Common Lab Ethics:
? During work in a lab always wear white lab coat.
? Keep hands clean and keep nails short.
? Always use neat and clean test tubes.
? During work in lab don’t eat anything.
? Handle the lab equipment’s with care.
? While mixing acid and water always add acid in water.
? While using pipette Handle It slowly and carefully and keep watching the level of liquid never exceed the provided requirement.
? Used the chemicals carefully and closed it after using.
? During performing any practical do it under supervision of supervisor.
? Keep the lab neat and clean always keep the breakable item in prober place.
? While testing heat the item in the test tube.
? During testing always used new and clean test tube.
? Never move here and there while keeping chemicals in hand.
MAJOR LAB TESTES:
? Blood test
• ABO blood grouping
• Erythrocytes sedimentation rate(ESR)
• Complete blood count(CBC)
• Hemoglobin Tests
? Serum electrolytes
• Serum Sodium
• Serum Potassium
• Serum chloride
• Serum bicarbonate(HCO3)
? Sugar Tests
• 1-Random Blood Sugar (RBS)
• 2-Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS)
? Urine Tests
• Complete Urine Test
• Pregnancy Test
? Lipid Profile Tests
• Serum Cholesterol
• Serum Triglycerides
• HDL Cholesterol
• LDL Cholesterol
? Liver Functioning Tests (LFT)
• Alkaline Phosphatase
? Renal Functioning Tests (RFT)
• Serum Creatinine
• Blood Urea
• Serum Uric Acid
? Cardiac enzyme test
? Serum Protein
• Serum total protein
• Serum Albumin
• Serum Globulin
? Serum Total Iron
? Serum Uric Acid
? Serum Amylase
? Prothrombin time (PT/APTT)
? Typhidot test
? C Reactive protein
Taking Out Blood Sample:
Following things are required to take blood sample from a person to perform test:
3. Cotton swab
First of all take a new syringe according to requirement 1cc, 3cc, and 5cc and take a tourniquet and bind it on arm of the person wait for a while you can see appearance of vein there. If you do not see the veins feel it with your fingertips because some time veins remain hidden under skin and muscle.
When you clearly find the vein open the syringe clean the area with cotton swab insert the syringe in a straight vein and apply small suction force to take blood sample suck blood according to requirement.
Before taking out the syringe put a cotton swap on the needle inserted area and open the bind tourniquet. Now slowly takeout the needle from vein while keeping fingers on swap. After taking out the syringe press the swap for a while and cover the area with a bandage to stop any bleeding
. Put the sample in tube according to the test.
Procedure of major test
? ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM.
• To test the blood group took a sample of a blood and put three drops of it on a slid as shown:
• Add Anti A, Anti B and Anti D on first second and third drop of blood respectively
Fig: Reagents for blood grouping
• After putting the antigen drop on each blood mixed them well.
• After mixing wait for a while and see for agglutination.
• The agglutination shows the type of blood.
• Description of ABO blood group system by chart shown:
Fig: Showing ABO Grouping System
? Complete Blood Count (CBC):
CBC is an easy and very common test that screens for certain disorders that can affect your health.
This test is used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide range of disorders, including anemia, infection and leukemia.
A complete blood count test measures the following: (RBC count) (WBC count) The total amount of hemoglobin in the blood The fraction of the blood composed of red blood cells (hematocrit) Average red blood cell size (MCV) Hemoglobin amount per red blood cell (MCH)
Fig: CBC Machine
? Blood Sample
? CBC machine.
i. Take blood sample from patience and put in the EDTA vial (contain anticoagulants)
ii. Mix the sample on roller mixer for about 10 mints.
iii. Open the covering of the tube.
iv. Now suck it to the machine through the sucker rod by pressing the blood sucking button.
v. About 25ul blood can suck by the machine.
vi. After about 1 min the result can be seen on the screen on machine.
? Parameters and results measure in CBC:
Following are the parameter and their normal values measure in CBC.
• Red cell count
RBC signifies the no. of red cell in the volume of blood.
It normal value is about
? Male: 4.7 to 6.1 Million cells/ mcl
? Female: 4.2 to 5.4 Million cells/ mcl
• White blood cell count:
WBC is the no. of white cell in the volume of blood.
It normal value is about:
? 4500 to 10,000 cells/ mcl
• Hemoglobin (Hb):
This is the amount of Hb in volume of blood.
It normal value is:
? Male: 13.8 to 17.2 mg/dl
? Female: 12.1 to 15.1 mg/dl
• Hematocrit (Hct):
Hct is the volume of red cell to the volume of whole blood.
It normal value is:
? Male: 40.7 to 50.3%
? Female: 36.1 to 44.3%
• Mean corpuscular volume (MCV):
MCV is the average volume of red blood cells.
Average value is:
? 80-95 femtoliter
• Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH):
MCH is the average amount of Hb in average red cells.
Average value is:
? 27-31 pg/cell
• Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC):
MCHC is the average concentration of Hb in given volume of red cell.
Normal value is:
? 32-36 gm./dl
• Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW):
RDW is a measurement of the variability of red cell size and shape.
? 11 to 15
• Platelet count:
The number of platelet in specific volume of blood.
Normal value is:
? Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate (ESR).
ESR measures the rate of fall (sedimentation) of erythrocytes (red blood cells) in a sample of blood that has been placed into a RSR tube. This test indirectly measures the degree of inflammation present in the body.
i. Take blood sample from patience through syringe,
ii. Put it in ESR tube according to the given label and mixed it well.
iii. Now allow the tub on ESR measuring machine for about an hour.