Concept Of Health : The concept of “health” is not distinct to nursing because there are many other disciplines that use the term. (Leininger,1997) She defined health as physical, psychological, intellectual, emotional and spiritual wellness. It also includes the ability to access healthcare and resources to support health and wellness.
Concept Of Environment : She uses the concept of environment which includes events in physical, ecological, sociopolitical and cultural settings. (Leininger 1991, 1995a, 1995b, 1997)NURSING PRACTICE NURSING EDUCATION NURSING RESEARCHGradually, nurses realized the importance of the cultural aspects of clients. In the mid-1970s, the concepts of her theory added to the Nursing curriculum. The focus was enhanced on consumers who could provide financial resources in nursing research.There was a marked rise in cultural care demands. In 1977, the first program in transcultural nursing was started at University of Utah. Initiatives were taken by nurses to promote international conferences, intercultural programs, and workshops on transcultural nursing.
Nurses realized that gaining knowledge about client’s cultural history increased their awareness about values and beliefs. Unfortunately, the nurse trainers who can teach nursing ; culture course programs were limited . Research studies in transcultural nursing were expected to enhance development of nursing theory.Nurses experienced that the care is relationship-centered and focuses on the person suffering.(Kardong-Edgreen, 2008) The nursing curriculum’s central theme is the use of care in need of further research to validate its effectiveness and usefulness.
(Halloran, 2009) It can be presumed that the transcultural nursing care providers will turn out to be the leaders of research, service, and education programs in the future. (Engebretson, 2008)