor propulsion is combined with the ICE propulsion fortotalmovementofthe vehicle. The totaltorque obtained by both ICE and electric motor are synchronized for respective road gradient byvarying suitably the respective controllers utilized.Bydoing torquedistributionaccordingly,batterylifeper total charge can be enhanced in driving theelectric motor also minimizing the fuel required forICEpropulsion.Forthetestroute chosen,thevehiclein stock condition,eligible forgiving a mileage of35km (asobservedin stock driving),With this type ofarrangement, can enhance the mileage performance efficientlyby25%.
Thethrottlewith respectto ICE was moderatelyinvolved in obtaining the propulsionduring the test run. The throttle involved in driving the electric motor was mutuallymadeinvolved withrespect to ICE throttle. Both motor torque and ICEtorque were responsible in propelling the vehicle during the test run.The torque distribution betweenICE and electric motor has to be enhanced bydesigning a suitable torque synchronizer. The shortbattery life issue relatedtopresentelectricbikescanbe solved implementing this technology. Also low- emission,electric / ICE mode ofoperations can be furtherenhanced in thisproject.The motor REFERENCS: 1 HabibaljedandAndreMIEZE„Aelectricvehiclemodel andadrivingcycleformaildeliveryuseEIGSIFrance 2 C.C.
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