How to define Corruption?
There is no single, comprehensive,
universally accepted definition of corruption. Attempts to develop such a
definition invariably encounter legal, criminological and political problems. Moreover,
various defined forms of corruption and corrupt practices keep evolving and new
forms keep sprouting up making it difficult and rather unpractical to limit it
to only one definition. Bearing this difficulty in mind writers usually go for
operational approach instead of seeking to define corruption in generic terms. For
our ease, the word “corruption” comes
from the Latin verb “corruptus” (to
break); it literally means broken object. Conceptually, corruption is a
form of behaviour, which departs from ethics, morality, tradition, law and
civic virtue. Anyhow, corruption can be defined as:-
“Corruption is behaviour which deviates
from the formal duties of a public role because of private-regarding (close
family, personal, private clique) pecuniary or status gains; or violates rules
against the exercise of certain types of private-regarding influence”i (Nye, 1967)
Corruption evolves such behaviour
on the part of office holders in the public or private sector whereby they
unlawfully and improperly enrich themselves and/or those close to them, or
induce others to do so by misusing the position in which they are placed.
Corruption is a moral wrong, a
universal sin condemned in all societies and religions yet it exists all over
the world. It is increasingly becoming a way of life and part of culture thus
more and more impossible to contain. Reforms are failing a deaf ears and almost
every country suffering this problem.
Causes of Corruption
Following may be the major causes of corruption generally
and specifically in Pakistan.
Flagrant and unlawful abuse of power by the public or
private office holders increases the corruption more rapidly than any other
of combating operations:
Lack of serious programme of combating corruption in the
countries. The investigative agencies and related departments could not develop
as per the aspirations of the public.
ethical and business standards:
Elected government become fail to develop proper ethical and
business standards for the public and private sectors. Lack of set-standards
allow culprits to do their work freely.
Lack of transparency in the government’s decision making process
increases frustration among general public and they try to achieve their goal
by any mean.
Lengthy and cumbersome procedures of government departments
and executive system is also an increasing factor of corruption. Public want
their issues to be solve as quickly as possible.
i Corruption and political development, Nye JS