DRUG like Chhedana, Bhedana, Lekhana etc. Consequently in

DRUG REVIEW INTRODUCTION:”The Glory of Medicine isthat it is constantly moving forward, that there is always more to learn.The ill of today do not cloud the horizon of tomorrow,but acts as a spur to greater effort”-William James Mayo In India the medicalscience, has developed from ancient civilization which used parts of plants andanimal. It has progressed from an era of empririasim to the present stage ofspecific therapeutic agents. Ayurveda is the first to give an elaboratedescription of various therapeutic measures calculated to aim at, not merely ofradical removal of the causative factors but also at the restoration of Doshaequilibrium.Ayurveda, the science of life, mostly deals with medicinalplants.

In Rigveda and Atharvaveda there are large numbers ofmedicinal plants mentioned to be used as drugs. Herbal drugs are serving thehuman society from the time immemorial in curing various ailments. Theancestors of India lived with the plants, carefully observed them andidentified them by organoleptic evaluation, prepared the medicines themselvesand the suffering mankind was relieved by administering those genuine drugs.The word drug is derived from the French word “Drogue” means dry herb.

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Drugas defined by WHO is a substance or product that is used or intended to be usedto modify or explore the physiological systems or pathological states for thebenefits of the recipient.1 Drug hold a significant role in thetreatment regimen and plays an important role in achieving success againstdisease like arsenal for the chikitsa. Drug is the only source to break theSamprapti after excluding all Shalya Vidhi.HISTORICAL REVIEW:Vedas are the oldest written testimonials available tomankind on this earth. Plenty ofmedicinal uses have been enumerated in these authentic texts.

But there is nodescription of Kshara in Vedic literature. In Upanishada, the use of word Kshara is found but nothing has beendescribed in detail.In  this regard,  detailed  explanation regarding  Kshara  has  been made  bySushruta. Only Sushruta hasdedicated a chapter to Kshara. He hasnarrated Kshara considering its scopein Shalya Tantra due to its qualitieslike Chhedana, Bhedana, Lekhana etc.

Consequentlyin the period of Samhita, Charaka has dealt with definition, varieties,properties & application of Kshara.Charaka has mentioned two types of Kshara preparation. In 1st chapter of Vimana sthana, definition, general properties and adverse effects of Kshara are mentioned2. He has also specified that Kshara does not possess a single Rasa, but it possess multiple Rasas because it is a Dravya prepared from various drugs andconsist all rasas except Amla rasa.Apart from that, in surgical description also, Kshara has been mentioned as “Shastra pranidhana” 3Dalhana, the eminentcommentator of Sushruta Samhitaexplained the word ‘Ksharana’ as one which mobilizes and removes the deformed flesh, skin etc. and alsoremoves the vitiated Doshas fromtheir location.DESCRIPTION OF KSHARA:Treatment by Kshara is technically termed as Kshara Karma and it comes under thescope of Shalya Tantra, while Acharya Charaka has considered it as oneof the three fold treatment i.e.

ShashtraPranidhana. In Harita Samhita, Kshara Karma is included in the eightimportant types of treatment.Sushruta has narrated Kshara asan AnuShastra, Upayantra and one ofthe Upakramas of Vrana.

Sushruta emphasizes on the fact that, when the Kshara administered by an ignorant physician can harm the bodylike Agni, Shastra and Vajra or cancause death itself. While the same Ksharawhen administered by an intelligent and well skilled physician can prove potentenough to subside all serious and most troublesome diseases rapidly in which itis indicated. Thus, Kshara Karma hasbeen considered as a wealth and a strong weapon in Ayurvedic pharmacopeia.Etymology:·       The term Kshara is derived from two root words i.e. ‘Chhana’, ‘Chhar’means ‘Shlathan’ or destroyer because ofits capability to destroy the substance like an unhealthy tissue of thebody and vitiated flesh etc.

·       In Amarkosh, Kshara term isdenoted as „Kach?. This gives themeaning of movement (Sanchalan). ·       In Sabadakalpadruma “Kshara” is derived fromDhatu ‘Kshara’ which gives the meaningof movement (Sanchalan).4Analyzing the derivation,the word Kshara means Spandan, Hinsa and Ksharana. Theroot meaning of Kshara gives themeaning of violence which destroys theskin, tissues etc. from the body by cutting or destroying them.

In Sushruta Samhita, the substance that expels out the ‘Dushta TvakaMamsadi’ by its Kshrana action is called Kshara.5Definition:Kshara are derivatives of plant drug ashes in the form ofsolutions, powder or crystals, all ofwhich have the basic quality of being alkaline. The prepared drug substance iscalled Kshara and because of itspeculiar qualities to causes Ksharanaof Mamsa & other Dhatus7 when it applied.Due  to its  corrosive  nature (Ksharanata)  it is  known  as  Kshara (alkali).Dalhana comments that the substance which produces Shodhana of Doshas, Dhatu, Maladi by its Ksharana action is calledKshara. (Dalhana on Sushruta Sutra11/4)Kshara is having many Rasas andis dominated by Katu followed by Lavana as Anurasa.6Modern View:The term ‘Alkali’ is devoted to the ‘Kshara Vargiya dravyas’ in modern.

The word’Alkali’ is derived from Arabic ‘alqaliy’- ‘thecalcined ashes’, referring to the original source of alkaline substances. An adjectiveof caustic is attached to the ‘DahakDravyas’. When it apply on thetissue it indirectly cauterizes the tissue, so it also known as potentialcauterizing agent.Source:Charaka has mentioned eighteen parts of herbal plants viz.which can be used in medicinalpurpose and Kshara is one of them.Types:As per textvarious classifications of Kshara areavailable. All such classifications are based on some fundamental factors. Asgiven below:·       On the Basis ofApplication1.

     Sushruta                                          i.           Pratisaraniya (External Application)                                        ii.           Paniya (Oral Administration)2.     Charaka                                          i.           Pratisaraniya (External Application)                                        ii.           Paniya (Oral Administration)3.     Vagbhata                                          i.           Bahyaparimajana                                        ii.

           Antahaparimarjan·       Onthe Basis of Potency-The Pratisaraniya Kshara has been furthersub classified in to tri folds 111.     Mrudu- without adding anyadditional drug and it is mild in action.2.     Madhyama- contains avapadravya and moderate in action.3.     Tikshan- contains avapa,pratiavapa and some other dravya which make the Kshara more potentiate inaction.This classification isentirely based on the strength or concentration of Kshara for external use.

This means to achieve cauterization indifferent depths of the application site.·       On the Basis of Origin: 1.    Vanaspatija2.    Pranija3.    KhanijaPROPERTIES:All Ksharas are penetrating in nature, hot in potency, destroy worms,vitiate Pitta and Asruk and help digestion of other substances, help in breakup ofhard masses, not good for heart,puncture the tissues being pungent and salty in taste, not good to ShukraDhatu, Oja, hair and eyes.1Table no  : Propertiesof Kshara to different Acharyas: Sr.No.

Properties Ch. Sa2 Su. Sa3 As. Hr.4 Ra. Ta5 1.

       Tikshna + – – + 2.       Ushna + – – + 3.       Laghu + – – – 4.

       Ruksha + – – – 5.       Kledatva + – – – 6.       Pakta + – – – 7.       Vidarana + – – – 8.       Dahakarak + – – – 9.       Dipana + – – – 10.                          Chhedana + – – – 11.                          Agnisadrishya + – – – 12.

                          NatiTikshna – + + – 13.                          Natimridu – + + – 14.                          Shukla – + – – 15.                          Sita (Swetavarna) – – + – 16.                          Dahaka – – – + 17.

                          Slakshna – + + – 18.                          Krimighna – – – + 19.                          Picchila – + + – 20.                          Pachaka – – – + 21.                          Avisyandi – + + – 22.

                          Daraka – – – + 23.                          Shivam – + – – 24.                          Sukhanirvapya – – + – 25.                          Shodhaka – – – + 26.                          Shighrakari – + – – 27.                          Shighragami – – + – 28.

                          Ropaka – – – + 29.                          Shikhari – – + – 30.                          Mutrala — – – + 31.                          Natiruk – – + – Ashtanga  Hridaya  added  two  additional properties  namely Shikhari  and Sukhanirvapya. The meaning of Shikhari is elevation. Sukhanirvapya gives the meaning of burning sensation afterapplication.

Natiruk term of Kshara is given by the Vagbhatta, which means giving less pain,while Sushruta used term Shivam which gives the same meaning.Adequate Qualities of Kshara:The qualities of Kshara are mentioned in Ayurvedic classics with details: Sr. No. Qualities Authors Sushruta6 Vagbhata7 1.       Na-atiTikshna + + 2.

       Na-atimridu + + 3.       Na-atishukla + + 4.       Slakshna + + 5.       Picchila + + 6.       Avishyanda + + 7.       Shighrakari + + 8.       Shiva + – 9.

       Shikhari – + 10.                          Sukha nirvapya – + Inadequate Qualities of Kshara:Kshara possess some bad qualities apart from good qualitiesaccording to Ayurvedic literatures.It is necessary to have a thorough knowledge of those bad qualities beforetreating the patient with Kshara.

Table no  :Disqualities of Kshara: Sr. No Disqualifies Authors Sushruta8 Vagbhata9 1.       Atimridu + + 2.       Atishweta + + 3.       Atiushnata + + 4.             5.       AtiTikshnata + + 6.       Atipicchila + + 7.

       Ativisarpita + + 8.       Atisandrata + + 9.       Apakvata + + 10.                          Hina dravyata + + 11.                          Ati tanu – +   ·        According to Physical status: Durbala Balaka Bheeru Garbhini  Vriddha Rutumati ·        According to Season   Shita Kala Ushna Kala Varsha Durdina   According to Site     Dhamani Snayu Gala Pradesha Sandhi Sevani Marma Vrishna Nakhantara Tarunasthi Medhra Sira Nabhi pradesha Rasapanchaka of Kshara:Rasa: KatuAnirasa: LAvanaGuna: TiktaVirya: UshnaVipaka: KatuSushruta has mentioned Kshara isthe most superior procedure among Shastraand AnuShastra (sharp instrumentsand substitute for sharp instruments respectively) because it is having superior qualities than latter one like Chhedana (Excision), Bhedana (incision and drainage), Lekhana (scraping) etc.Selection of Drug:Acc.to Ayurveda principlesa drug or therapy should not be only having pacifying effects on disease, butalso it must not create any adverse effect or complication.

10Origin :Maize is the domesticatedvariant of teosinte in the Tehuacan valley of mexico.15A large corpus of dataindicates that maize was dispersed into lower central America by 7600 BP (5600BC) and had moved into the inter-andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and6000BP 5000-4000.16Maize spread to the restof the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates. It wascultivated in spain just few decades after Columbus’s voyages and then spreadto Italy,west Africa and else where.17 Ditribution:In the 16thcenturay,Portuguese imported maize to South-East Asia from America.The maizewas familiarized to Spain by Columbus and from Spain it extended toFrance,Italy,and Turkey.

During 17th centuray maize was introduced inIndia.From India it went to China,Philippines and the East Indians. Introduction:The word Zea mays comesfrom two languages. Zea comes from ancient Greek and is a generic name forcerals and grains. Some scientists believe that zea stands for “sustaininglife”. Mays comes from the language Taino meaning “life giver”. The UnitedStates is the largest producers of Zea mays, accounting nearly for 40% of thetotal world’s production, followed by China and Brazil.

In India the word maizemeans ‘Sacred mother’ or ‘life giver’.Detail description of thisdrug has not been mentioned in Ayurvedic classic but the reference of this drugcan been seen in Nigandu Adarsh Botanical name Zea mays Linn Family name Poaceae English name Indian corn,Mays Sanskrit name Makkaya,Mahakaya Tamil name Makka cholam Varga Trunadi varga  Phyto – constituents:8·       2,4– dihydroxy – 7 methoxy – 1,4 –bezoxazin – 3 – one·       Zeamays contains Cytokininezeatine, Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Saponins, Vit C, E, K,Minerals, Potassium, Starch, Sugar, Fat, Maysnic acid, Gluten, Dextrin,Glucose, Cellulose, Silica, Phosphstes of lime& Magnesia.·       Thecorn silk contains galactan,xylan,dextrose and other compounds.·       StyleZea mays contains lumichrome, chrysoeriol, genistein, adenosine, guansine,uracil, acetovanillone, vanillic acid, benzoxazoline, stigmastanone, 7alpha-hydroxysitosterol, b-sitosterol.

Pharmacological uses:·       Diuresisand Kaliuresis effect·       Hypoglycemic agent·       Antifatigue activity·       Nephrotoxicityreduction·       Ani-oxidant·       Anti-inflammatoryactivity·       Anti–depressant activity·       Anti–hyperlipidemic effects·       Anti-diabeticeffects·       Neuroprotectiveeffects.Therapeutic uses:·       Cornsilk is utilized as a medicine in renal problems. It also helps ingenito-urinary complaints.·       Itminimizes edema, gout, cystitis and rheumatism due to its anti inflammatoryeffect.·       Cornsilk lowers LDL Cholesterol and guards against cardiac diseases,diabetis,andhypertension.·       Cornsilk reduces blood clotting time.

·       Itis a favorite treatment for the warts and corns.·       Cornsilk extracts provides a smooth texture and helps in skin maintenance .·       Cornsilk placed within a cradle,hung over a mirror for protection and pasted on thedoor with a belief that it produces good luck.        1 Su.

Su. 11/402 Ch.Su 27/366 3 Su.Su.11/164 Su 245 14/62,636 Su.

su 11/167 A.Hr.Su 30/28 Su. Su.

11/179 A. S. Su.36/610 Ch.Ni8/23


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