Dissimilar cultural groups have varied belief systems about health and healing in contrast to the Western biomedical version of the medicine. These belief systems may include diverse disease models, wellness/illness examples (e.g., Chinese medicine, magico-religious thinking), numerous culturally-specific illnesses and syndromes, the emotional state of healthcare professionals. Individuals of diverse ethnic upbringings frequently make different acknowledgments of disease, health, ailments, symptoms, and treatment. Cultural differences in health attributions have substantial allusions for medical professionals because, over time, attributions play an indispensable role in the creation of beliefs regarding health and illness.
Overview: Brazilian Americans have conserved their cultural legacy by continuing to use some of Brazil’s customs, rituals, and beliefs, including the value and significance of family. Though common throughout much of the country and observed by all racial groups, These cultural rituals have altered over time as more and more Brazilian Americans are adapted into conventional American life. (Jefferson, n.d.)
History: Brazil is the fifth most populous country in the World and accounts for one-third of Latin America’s population. The cultures of the indigenous Indians, Africans, and Portuguese together shaped the modern Brazilian way of life. The Portuguese culture is significantly the first influence; Brazilians developed their language, their primary religion, and most of their customs from the Portuguese. In 2007 approximately 1.2 million Brazilians lived in the United States, which is the largest population outside of Brazil (Skidmore, 2010).
Political Life: Government. There are three independent governing branches in the Federal Constitution of Brazil: executive, legislative, and judicial. Although the constitution has endured several modifications in the last century, the most recent in 1988, it has continuously retained this partition of governmental powers. Voting in Brazil today is universal and required for all literate residents from eighteen to seventy years of age and optional for individuals who cannot read and write. Social Problems and Control. Toward the end of the twentieth century, Brazil has noticed stark economic inequalities and social control. Large urban areas have had a higher rate of crime; abductions, assaults, and homicide receive broad media coverage. The murder rate In greater São Paulo, the murder rate is five times that of the New York metropolitan area. Impoverished urban areas killings by the police are frequent. Terrified for their safety, corporate executives travel in armored vehicles; elite private neighborhoods are fortified, condominiums are surrounded by high walls. Also within the urban surroundings live tens of thousands of street children are trying to survive and are ever on their guard against being attacked by others or even by the police who are supposed to be protecting them (Jefferson, n.d.).
Educational: In Brazil, many immigrants to the United Stated held skills jobs and had university degrees. However, these immigrants frequently have trouble finding desirable professions in the United States because the requirements for degrees are not the same in Brazil and because many Brazilian Americans are not fluent in English despite their advanced education.
The Federal Government of Brazil controls the country’s educational system using the Ministry of Education. The government provides each area with funding and educational regulations; each state is accountable for implementing and enforcing these regulations. There is both public and private school in Brazil.
The private sector schools are costly but far more superior in nature, while the public schools are free of charge. Only around a third of school kids ever get to Grade Six. For this reason, the government is undertaking specific steps forward to improve the situation of schooling. Available funds are being reallocated to make allowances for education (Meyer, 2010)
Topographical: The Amazon Rainforest, the Amazon River, and Iguaçu Falls are three of Brazil’s famous landforms. Sixty percent of the Amazon Rainforest ‘Floresta Amazonia’ is within Brazil’s borders and is the greatest and most biologically diverse rainforest in the world. Geography of Brazil. Bordering the Atlantic Ocean, Brazil occupies roughly half of South America and covers a total area of 8,514,215 km2 (3,287,357 sq. mi) which includes 8,456,510 km2 (3,265,080 sq. mi) of land and 55,455 km2 (21,411 sq. mi) of water. Brazil is characterized by its highlands, plateaus, and river basins. The region is not mountainous, but it is very diverse and typically has a humid tropical or subtropical climate. (Rosenberg, 2018)
Hereditary: Genetics Endemic Diseases High-Risk Health Behaviors:
CDC’s investment and scientific exchange with Brazil contributed to; 3,000 oral fluid-based HIV tests maintained through a web-based HIV testing system. Improved disease epidemic investigation and control. National physical exercise programs to reduce obesity and linked chronic diseases. Assisted in the country ownership of evidence-based public health decision-making, reinforced the capacity of Brazilians to improve public health in other developing countries. One child dies every 20 seconds from a disease that could have been prevented by a vaccine. Why? Because 1 in 5 children in the world does not have access to the life-saving immunizations that keep children healthy, The CDC prevented 2.5 million deaths among children five and younger by administering vaccines (Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, 2017)
Infectious diseases like dengue, tuberculosis, and HIV continue to play a significant role in Brazil. There are also growing rates of high blood pressure, diabetes and cardiovascular disease related to lifestyle. Brazil also has the highest health burdens with regards to non-communicable diseases in the world. Homicide and loss of quality of life due to traffic accidents remain a challenge, Described as the ‘triple burden of disease’ it is characteristic by health problems not distributed equally but follows geographical and socioeconomic patterns (Bortz, 2013).
Influences on Childbearing: There are many limitations related to pregnancy. Women are urged not to do heavy work or swim. Taboos caution against having intercourse during pregnancy. Some food is to be avoided, such as cinnamon as it is thought to cause spontaneous abortions and others are recommended. Pregnancy is valued, and women are treated like royalty. They do not have to wait in long lines and are generally escorted to their seats. The family tries to satisfy cravings and desires, if not it is believed that the baby will resemble the desired food. (Purnell & Paulanka, 2008)
Influences on Bereavement: Response to death and grief depends on the family. There are numerous bereavement influences and beliefs regarding the dead and the dying. A person who is uninterruptedly suffering is rescued from the low-income family. It is believed that the Gods will help the grieving among the rich and the poor. Depending on the relationship to the deceased, older people wear black for various lengths of time and black is worn to the funeral. The final portrait of the dead is hung in the family near the family altar and prayers are recited. An external light burns.
Due to the desire to bury the family in a shared plot and lack of burial space, cremation is becoming more common among the middle and upper-class. The mourning phase is seven days were on the seventh day, a mass is held in favor of the dead. As a sign of the extent of their suffering, the elderly typically convey their grief with loud crying and moaning. The younger generations seldom show their feelings, they try to comfort themselves by remembering the good times with the deceased. The Catholic church does not allow personal eulogies at a funeral; this may be more because of religious now cultural norms (Garcia-Subirats et al., 2016).
Sources of Strength Associated with Health and HealthCare
Spirituality: Brazil is home to various religious beliefs and practices it is one of the most religious countries in the world with approximately 90 percent of all Brazilian ‘s belonging to some religious ideal or affiliation. The country possesses a selection of religious ideas and affiliations because of its cultural diversity and colonial history. Only about 1 percent of the Brazilian population does not believe in a God or some other form of spiritual being. Spirituality is defined in individual terms, distinguished by experiences involving “meaning, connectedness, and transcendence, whereas religion is represented in communal terms, marked by traditional practices and beliefs, membership and modes of organization” (“Religion in Brazil,” n.d.)
Magico-religious beliefs: Magico-religious rituals have an extended influence on human perceptions and uses of nature. Indigenous people have the view that sicknesses stem from supernatural forces and seek treatment through magico-religious practices. The tribal offers prayers, and sacrifices to appease the supernatural power, which may be responsible for the disease. The importance of religious traditions in providing healing services for Brazil’s urban poor is widely acknowledged, the supernatural world is as relevant in the diagnosis of illness as the natural world, where many people view illnesses as caused by physical, spiritual, or magical influences. Furthermore, there is a general belief in the role of the sacred realm to avert and cure disease. The preparation of necklaces, amulets, cleansing baths, and incense are part of the procedures used to obtain spiritual protection and to keep evil at bay. Indigenous people have the belief that diseases originate due to supernatural forces and they seek treatment through magico-religious practices.
Acute VS. Preventative Care: Primary care is the focus of concern, while they are dependent on private resources for secondary and tertiary care. Primary care is deemed to be an essential move towards the merging of a healthy population. Specialized care may be considered as a limitation of the system due to the decrease in sources. Acute illness is attributed to activity, change in temperature, food ingestion, or intense emotion before onset. In cases of acute illness, they prefer going to a hospital.
Barriers to Health Care: Brazil has limited availability of health centers, doctors, and drugs that lead to longer waiting times, physical and geographic convenience; information accessibility; and non-discrimination in accessing services. Much of the Brazilian population lives far away from major cities so that distance can pose a real barrier to many countries. There are still significant direct and indirect costs for health services that prevent or postpone low-income populations from seeking health care, or that can lead to unacceptable financial hardship. Cultural barriers present the most complicated challenge because there is little understanding of the social and cultural factors deriving from the knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the health of the indigenous peoples. The bias towards western medicine and intervention can be offensive or inappropriate for practitioners of traditional medicine. Finding health staff that speaks and understands native language is problematic, and poor communication compromises access to quality care.