Democracy is defined as a system of government where its citizens exercise the power of voting through group decision making, characterized by equality among the participants. Citizens have the power to vote into office the public officials they want to represent and address their issues and concerns. For example, In the United States we elect a president and members of the congress, local, and state officials by voting during elections. The freedom of the people, for the people, by the people is called a democracy. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Tom Christiano’s “Democracy” , 2006)
Democratic Capitalism is defined as a system of governance in an economic system. Capitalism stems from profits, which makes those in power make a profit from selling something for more than what it’s worth. Therefore, taxes depend on profits, no profit means no taxes; and no taxes means no government. A close example of democratic capitalism is the United States is a capitalist nation, even though the U.S. Constitution protects the free market.
Democratic Socialism is rooted in equality but various aspects of equality. Democracy appeals to political equality, the right of all individuals to participate in setting the rules to which all will be subject, such as, free speech, press, religion, etc. Socialism emphasizes material equality – socialism believes in the distribution of wealth starting from the top one percent of the richest people. It is believed that this form of government will balance the economic climate and fairness to its citizens. (Democratic Socialism, n.d.)
An example can be found when studying the economic and social equality in countries like Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Each state provides healthcare, education, and pensions. However, they are also a capitalist nation with the top ten percent of each nation’s people hold more than 65 percent of the wealth.
Marxism is the political and economic theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, which later became the basis for the practice of communism. Marxism is the system of socioeconomic analysis of which the dominant feature is public ownership through the means of production, distribution, and exchange.
Communism is the systematic believe that each person according to his or her ability and needs. Fascism is a movement that is defined by conquest, power, and war. The people have no value outside of their role in promoting the glory of the state. Communist goal is to centralize government, dictatorship, anti-democratic using only a one party system. Fascism idealism is partly centralized government, anti-democratic, racism, and militarism.
An example of a fascist government is the Nazi rule in Germany during World War II. Germany has a one-person dictator Adolf Hitler, a totalitarian dictator that ruled its state strictly by control, power, and war.
National Socialism is also known as Nazism. This form of government that existed during the 1930s and 1940s when Adolf Hitler believed in a new world order under a Nazi party. This idealism was influenced by racist doctrines of inequality, and the elimination of weaker societies. Adolf Hitler believed that in order for a country to be successful, it must have a master race of people who have not been brainwashed in believing democracy, and to take away power from ethnic minorities who he claimed to have further weakened and destabilized the success of Germany. (Murphy, Stevens, Trivers, ; Roland, n.d.)
A constitutional government consists of a set of norms (rules, principles or values) creating, structuring, and possibly defining the limits of, government power or authority. All states have constitutions and all states are constitutional states. The United States is a prime example of a presidential system of a constitutional government. (Constitutionalism, 2017)
Neo-conservatism is when political parties break away from their domestic or foreign policies. They believe that any threat facing the United States should be handled with force through preemptive military force. An example is in the 1998 President Bill Clinton launched a strike at suspected terrorists targets in Afghanistan and Sudan.
Feminism is the acting, speaking, writing, and advocating on behalf of
Women’s issues, rights and identifying injustice to females in the social status quo. Women’s suffrage represents one of the most fundamental struggles of women because explicitly denying them representation in the legislature and public governmental bodies gave an unambiguous message of second-class citizenship.
Examples of feminism in action are organizations like The #MeToo Movement that fight against sexual misconduct of women, gender and society. Another well know example of feminism in the U.S. is the #TimesUp movement that advocates against sexual assault, harassment, and inequality in the workplace.
Political Parties recruit, nominate, and campaign to elect public officials; draw up policy programs for the government if they are in the majority; offer criticisms and alternative policies if they are in opposition; mobilize support for common policies among different interest groups; educate the public about public issues; and provide structure and rules for the society’s political debate. The role of political parties in American government is to work on behalf of the American people resolve issues.
Interest Groups are citizens of a democracy or a member of a number of private or volunteer organizations that influence public policy and persuade public officials of their views. A lobbyist for example is someone who persuades a public official to influence public policy for their self-interest. Other groups are labor groups, agricultural groups, and business groups.
Governments and NGOs –NGOs are politically unaffiliated or they may be based on partisan ideals and seek to advance a particular cause or set of causes in the public interest. The International Red Cross, The Hunger Project, and Doctors without Borders are examples of NGOs that organizations that run a cause of the greater good of the people.
International law is a set of rules, agreements, and treaties that originated in three sources: international conventions of general conventions of general or nature; international custom, as evidence of a general practice accepted as law; the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations.
Through international law human rights, treatment of refugees, arms agreement are addressed and regulated. Recently in China, there have been human rights violations against citizens with different religious beliefs than the communist state. (Ten NGOS write to XI JinPing: “Religious Persecution Should Cease”, 2018)