CODeL ASSIGNMENT COVER 2018
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The Making of the Atlantic World HGE3611
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Review essay: Slave Biographies: The Atlantic Database Network
According to the definition of Hall, Atlantic Database Network is as ‘a free access source of information on the identities of enslaved people in the Atlantic World’. In addition to his definition Hall continues by saying that Atlantic Database Network includes the names, ethnicities, skills, occupations and illnesses of individual slaves involved in the Atlantic slave trade. It also connects slaves to family members creating a complex web of social and kinship networks. Therefore, slave Biographies reveals much about slave life in the New World and about African Slaves’ lives in parts of the old World. Another Source adds that ‘slave Biographies also provides a raised area for researchers of African slavery to subsidize, investigate, envisage, apply and join forces on data they have collected. The source combines multiple, individual datasets in a way that is complimentary and creates a resource for quantitative data analysis and data visualizations about the Atlantic Slave trade. Therefore, this essay will overview on the slave Biographies: the Atlantic Database Network addressing the queries such as who designed the website and funded the research project? How the expertise (s) did influences the final product? Furthermore, it will also looking at the sort of primary materials if they are archived by this project (i.e. historical documents and photographs) and the sort of research or exhibitions could be done with these materials. It will also address the questions such as if there is possible pedagogical use of this web-site for high school history teaching? Are there problems with the chronology or historical analyses which the resources providers? Are there certain groups left out of the presentation, or are they limited by the resources available to them? How could the particular resource or database be improved in the future?
Department of History Old Horticulture at Michigan State University East Lansing (2018) stated that the links on this page are sourced from History 900: Digital Humanities Research and Teaching, a course taught by Dean Rehberger and Aminda Smith. The course is designed to introduce students to best practices in digital humanities and online education. The website was designed by individuals whose ‘kindly supported slave biographies by observing on the proposed data construction and fields or offering insights into the technical challenges and the rewarding possibilities of building a freely accessible web database on the identities of enslaved people in the Atlantic World’. These are: Suzanne Ashton the Professor of Association of English at Clemson University, Marco Auelio – A Ph.D. Student at University of Sao Paulo (USP), Manuel Barcia Paz- A Senior Lecturer and Deputy Director of the Institute for Colonial and Postcolonial Studies at University of Leeds, Miguel Barnet- A President of the Fernado Ortize Foundation, Boubacar Barry- University of Cheikh Anta Diop, Laird Bergad- Distinguished Professor (Lehman College), O.Vernon Burton- Professor of History at Clemson Cyberinstitute, Judith Carney- Professor in the Department of Geography (UCLA), Lisa Earl Castillo- Postdoctoral researcher (Federal University of Bahia in Brazil, Matt Childs- Associate Professor of History (University of South Carolina), John Cummings- Owner, Whitney Plantation Museum, Louisiana, Barbara Danzie Leon- A researcher, Specialist in African Sources in the Cuban National Archives, David Eltis- A Professor (Emory University), Manolo Florentino – Associate Professor in the Department of History (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Orlando Garcia Martinez- Independent Researcher and Co-author of Espacios, silencios y los sentidos de la libtertad: Cuba entre 1878 y 1912, Max Grvno – Assistant Professor (University of Southern Missisipi, Kathe Hambrick – Jackson- National Chairwomen of all Afro-Am Museums in the USA, John Hankins – Executive Director New Orleans African American Museum, Michael N. Henderson and many more.
Slave Biographies was sponsored first by National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and their new Bridging Cultures Initiative in 2011. NEH, has been worked to serve the republic. Their aim was to developing and enlightening their public on the lessons of history to all American. “Their Bridging Cultures Initiative expands that work to build international communities of collaboration and scholarship”. The other contributions of databases to the project they expect two types of contributors: those with existing databases and those who will construct databases for site. In time they provided their own data entry forms that were used to collect the individual’s slave’s information. A prototype has been designed” using google forms”. Hall, (1984-1999) Slave Biographies was also granted from the National Endowment for the Humanities with $99, 994 since the officially opening in 2011. This had allow the officials team to bring awareness about metadata fields for biographical data by create a platform in kora as well as source digital repository that powers slave Biographies”. Other funding were Ministries of Culture of France and Spain, Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, Historic New Orleans Collection and Guggenheim Foundation. Another funds were given to the Research self-funded by Brian Mitchell with special thanks to the University of Arkansas Little Rock, Mitchell, (2016).
The historians influence the final product by emphasize the main points of the topic that was on discussions or on research, like the Atlantic Slave Trade topic, to fill you in on the situation as it pertained Africa at the time that large-scale slavery started to take off. “They always introduced the important basic knowledge and explained to demonstrate etiologically and the constantly encountered of the institution around the world”, (Davis, 1984, p. 31). The important questions regarding the origin of the institution of slavery and its ideological foundations in terms of race and skin –color were introduced through the writings of two major historians of slavery. Which means this taken together to origin you definitely by understanding the sensible to enable further study of this thorny historical topic.
This paper also emphasizes that after people did a research on a certain topic there would be a knowledge gap that could be discovered not addressed on after the findings. This could be a problem which has not be addressed in a particular field. People do research to identify, investigate, explore, improve or discover something. Therefore, this can influence others to do more on the topic or in the field.
The primary materials that are archived by this project are found in many documents that described how slaves have been entered and how they were involved in sales of slaves and others were describe from inventories of the states of deceased masters, (Hall, 1984-1999). He further noted that the other primary resources were testimony by slaves were mainly from recaptured runaways and those involved in conspiracies and revolts against slavery. Hawthorne, (2005) indicated that the data was derived from inventories of slaveholders’ possessions that found in un-catalogued boxes in the Arquivo Judici?rio do Estado do Maranh?o in S?o Luis, Brazil. Lovejoy, (1997, p. 236) stated that “African biographical materials can be valuable because they can be link shipping records to cultural changes corresponding to demographic patterns. The approach is empirical in locating and studying texts, following people along the slave route and then crossing the Atlantic”. Another source, from Johnstone, (2000), discover the primary source such as National Archives and Records Administration, State Archives of Michigan, Internet Archive, Digital Public Library of America, Samuel J. may Anti- Slavery Collection, MSU Libraries Special Collections and University Archives and Historical Collections.
There is a possible pedagogical use of this web-site for high school history teaching, MSI (2018, last par) indicated that “although much has already been accomplished, there is still more to do. Slave Biographies has plans to develop multiple user interfaces that will support the diverse needs of our audiences including genealogists, students, and researchers. They planned to develop a visualization layer which displaying the complex web of kinship and other social network relationships that are well-represented in contributed datasets. Finally they intended to diverse a mechanism that will allow the database system to determine the likelihood that slave records from two or more primary source documents describe the same individual”.
I think there is s pedagogical use of this web-site for high school history teaching because I think that teaching history subject raises questions about how to discuss related contemporary issues such as issues of racism, identity guilt and ignorance which can the come up in lessons. Teachers should use this web to research and take consultation so that they would understand slavery initiative. This can established that teachers so that they would like more access to advice, support and training to tackle debates or related social issues, cultural identity and racism. For example, the teachers may have a problem about approaching the subject of transatlantic slavery because of the inequalities between the black and white people in the history and the possible for divisions amongst students/learners from different ethnicities. The problems with the chronology or historical analyses which the resources provide should have start with the explore ways of obtaining commodities that were not available in European market and they were trying to find them in greater quantity across the seas. The second attempt of slavery was religious where the Islam and Christianity started to disagree in religious development. The third was the Atlantic Slave Trade which was born out of the large agricultural of sugar plantations, (Curtin, 1990). He further noted that the plantation has existed in the Mediterranean which enslaved laborers. As from there it increased towards West Coast of Africa, then in Brazil where the large scale sugar plantation was set up. First it was in Sao Tome in the Gulf of Guinea where slaves from the opposite African coast were traded and brought to this island to meet the demands of labor-intensive agriculture of cane sugar production. As the Portuguese, later the Spanish, Dutch, French and English colonial presence increased in Latin America, in the West Indies and in the Southern parts of North America, this system of agriculture was transferred to the New World and ever increasing numbers of African slaves were used.
Another source http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces which discuss about the slave trade of slaves from 16th century (1514) to 19th century (1866). There the searchers can searching that time period or through searching by ship, nation, voyage dates, voyage outcome, voyage itinerary, owners, captain and crew, characteristics of slaves, number of slaves or sources. And then which includes the Name, Age, Height, Sex/Age, Origin, Voyage ID, and Ship name, Arrival, Embarkation, Disembarkation and source. ‘The Atlantic Database Network has the responsibilities to manage and maintain the data based on the cooperation between researchers and the project team. The data management plan include intellectual property rights, data access and dissemination, data standards for upload, data storage, and institutional resources.
To sum up,the historians and researchers should work with students, scholars, communities and instructions to build critical digital skills, capacity and infrastructure which will be useful to high school history teaching. database made people understand especial teachers and learners to understand the suffering of slaves. The study of slavery and the slave trade from the history of human rights is seeking to achieve slave biographies. The Atlantic Database Network has the responsibilities to manage and maintain the data based on the cooperation between researchers and the project team. The data management plan include intellectual property rights, data access and distribution, data standards for upload, data storage, and institutional resources. http://www.slavevoyages.org/task/resources/slaves.facesREFERENCES LIST
1. Curtin, P. D., (1990). Rise and fall of the Plantation Complex. 2nd (Ed). Cambridge University Press. New York