Definition digestion process and divided into four phases

Definition of Biogas
Biogas is a renewable source of energy produced from methane (CH4), the main component of natural gas. It can be used to produce thermal, electrical and motive energy. It can be converted into renewable natural gas (RNG) and able to use as a vehicle fuel. The entire process including breakdown of organic matter by anaerobic bacteria followed by production of gases like methane, carbon dioxide and some amount of nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon monoxide is collectively known as Biogas energy. (Environmental, 2013).
Biochemical mechanism of Biogas production
Biogas is the final product of an anaerobic (absence of oxygen) digestion process and divided into four phases namely:
1. Hydrolysis: Complex organic compounds (carbohydrates, proteins and fats) breakdown into simple organic compounds (sugar, amino acids and fatty acids) with the help of hydrolytic bacteria.
2. Acidogenesis: Simple organic compounds converted into organic acids and alcohols with the help of acidogenic bacteria.
3. Acetogenesis: organic acids and alcohol further produces hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide gas and acetic acid with the help of acetogenic bacteria
4. Methanogenesis: Methanogenic bacteria acts on hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide gas and acetic acid to form methane, carbon dioxide.
A simplified generic chemical equation for the overall processes outlined above is
C6H12O6 (glucose) ? 3CH4 (Methane gas) + 3CO2.(Carbon dioxide gas)
(Chattopadhyay & Shome, 2016)
Production of Biogas
1. Anaerobic Digesters: Manure (human or animal) or plant waste can be used to process in anaerobic digester to produce biogas.
2. Landfill gas: Organic matter breakdown naturally over the long time period, resulted into production of biogas. It can be collected using pipes, located at different depths.


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