DEPARTMENT 9: CAD DRAWINGS Introduction. Problem statement

YEAR: 2018

We hereby declare that this submission is our own work and understand what plagiarism entails. Any material previously published is correctly referenced.

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Mthiyane N 21615884 Nyembe DJ 21637689 Shandu N 21554961
We would like to express our gratitude to our advisor and mentor Mr F Mwangi for guiding us through this project. We would like to also thank Professor K Kanny and Mr M. Moultlana.

“Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of designing, evaluating, and producing packages.” Packaging machines play an important part in the packaging process but most of the available packaging machines are slow, only package one specific product and are very expensive. The high speed packaging machines that are available are very expensive they can cost as much as R500 000, meaning that small businesses which are still growing cannot afford the machines This project focuses on designing a high speed packaging machine, that is cost effective and aimed for small upcoming companies/business, which will help them keep up with the market demands.

Table of Contents


Problem statement
The machines used to package all the different products are expensive to buy (high capital cost) they can cost as much as R500 000, costly to operate, expensive to maintain (regular maintenance needed) and those machines which are cheap, operate slowly (have a very low output rate i.e. 20 products/ minute). Because of the high cost of these machines only established/ successful companies can afford them, meaning the small establishing companies cannot afford them, meaning they cannot compete with the other companies and cannot keep up with the market demands (production rate).

The proposal that was proposed in order to solve this problem was a “A LOW COST HIGH SPEED PACKAGING MACHINE”. The idea was to design a machine that operates at high speeds (i.e. has an output rate of between 80 products/ minutes to 100 products/ minute), a machine that requires low maintenance, less expensive to operate and affordable (i.e. less than R200 000). This in turn creates opportunities for startup companies/ establishing food manufactures to compete with the established companies in the market and keep up with market demands.
Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of designing, evaluating, and producing packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use.
“Packaging machines are machines that complete stages of the packaging process. Examples include filling machines, sealing machines, wrapping machines, strapping machines, labelling machines and coding machines.”
Food packaging is packaging for food. A package provides protection, tampering resistance, and special physical, chemical, or biological needs.

As one of the most widely used forms of three dimensional applications of graphic design, packaging serves as one of the most influential forms of communication with consumers since it provides a first-hand experience for individuals. Because of the numerous and varied quantities of consumer based products that are produced in modern society it has one of the widest range of applications of all the forms of graphic design. Millions of different products require unique and individual packaging to set themselves apart from the competition when they reach their retail destinations.

The never-ending creation of new products provides designers with the materials and necessity to produce new and different package designs that utilize a variety of constantly evolving production techniques and materials. Products can be packaged in paper, cardboard, plastic, rubber or even metal, among other things. This requires not only a variety of production process but also printing techniques in order to create and apply the aesthetics of the branding for the individual product or line of products. This never-ending list of possible production techniques requires product designers to be well versed in typography, color and three-dimensional design to ensure that their package designs are unique in every aspect.

Packaging machines are fascinating. They can be used to pack a wide range of products in widely ranging ways
There are many types of packaging machines, which use different techniques to package a product ie Carry handle applicators, tape bundling machines, filling machine, sealing machine, Strapping machine, wrapping machine, labeling machine, cleaning machinery, drying machinery, Sterilization machinery, Container machinery, Multifunction machine, Packaging Materials manufacturing machinery, Packaging container manufacturing machinery, Secondary packaging machinery, etc.

Types of products processed
Solids, including Powders
It is sometimes convenient to categorize packages by layer or function: “primary”, “secondary”, etc.

Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the product and holds it. This usually is the smallest unit of distribution or use and is the package which is in direct contact with the contents.

Secondary packaging is outside the primary packaging, and may be used to prevent pilferage or to group primary packages together.

Tertiary or transit packaging is used for bulk handling, warehouse storage and transport shipping. The most common form is a palletized unit load that packs tightly into containers.

These broad categories can be somewhat arbitrary. For example, depending on the use, a shrink wrap can be primary packaging when applied directly to the product, secondary packaging when used to combine smaller packages, or tertiary packaging when used to facilitate some types of distribution, such as to affix a number of cartons on a pallet.

The focus of this design will be on primary packaging
History of packaging
The packaging industry is an ancient industry that has been around since the early days of man. Packaging in some form or another has always been around to assist man in transporting, storing, and protecting a variety of items. Early man would use crude packaging materials and designs to meet the needs of hunting and gathering to survive. As technology advanced, packaging materials and processes advanced. Let’s take a look at the various stages and progress of the packaging industry.

From the very earliest times, humans consumed food where it was found. Families and villages made or caught what they used. They were also self-sufficient, so there was little need for packaging of goods, either for storage or transportation. When containers were needed, nature provided gourds, shells, and leaves. Later, containers were fashioned from natural materials, such as hollowed logs, woven grasses and animal organs. As ores and chemical compounds were discovered, metals and pottery were developed, leading to other packaging forms.

Packaging is used for several purposes:
• Contain products, defining the amount the consumer will purchase.

• Protects products from contamination, from environmental damage and from theft.
• Facilitate transportation and storing of products.

• Carry information and colorful designs that make attractive displays.

No major advancements were made in the packaging industry until the early 1900’s. This was when plastics were introduced to the packaging industry.

Plastic is the newest packaging material in comparison with metal, glass, and paper. Although discovered in the 19th century, most plastics were reserved for military and wartime use. Plastics have become very important materials and a wide variety of plastics have been developed over the past 170 years.

From containers provided by nature to the use of complex materials and processes, packaging has certainly changed. Various factors contributed to this growth: the needs and concerns of people, competition in the marketplace, unusual events (such as wars), shifting lifestyles, as well as discoveries and inventions. Just as no single cause influenced past development, a variety of forces will be required to create the packages of the future, but a very important factor will always be consumer choice. Ultimately, only the packaging that our society demands is produced. We choose by the products we purchase.

Modern Packaging
Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution brought changes to everyone’s way of life. It consisted of an age where products began to be produced by machines instead of by hand. Many rural residents moved into towns and cities to obtain steady jobs and increased wages. The change in the level of production and the increased disposable income encouraged producers to develop durable, dependable, and efficient packaging methods. The increased product production resulted in a large rise in demand for:
1. Storage and transportation bins
2. Bags
3. Food packaging methods
4. Primary packaging materials
5. In-store packaging options
Literature review
There are many different types of machines in the market, all providing different packaging solutions for different products.
There were three different designs first proposed and through thorough investigations and discussions one was chosen.
1 vertical form, fill, seal machine(VFFS)
“A vertical form fill sealing machine is a type of automated assembly-line product packaging system, commonly used in the packaging industry for food, and a wide variety of other products. Walter Zwoyer, the inventor of the technology, patented his idea for the VFFS machine in 1936 while working with the Henry Heide Candy Company. The machine constructs plastic bags out of a flat roll of film, while simultaneously filling the bags with product and sealing the filled bags. Both solids and liquids can be bagged using this packaging system.”2The first VFFS machines were built in the middle of the last century. The development of these machines, partially made possible by the introduction of plastic packaging materials, was an effective answer to the increasing demand for the mechanization of all possible aspects of the production processes

The broad use of VFFS machines is simple to explain. To start with, one single machine can be used to produce wide-ranging bag shapes. This is made possible due to a large variety of simple-to-exchange parts such as forming shoulders and forming tubes. Chips, for example, are usually packed in a simple, brightly colored, pillow-shape bag, while breakable cookies are presented in a deluxe, transparent bag with a block bottom – and both bags can be produced by the same machine.

Vertical form, fill, seal machines are extremely flexible machines. Widely ranging products can be packed efficiently and effectively, and can be attractively presented – from your daily coffee to hand-crafted tortellini, from a selection of fresh vegetables to frozen shrimp. And insecticides, detergents and marbles are also packed in bags.

Advantages disadvantages
Fully automated
Expensive to buy and maintain
Constant maintainace
Efficient Hard to understand and operate
2. Snack Potato Chips Packing Machine

The Dolzan high speed vertical packaging machine, model TWIN, comprises two units each one equipped with independent dosing system, bag forming assembly, film pulling and sealing system.

Advantages disadvantages
The machine shapes the bags starting from 2 independent rolls of film.

High operating cost
It can pack 2 different products and 2 different weights at the same time.

High capital cost
Can be customized according to customer specification Regular maintenance required
3. BOSCH PME4101

Bosch is a well-established company in the packaging industry. It produces a variety of packaging machinery. The PME series with its modular machine concept stands for flexible and premium packaging technology, enabling short format changes and quick adaption to new production requirement
Part of this series are the PME 4101 are based on the vertical bagger principle. A modular filling and closing section allows producing premium bags with good stability and application of several head closures.

The machine is available in linear and circular design to allow the optimum use of production floor space.

Technical Data:
Mechanical output 55 bags/min
Bag dimensions widthdepthheight 50 – 140 mm30 – 100 mm50 – 265 mm
Filling weight block bottom bags up to 2.5 kg
  pillow bags up to 5 kg
Machine dimension (W x D x L) PME 4101 (linear)PME 4161 (linear) 3,300 x 2,000 x 2,340 mm4,300 x 2,000 x 2,340 mm
Controls HMI/IPC: Bosch RexrothServo-Antrieb: ELAU
Packaging film reel outer diameter Max. 750 mm
Packaging material Heatsealable packaging materialPrinted or unprinted off the reel
Operation For integrated Bosch units via the touch screen of the Bosch packaging machine
As seen in the machine technical data section, this machine only produces 55 products a minute which is quite a low production rate. If 8 normal working hours are considered at this rate, the machine only produces 26400 products per day.

Machine Application:
The machine does not provide a flexible packaging solution because it is able to only package three products which are coffee, tea and spices
Concept generation
Low cost High speed Horizontal flow packaging machine

Flow wraps are the means of packaging and protecting a product with a flexible material supplied in roll stock format, using a conveyor system to move the product throughout the machine, providing low costs per pack. Items can be wrapped individually.

It is also a widely used packaging machine accounting for 20% of the packaging machinery in use in the industry today, but not as much as the vertical form, fill, seal machine(VFFS) which accounts for 45% of the packaging machinery in the industry. As stated in the literature review of the (VFFS), it is very expensive to buy (capital), requires constant maintainace and very expensive to operate. This gives the high speed horizontal flow packaging machine a major advantage over the VFFS and other packaging machine. This is why ultimately the high speed horizontal flow packaging machine was chosen, but it was still quite expensive and inefficient. Major design improvements still had to be made to lower the overall cost and the efficiency of the machine.

This machine allows for high packaging speeds, and machines that are well-selected, and set optimally and maintained can continue to operate uninterrupted for a long time.

Flexible design can handle a wide range of products
Easy set-up, fast changeover
Low maintenance, all servo-motor design
Easy to operate
The wrapper packages product by wrapping it in film. The wrapper has an infeed conveyor, a film feed assembly, a forming area, a cutting head, and a discharge area. The product is placed in the infeed conveyor. As the infeed conveyor delivers product to the forming area, film is drawn from the film feed assembly into the forming area, where a film tube is formed around the product and a finseal is created. The film tube and the product then are delivered to the cutting head. The cutting head creates endseals while it cuts apart adjoining wrapped products into individual packages and delivers the packages to the discharge area. From the discharge area the packages can be either cartoned at a packing station or accumulated for packing at a later time.
Infeed conveyor
Product is placed in the conveyor automatically or semi- automatically onto the conveyor, which is feed a separate conveyor system, and that conveyor system is used for product rejection process and product spacing.
The cutting head and infeed conveyor have a 1:1 ratio between them (one cut = one flight length). This ratio is necessary to keep product in time with the cutting head.

Semi-automatic feeding
Produts are taken manually from a main production line and onto the feeding conveyor.

Products are feed into the feeding conveyor from the main production line using a production distribution system(PDS).

As the product travels through the former, a layer of sealing material (film) is wrapped into a tube around the product with two outside edges of the material mated together at the bottom. These two mating edges of sealing material pass in between a pair of rotating finseal wheels, which pull the film and product through the former and seal it togetjer with heat and pressure, or pressure only in cold seals.

The sealed strip is folded over against the package by auxiliary fin wheels for entry into the end seal.

The packaging material is melted to itself under the influence of temperature, time and pressure. A stable seal or seam is created when the material cools off. Heating and cooling is a question of milliseconds in most cases.

There are two main sealing systems. The choice of one or the other system depends on the packaging material used. • Heat-sealable packaging materials, which includes most laminates, are sealed with a heat-sealing system. • For sealing low melting point materials such as polyethylene, a special polyethylene sealing system or PE-sealing system is used.

Variables of the heat sealing system
In the heat-sealing system, there are three important variables: temperature, pressure and time. Within certain constraints, a low sealing pressure can be compensated by a higher sealing temperature. The sealing time is always a function of the variable sealing pressure and sealing temperature.

Sealing temperature
The sealing temperature is determined by the packaging material. The temperature window indicates the minimum and maximum temperature at which the material melts but does not burn. Such a temperature window can run for example from 110 °C (230 °F) (minimum melting temperature) to 150 °C (302°F) (burning temperature).

Movement of the sealing jaws
An additional problem of temperature control of the sealing jaws is caused by the movement that the sealing jaws make. This movement causes cooling. In continuous machines and machines that work according to the draw bar pick-up principle, the jaws move not only horizontally but also vertically.

Cold seal
Especially in the chocolate industry, use is made of materials with a very special cold-seal coating. Here, the seal is created exclusively by pressure.
Sealing pressure
The available sealing pressure depends on the machine. In many cases, this pressure can be set to the maximum, determined by the machine. Also the profile of the sealing jaws (discussed on the next pages) determines the pressure that can be exerted on the sealed seam
The product is slid into a film web formed into a tube horizontally or placed on it. In order to be able to seal the cross seams in a continuous machine, the sealing jaws must move along with the packaging material
The speed with which bags can be made is mainly determined by the sealing time of the packaging material and the length of the product stream. The product stream is the distance between the first and the last product from one batch, or the distance between the first and last product of the contents of one bag
Sealing time
The variables in the sealing process are the sealing time, the pressure of the sealing jaws and the temperature used. The temperature is limited by boundaries dictated by the nature of the packaging material. The sealing pressure has limits of a mechanical nature.

The sealing time is directly related to the machine speed, a longer sealing time usually requires a slower machine speed. With an intermittent machine, sealing (which includes the jaw close and open time) take up more than 1/3 of the machine cycle
Length of product
The length of the product stream is much more important for the packaging speed. The bag can only be closed once the complete batch (portion of product) is in it. The length of the product stream is determined partly by the volume of the product and the opening of the forming tube. The size of that opening is in turn contingent upon the bag width and the shape (round, oval or rectangular) of the forming tube.

Cutting head/ end seal crimpers

The speed of the discharge conveyor determines the amount of spacing between the products and is usually adjustable.

The endseal consists of a pair of rotating shafts, each with a crimper. The upper crimper has a knife and the lower crimper has an anvil. As the shafts rotate they seal the front of one package, the back of another and cut the two products apart in one motion.

The cutting head can be equipped with several numbers of jaws. The jaws have a rounded profile which results in a single point of contact with the film. These jaws determine the type of seal produced.

Packaged product produced
The type of packaged product produced is a pillow case packege shown below.

Chapter 4: DESIGN
A conveyor belt is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor system. A belt conveyor system is one of many types of conveyor systems. A belt conveyor consists of two or more pulleys, with a conveyor belt creating an endless loop around the pulleys. One of the pulleys (drive pulley) is usually powered in order to drive the system moving the belt forward. The unpowered pulley is called the idler pulley. There are two types of belt conveyors those in material handling in factories and the heavy duty conveyors (bulk material handling conveyor) used to transfer large volumes of materials such as coal.

An illustration of a typical conveyor belt system is shown below.

Conveyor belts are used in a wide variety of material transport applications such as manufacturing, food processing, and heavy industry.

Belt Conveyor systems can improve efficiency and help to reduce repetitive lifting and carrying. Many industries use Belt conveyor systems to transport raw materials and products through the stages and to the storage area.

The high speed horizontal flow packaging machine uses a series of conveyor belt systems. Each conveyor belt system has a specific function which is very important in order to achieve three things
1 product quality- producing a high quality product (chocolate bar) is of important to manufactures, because consumers expect chocolate bars which are not deformed (out of shape, broken or not the correct weight). This is achieved by adding a series of sensors to the first conveyor which check the for the shape and size of the chocolate bar, if there are any discrepancies in the chocolate, there is an air blower near the end of the conveyor which rejects (blows the chocolate bar of the packaging line) the chocolate, ensuring a quality products are produced by the machine.

2 correct product spacing- this is done in the second and third conveyors using speed variations. The second conveyor is much slower than the first, if there was any chocolate rejected in the first conveyor there will be a large space in between chocolates that is left, this space will in turn create a major problem further down the line. Therefore the gap needs to be narrowed down and this is achieved by slowing down the chocolate speed in the second conveyor and increasing the speed in the first conveyor so that the products that were before the rejected product can catch up to the other products and leave no space in between.
The third conveyor is much faster than the second one, this speed difference in turn creates an equal space in between the products when on products crosses from the second to the third conveyor.

3. Desired output rate
The third conveyors speed must be slightly higher or equal to the rotational speed of the cutting tool. This is because in order for the two to be in sync with each other they must operate at the same speed if there is no space between the products or if there is a space in between them the third conveyors speed must be slightly higher to accommodate for the space.


Feeding conveyor (third conveyor) and machine (sealing and cutting station)
In order to produce 80 chocolate per minute, the time to produce one chocolate must be calculated:
60sec = 80 bars
x=1 barCross multiplication
6080=0.75 secondsIn order to produce 80 chocolate a minute, each product must be produced in 0.75 seconds.

x =Vf+ Vi2t1 =Vf+ 02(0.75)Vf=2.667 m/sIf there is only one conveyor (conveyor 4/ feeding conveyor) and the sealing and cutting station the conveyor needs to move at a speed of 2.667 m/s.

When there is another conveyor added (conveyor 3) to the system
x =Vf+ Vi2t1 =Vf+ 12(0.75)Vf=1.667 m/sSpacing
The spacing process is done in between conveyor three and conveyor 4.

Let 37.5mm be the spacing required.

x =Vf+ Vi2t0.0375 =1+ 1.6672(t) t=0.0281 s This is the time required to space the bars by 37.5 mm.

Calculating the acceleration in between these conveyors.

Vf=Vi+at 1.667= 1 + a(0.0281)
a= 23.73 m/s
The angle of repose of a material is the acute angle which the surface of a normal, freely formed pile makes to the horizontal
The angle of surcharge of a material is the angle to the horizontal which the surface of the material assumes while the material is at rest on a moving conveyor belt
Design of conveyor 1.

Linear speed = 1.4 m/s
Contact angle =
Width =
height =
Bed plate
Manufacturer – (Arville™)
Type – endless woven rotary moulder belt
Weave type – Plain weave
Fibre type- polyster/cotton blend
Belt length= (D+d)2 ×1.57+2C=
Belt tension calculations

T1T2= e??T2-T1=TeT1T2= e0.35?T1=3.00284T2Te=effective force=FEffective force = Fa+mg(sin?+ ?cos?) = 0+(11)(9.81)(sin0+(0.35)(cos0) = 32.373 N
Substituting equation 2 into equation 1.

T2-T1=TeT2- 3.00284T2=32.373N-2.00284T2=32.373NT2= 32.3732.0028T2=16.164 NSubstituting T2 into equation 2
T1=3.00284T2 T1=(3.00284)(16.164)T1=48.537NThe tight side tension T1=48.537
The slack side tension T2=16.164 NCalculating load torque
TL=F ×D2 ×nTL=32.373×D2 ×0.9TL=Calculating the required power = Te×v = 32.373 ×1.4
= 32.373 KW
Motor power Pm=PnMinimum drive diameter ?= ××? ×?=?=Motor selection
manufacturer power torque Gear design
NG= V×60?×DNG= V×60?×DNG=This is the rotational speed required, therefore a speed reduction gear set is needed to achieve the required output rate.

Power to be deliverd =
Input speed
Output speed
Low shock, to occasional moderate shock
Gear box size
Output shaft and input shaft inline
Gear and bearng life ; 12 000 hours, infinite shaft life.

e= ?5?2e= ?5?2e=e= N2N3× N4N5 For small package size, let both stages be the same reduction. Also by making the two stages identical, the in-line condition on the the input and output shaft will be automatically satisfied.

N2N3=N4N5==For this ratio, the minimum number of teeth = 16
==16=4.54=Rounding off and checking if is within limit.

Proceeding with =======Determining the torques, using the power relationship
Using safety factor of 1.2
Estimating the diametrical pitch for overall gearbox height = 550 mm
Pmin=+2+2+2(clearence-wall thickness)Allowing a clearance of 40 mm
Pmin=+2+2+2(clearence-wall thickness)Using P=
=======Shafts speeds were previously determined to be
Calculating the pitch-line velocities and transmitted loads
V23=?D6000W23=V45=?D6000W45=Ft×V231000Starting with gear 4, which is the smallest gear, transmitting the largest load. It will be critical. Starting with wear by contact stress, since it is often the limiting factor.

I=cos20cos?(20)2(1)==For Kv, assume Qv=7, A=0.731, B=0.1315Kv=65.1+271.565.1=1.18Face width = 50 mm
for kmCpf=Cmc=0.0624Cpm=1 uncrowned teeth
Cma=1 straddle mountedCe=0.15 commercial enclosed unitkm=1.21Cp=2300ko=ks=1?c=23002431×1.18×1.212.67×2×0.1315 =
ZN=0.9KN=KT=1For a design factor of 1.2
?c all=SZ×ZNSHSc=×==This strength is achievable with grade 2 carburized and hardened with
Gear 4 bending
J= 0.27
KB=1Everything else is the same as before
?=Wt×Kv×PdF×KmJ?=Wt×Kv×PdF×KmJ?=YN=0.9?all=From table
Factor of safety ==Gear 5 bending and wear
Everything is the same as for gear 4 except J, Y, Z
J=0.41L5=12000 hours60minh?revmin=YN=0.97ZN=1KB=1?c=23002431×1.18×1.212.67×2×0.1315 =
?=Gear 2 wear
Kv=1.37F= 40 mm, since the loading is less on gear 2 and 3
Km=1.19All the other factors are the same as gear 4
?c=23002431×1.18×1.212.67×2×0.1315 =
L5=12000 hours60minh?revmin=Using grade 1 flame- hardened
Gear 2 Bending
J=0.41YN=0.97?=Gear 3 Bending
Kv=1.37F= 40 mm, since the loading is less on gear 2 and 3
Km=1.19All the other factors are the same as gear 4
?c=23002431×1.18×1.212.67×2×0.1315 =
L5=12000 hours60minh?revmin=Gear 2 Bending
All gears P=
Gear 2, grade 1 flame-hardened,
Gear 3, grade 1 flame hardened
Gear 4, grade 2 carburized and hardened
Gear 5, , grade 2 carburized and hardened
Similar in design to conveyor 1
Linear speed = 1 m/s
Contact angle =
Width =
height =
Bed plate
Manufacturer – (Arville™)
Type – endless woven rotary moulder belt
Weave type – Plain weave
Fibre type- polyster/cotton blend
Belt length= (D+d)2 ×1.57+2C=

x =Vf+ Vi2t1 =1+ 1.42t=0.833 sa =Vf- Vita =1-1.40.833a= -0.43 m/s2Deceleration occurs in this conveyor; this sudden deceleration, together with the sensors that control the speed of the multiple conveyors close the gap between the products that was created in the rejection process (by the blower) in conveyor one, if no rejection occurred in conveyor 1, the sensors do not decelerate the second conveyor but it continues with the constant velocity equal to the second conveyor.

In the beginning, transfer of product from conveyor 1, to conveyor 2, deceleration must occur in order to close the uneven gap between the products (so that one chocolate follows the other with no gap in between). This is needed in order for there to be an even spacing process (creation of the correct space required), later on in the system.

Design of conveyor 3
Linear speed = 1 m/s
Contact angle =
Width =
height =
Bed plate
Manufacturer – (Arville™)
Type – endless woven rotary moulder belt
Weave type – Plain weave
Fibre type- polyster/cotton blend
Belt length= (D+d)2 ×1.57+2C=
=1+ 1.6672tt=a =Vf- Vita =Vf- Vita= Design of CONVEOR 4 (feeding conveyor)
Design of CONVEYOR 5 (output conveyor)


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