Commercially Used Refrigerants & their Environmental Effects:R-134a: R-134a, also known as tetraflouroethane, is probably the most commonly used refrigerant around the world in residential refrigerators and in automobiles.R134-a, which is a HFC (hydro fluorocarbons) refrigerant, has a boiling point of -26.3?C. Automobile air conditioning systems in most countries use R-134a as a refrigerant.Environmental Effects:• R-134a has no ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), hence it is not an ozone depleting refrigerant.• But R-134a does have a significant GWP (Global Warming Potential) of 1430.
This is because of its greenhouse gas-like effect, which traps heat into the Earth’s environment, hence inducing climate change.R-12: R-12(Dichlorodifluoromethane) could effectively be called R-134a’s predecessor as it was very commonly used commercially all around the globe in air conditioning systems. R-12 is one of the CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) refrigerants that were eventually banned in the late 1980s.Environmental Effects:• At the time of its advent, R-12 was non-toxic, non-flammable and inert.• But with time it was discovered that it was massively harmful for the ozone layer, the chlorine atoms splits the extra oxygen atoms in the composition of ozone.• CFCs like R-12 were banned in the late 1980s due to their high ODPs. (ODP of R-12= 1) R-410a: R-410a (Forane 410a), is also an HFC like R134-a, and is widely used in home air conditioning systems around the world. Having a boiling point of -52?C, this refrigerant also became popular after the decrease in usage of CFCs.
It has become the main refrigerant used in home and commercial systems made in or after 2010.Environmental Effects:• R-410a has zero ODP; hence ozone layer has no danger due to its usage.• But due to its high GWP of 2088, it is considered harmful when it comes to climate change and global warming.R-22: R-22 (Chlorodifluoromethane) could similarly be stated as the predecessor of R-410a, as it was also phased out due to its high ODP. R-22 (BP -40.9?C) was very commonly used before 2010 and is still used in a lot of countries in household air conditioning systems as well as some larger commercial HVAC systems.
R-22is a HCFC (hydro chlorofluorocarbon)Environmental Effects:• R-22 has an ODP of 0.05, which shows how harmful it is for the ozone layer.• R-22 also has a GWP of 1810 which describes that it is disadvantageous when it comes to climate change.
R-290: R-290 is propane gas, commonly used for a wide array of applications like powering oven, stoves etc besides being used as a refrigerant. R-290 has a BP of -42?C.Environmental Effects:• R-290 has a GWP of only 3. And zero ODP.• Despite being very favorable in terms of environmental effects, R-290 is not used very commonly because of one big issue, that it is flammable.R-32: R-32 is a HFC like R-410a and R-134a. It is being used as an alternative to R410-a in several countries in residential home systems.Environmental Effects:• R-32, like most HFCs, has a zero ODP.
• R-32 is being preferred over R410-a in some regions due to its comparatively lower GWP of 675.• Therefore, in addition to not being harmful for the ozone layer, it also is comparatively less harmful in terms of global warming.R-600a: R-600a is isobutene gas. Which is being pushed for use as a energy efficient and green refrigerant. It is not very common but it one of the faster growing refrigerants with respect to usage.Environmental Effects:• R-600a has zero ODP and a GWP of only 3.
• Like R-290, the only issue with R-600a is ease-of-use given that it is highly flammable.R-404a: R-404a is a HFC primarily used in transport refrigeration. Like R-134a and R-410a, it gained popularity due to its low ODP but is now slowly being phased out due to its higher GWP.Environmental Effects:• R-404a has no ODP; hence it is safe when it comes to ozone depletion.
• But having a GWP of 3922, it is quite harmful with respect to climate change and global warming.R-407c: R-407c is a zoetropic mixture of several refrigerants. It has a BP of -43.6?C. Though not as common as some other refrigerants on this list, it is used in HVAC systems around the world.
Environmental Effects:• R-407c has an ODP of zero.• R-407c has a GWP of 1774.R-1234yf: R-1234yf (Tetrafluoropropene) is a relatively new refrigerant which is being marketed as a green replacement for R-134a. It belongs to a new class of refrigerants called HFOs (Hydrofluoroolefins).Environmental Effects:• R-1234yf has a GWP of just 4.• R-1234yf has an ODP of zero.References:https://www.kompulsa.com/refrigerant-properties/http://me1065.wikidot.com/environmentally-friendly-refrigerantshttps://www.bijlibachao.com/air-conditioners/comparison-of-various-refrigerants-r-410a-r-22-r-290-r-134a-used-for-air-conditioners-and-refrigerators.htmlhttps://www.refrigerantrecoverymachine.com/refrigerant-types/https://refrigeranthq.com/f-a-q/common-types-freon-today/https://www.kth.se/en/itm/inst/energiteknik/forskning/ett/projekt/koldmedier-med-lag-gwp/low-gwp-news/nagot-om-hfo-koldmedier-1.602602https://www.kitchenarena.in/r32-vs-r410a-vs-r290-vs-r22/