Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary artery disease affects millions of men and women worldwide. Coronary artery disease may be heard also as atherosclerotic heart disease, or coronary heart disease (CHD) but they don’t all mean the same thing coronary artery disease and atherosclerotic heart disease is a condition caused by a narrowing, hardening and furring of the walls of the coronary arteries. Coronary hear disease has several causes, one of which is coronary artery disease. The coronary arteries supply oxygen and nutrients to the muscles of the heart called the myocardium. Coronary artery disease leads to narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries. Coronary artery disease is caused from a buildup of plaque which contains cholesterol and lipids which is laid down within the walls of the arteries as fatty streaks, this is called atherosclerosis (Dallred, 2017). Arteriosclerosis and atheromasias cause a stiffening and narrowing of the arteries and both occur in atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis is a generalized thinking and stiffening of arterial wall and is related to high blood pressure or hypertension. Arteriosclerosis can affect any of the main arteries in the peripheral organs. Kidneys, limbs, brain or heart (Dr Ananya Mandal, 2014).
When coronary artery disease progresses, the coronary vessel become narrower, which decreases the blood supply to the myocardium (Dallred, 2017). For women a blockage usually occurs in the smaller branches of arteries instead of the coronary artery. For women, this disease is called microvascular disease or MVD. Once the blockage decreases blood supply it will lead ultimately to ischemia and this will indefinitely lead to necrosis of the myocardium. When there is such a loss of muscle tissue, the heart will not be able to continue to pump the blood effectively throughout the body, and this will reduce cardiac output. When a patient does not seek medical intervention cardia dysrhythmias and death can occur (Dallred, 2017).
Coronary artery disease symptoms are related to the lack of successfully to other parts of the body. When the heart can’t pump oxygenated blood to the body angina, pectoris, acute coronary syndrome, or sudden cardiac death may occur. The patient and the family need to look out for include chest discomfort, which can be chest tightness, aching and even burning. Chest pain can radiate to the arm, jaw, or back as symptoms of coronary artery disease. Some patients may have palpitations or tachycardia. Nausea and vomiting can be seen along with cold, clammy skin. Fatigue can be seen mostly in women. A major sign and symptom of coronary artery disease is weakness and the inability to complete usual activates without chest pain or dyspnea (Dr Ananya Mandal, 2014).
After a diagnosis is made a treatment plan is made to help the patient from accumulating or developing more plaque to the arteries. Each treat plan is individualized depending on the location, and the size of the blockage (Dallred, 2017). One way to help is to reduce foods that will help lower fat and cholesterol. A person diagnosed with coronary artery disease should be taught to avoid all fried foods; this can be done by trimming fat from meat and sticking to 3-oz portions of meat per meal. Also, when trying to reduce cholesterol a person can eat fish and should eat eggs either whites or egg beaters. Another good way to reduce fat from a diet is by decreasing or eliminating all commercial baked goods containing trans-fat, saturated fat, or high levels of fat. A patient can help alleviate symptoms and reduce the accumulation of plaque by losing weight and maintaining a healthy BMI. Exercise is prescribed to lower cholesterol and total lipids along with diet and maintain a proper weight. If an individual can’t control or reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels by a low-fat diet and exercise, lipid-lowering drugs will be prescribed. Also, it has been shown that along with prescribed drugs several herbs and supplements have shown the ability to lower cholesterol. Before using herbs and supplements a patient should consult with a provider to insure there are no interactions with other medications they are taking. (Dallred, 2017).
For a person that is at risk or for someone who has coronary artery disease they need to watch for signs and symptoms. It is important for these people to change lifestyle habits, so they don’t have to live with coronary artery disease if they haven’t already been diagnosed with it. It is important for people to be active and exercise on a regular basis. Also, it is necessary for people to be cautious of the foods they consume so it will help reduce the risk of coronary artery disease and it will help them to be healthy.