CHAPTER or emotional power. It offers the reader,

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Literatureis a work of art in words. It carries an influential and durable significancethrough beauty or emotional power. It offers the reader, the essential insightsinto the nature of human desires and feelings. The primordial framework ofliterature was in the oral form. Later on, it was put into writing.

Other formsalso include plays, novels, short stories, epics etc. Epistles, orations,journals were also considered to be works of literature given that they werewritten effectively. Literatureis used as a tool by a writer to express his/ her thoughts, hopes and fears.Some writers try to change the world that they live in, by being rebelliouswith their words and also influence  people to feel and think in the same way asthey do. Works are written not only to be read during the period the writerlive in but also for the time after.

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  Thetarget audience are indigenous to different locales and not of a certain agegroup.  Writersuse certain themes in their writings that appeal to them and also their readers. Some of the commonly used themes arelove, death, morality, religion etc. Often, writers seek inspiration from theworks of other writers and develop them further.

 Literaturein England emerged during as early as 8th century with thesettlement of the Anglo Saxons and lasted until the 12th century .Theera was formally known as the Old English period. The Old English literatureconsisted of sermons, biblical translations, translated Latin manuscripts,Christian poetry etc. However the writers of the period were hard to find.

Theacclaimed Anglo Saxon poetry was Beowulf(written anonymously). Apart from Beowulf, the surviving examples of the oldestEnglish poetry belonged to Caedmon and Cynewulf. TheMiddle English period began by the end of 12th century.

GeoffreyChaucer (1343- 1400) was the well known forerunner in the history of Englishliterature. He was considered to be the father of English literature. His Canterbury Tales still remain to be oneof the most famous works of all time. His contemporary poets were WilliamLangland, John Gower. Thencame the Early Modern period. This period was a pivotal period for thedevelopment of Modern English.

William Shakespeare was a prominent writer whopaved way for such progress. Therefore this period was also called The Age ofShakespeare. Other noteworthy poets, writers, dramatists of the time wereEdmund Spenser, Christopher Marlowe, University Wits et al. The remarkableaccomplishment during the Early Modern period was the publication of the AuthorizedVersion of Bible by King James I.

  TheLate Modern period made a tremendous turn in the course of English Literature.Writers like Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope etc.  had much to contribute to this advancement. Puritanwriter John Milton mainly focused on religion. His Paradise Lost is an epic poetry that talks about the downfall ofmankind and the birth of sin.

Dryden and Pope were significant prose writers ofthe period. Novel was established as a genre of literature in the time ofSamuel Richardson, Henry Fielding. Romanticism and Naturalism became the trendduring the Age of Wordsworth. Wordsworth, S T Coleridge, Byron, Shelley werethe important poets who were born during that era. Periodicals came intofashion with the efforts of Joseph Addison and Richard Steele.

EnglishLiterature continued to grow throughout the Age of Tennyson, Age of Hardygradually reaching its peak in the present age. AmericanLiterature began with the advent of the New Colonists who started writing forthe benefits of the native readers in England. The Literature of New Englandwas solely focused on building up moralistic ideologies amongst the colonistsdirecting them to lead life in a virtuous path. Theapproach of American Revolution and the spirit of independence was influencedby the social and economic changes in the Nation. This improved state of nationcomprised of a set of remarkable writers like Thomas Jefferson , Alexander Hamiltonand the like.

The then multifaceted President Benjamin Franklin promotedAmerican Literature through his own writings and also through newspaper andperiodicals. Lateron, American Literature started attaining recognition in Europe through the extraordinarywritings of Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper. AmericanTranscendentalism became deeply rooted by the efforts of Ralph Waldo Emersonand Henry David Thoreau. The main concentration was on inculcating theprinciples of reformation with relation to society , education andphilanthropy. Early19th century was a period of histories. Writers like FrancisParkman, George Bancroft started reflecting the reality through the charactersin their books in a humorous way. This became a very popular medium amongst thegeneral public. Then came Edgar Allan Poe who gained more audience in theEuropean continent through his works of horror and mystery.

Many other workshad symbolic significance and exhibited the exact atmosphere of the nation. Theincreasing conflict between the North and the South and the Civil war resultedin the rise of Regional Literature. At the end of the war, literature had attracteda massive audience of all masses. Regionalism was perfectly reflected in theworks of Mark Twain , most significantly in his Huckleberry Finn.

Drama after the Civil War and the early 20thcentury relied upon the plays of Shakespeare and the works of other continentalplaywrights. American fiction became the voice of protest and doubt. Naturalismand Realism was then preached through the works of Stephen Crane and hiscontemporaries. Themid 19th century , predominantly publicized poetry .Poets likeRobert Frost,EmilyDickinson and Ezra Pound etc, brought out a revolution in poetry. Imagism wasmajorly employed in writings of that period.

For years after World War I, therecontinued to be rebellions. Therefore the writers built “New Literature”.Realism, Symbolism were prevalent in most works. Ernest Hemingway and hiscontemporaries incorporated new forms and ideas in their works. Eugene O’Neillbecame a widely noted dramatist of the era.

Theatre was enriched with comedies,reform plays ,histories and tragedies which was further developed by otherdramatists like Tennessee Williams. Therewas too much violence in voice and action in some novels of World War II. Afterthe war, writers of color emerged putting off stereotypes of oppression andslavery.

The failure of the American Dream and the dissatisfaction in the livesof people became a major theme in the writings of 1960s and 70s. Black/DarkHumour was also in existence.   TheLiterature of 1980s and 90s were years of African American(Toni Morrison, AliceWalker) ,Native American, Asian American writers’ works.

It also spoke ofhomosexuality. PostModern Literature played a significant role in the developments of cultural andhistorical aspects of the society . Hypocrisy was prevalent. A special emphasiswas shown on identity crisis and the struggle for authentication. Works thatwere written after the Civil Right Movement in the 1960’s focused majorly onthese themes. The period between 1950’s – 1980’s was a time of democratizationwhich offered opportunities to minority writers ,who went down in the history ofAmerican Literature as promising authors . Similar progress was found inCommonwealth Literature as well.

This period also marked the emergence of acquiredliterary theories like Feminism and Post Colonialism. Postmodernnarrative techniques of the authors were exclusively influenced by the Civilright movement. Works based on this theory were the remodeled notions of thepast concepts thereby paving way for newer ideas. The postmodern literary workssteered people’s vision of the world unlike the older notions. The old textswere rewritten in different contexts.  Thefollowing concepts were brought out :Relativism is where the readers can relatethemselves to the characters .Metafiction was also employed where the readers were addressedindirectly  through narrative devices. Intertextuality ,where association ofideas between texts were  made.

Anotherimportant features of postmodern literary pieces were parody and irony. Realitywas found to coincide with Imagination. There was also inconsistency anddisorder in few  of the literary works.  Emphasiswas made on depthlessness which related to consumerism and commercialism alongwith the disassociation of man from nature ,world and language.

These theories grantedthe creation of postmodern impulses like Expressionism,Dadaism, Surrealism, Imagism , Futurism , Constructivism and the like . Writersof 19th century focused on subjectivity and promoted a subjectiveperception towards the world in their writings. James Joyce’s Finnegan’s Wake is a forerunner ofpostmodern literature. Works of Science Fiction depicting a utopian, dystopianvision started to gain popularity as well. Psychoanalysiswas one of the most dominant theories of 20th century. It was formulatedby Sigmund Freud, a renowned Austrian psychologist who is also known to be thefather of psychoanalysis.  Theterm psychoanalysis has variegated meanings. It emphasizes on – psychicpredeterminism  and dynamics ; the roleof unconscious in determining the human behaviour .

It is also a curativemethod for the investigation and treatment of mental disorders. Psychoanalysiscomprises of sub theories such as ‘levels of consciousness’, ‘psychic structureof personality’, ‘psychosexual development’, ‘defense mechanisms’, ‘theory ofinstincts’. Much of psychoanalytic theory was derived from Freud’s clinicalexperience in treating neurotic patients. He divided the mind into threefunctional tenets  – the id, the ego, the superego. Thecorrespondence of these functions determines one’s action and obvert behaviors. Idis the initial agent of psychic drive. It is governed entirely by the pleasure principle with driven goalsfocusing only on pleasure, while neglecting tensions and clashes adjoined in achievingpleasure. It is the primary process that is irrational, illogical and filledwith fantasies.

This part of personality is present at birth and belongs to theunconscious mind. It is where the fundamental instincts seek their escape. Theinstinct of id is primitive and brutal. Egoforms the second part of the personality that is partly conscious and partlyunconscious. It controls the approaches to activities under the id’s orders. Itis governed by the reality principle.It is the secondary process that is delineated by logic and reasoning. The roleof ego is to mediate the conflict between the id and the super-ego.

 Thethird part of personality, Super-ego is the moral amend .It is partly unconsciousand partly conscious. It can be recognized as the voice of the conscience. Soin general, man is a primitive being driven by pleasure seeking principles onexposure to the outer world.

Ego channelizes the demands of the id intopursuits that are admissible to outer world that are being censored by thesuper-ego.Freudcompared the relationship between the structure of personality and the levelsof consciousness to an iceberg floating on water.                        Fig1. Freud’s psyche theory : Structural-Iceberg  Psychoanalysisis not only a proficient and scientific discipline that prevails in ourculture, but a pattern of thought ,an advance to human experience that hasbecome a component part of our culture and affects the way we perceiveexperiences of ourselves . Thepsychoanalytic approach to literature began with the theories of Freud and hisgenuine interest in writers who used ideas as symbols which made sense only onproper interpretation.

This led him to make inferences on creativity andcreative literary criticism. The application of psychoanalytic theory toliterature became widespread. Many critics believed that psychological andpsychoanalytical theory could result in better understanding of literature.  Manypoets and novelists like W.H.Auden, Henry James, James Joyce, D.H.Lawrencerelied on Freud’s models.

Their writings provided a study of the characters innovels and plays. These characters were believed to be the subdued aspects ofthe authors’ psyche. The unconscious plays a role in creativity. According topsychoanalytic critics such as Holland, the repressed whims and fancies of thewriter were projected onto the deeds of the characters. Later on, the focusshifted from the psyche of the authors to the psychology of the readers. Psychoanalysisis the retrospection of an individual’s personality and behaviour. Language anddescription are essential to it.

Psychoanalysis and literature as a wholeintroduces a significant approach to the illustrations of suspicion on motivesand ideas underlying in the literary text. The process helps clarifyingliterature on two levels, the level of the writing and the level of thecharacters’ actions. The amalgamation of psychoanalysis and literature assessthe articulation of our private angsts with relation to culture and promotes aperception of them as cultural formations. The most famous work ofpsychoanalysis in literature is Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein.

 Apsychoanalytic criticism of a literary work concentrates on the text as a portalinto the mind of the author .It acts as a display of his or her particularneuroses. Interpreting the text, then, becomes a manoeuvre in finding directand indirect manifestation of the author’s childhood traumas and psychologicalinstabilities and/or inconsistencies. Another way to apply psychoanalysis toliterary works is to consider the psychological makeup of the individual characterswithin the work.

To interpret a literary work is to analyze the degree to whichthe work aims to strike the fears and/or desires of the reader. Hence, thereader becomes the subject of psychoanalysis.  JeffreyP.

Freundlich, the author of the novel, DarklyDreaming Dexter was born on July 14,1952 in Florida . He later startedwriting under the pseudonym Jeff Lindsay.He graduated from Ransom Everglade School in South Florida, Middlebury Collegein Vermont and Carnegie Mellon. He was brought up in Florida hence his Dexterbook series were set up in the exact milieu. Darkly Dreaming Dexter  is a 2004 novel written by Jeff Lindsay,published in July 2004 by Orion Books Ltd. It is the first book of the Dexterseries about a serial killer named Dexter Morgan. It has been adapted into theShowtime television series with the title Dexterfeaturing Michael .C.

Hall who played the title character. The novel was nearly nominated for a”Mystery Writers of America Edgar Award ” for best first novel but it fellthrough. Later it won the 2005 “Dilys Award” and the 2007 ” Book to TV” award. Thisnovel was developed from the own personal experience of the author, based onthe observations he made on people with fake emotions at a civics groupluncheon. This became the base idea of Darkly Dreaming Dexter. The author hadincorporated the concept of “illegal laughter” in this novel which he learnedas a student of theatre at Carnegie Mellon. The main purpose of the concept wasto make the audience laugh and at the same time make them feel like they haddone something wrong. Thus he strived to make Dexter witty and humorous but weirdthe reader out.

His other works include TropicalDepression: A Novel of Suspense, Dream Land: A Novel of the UFO Coverup, TimeBlender and Dreamchild. His Contemporaries are Bella DePaulo, JeffreyCohen , John Lutz, Jack Kerley etc Darkly Dreaming Dexter (2004) is the first book of JeffLindsay’s Dexter Series. The protagonist of the novel is Dexter Morgan, whoworks as a forensic blood spatter pattern analyst for the Miami – Dade PoliceDepartment .He is also a serial killer/vigilante who kills murderers, rapistsand other criminals who have, had and will escape from the judicial system.

Dexter’smurders are prompted by his inner voice , the “Dark Passenger” which urges himto satiate his homicidal tendencies on a regular basis. Itwas Dexter’s foster father Harry Morgan, who had taught him to channel hishomicidal urges in a  “positive”direction, where he could kill only the heinous convicts who were free tocommit more crime. Harry Morgan set forth guidelines for Dexter to freelyexercise his murders:·        Leaveno clues·        Becareful and precise·        Makesure your victims are guilty Thestory begins with the investigation of a series of prostitutes’ murders. TheKiller is named as the “Tamiami Slasher”. Dexter’s sister , Deborah who alsoworks for the Miami Dade Police Department wants to become a homicidaldetective seeks his help in solving the case. Dexteradmires the killer’s style of chopping off the victim’s body parts, drainingthe blood and refrigerating them.

He finds the neat corpses appealing . Onenight, Dexter follows an ice truck that was actually driven by the killer.After that, the killer starts sending horrific clues as souvenirs. Dexter istorn between helping Deborah catch the killer and his admiration of thekiller’s artistry.

 Thekiller kidnaps Deborah and takes Dexter to the crime scene , where he revealsto be the latter’s biological brother, Brian. The duo was separated after theirmother gets brutally murdered. Deborah’s colleague Migdia LaGuerta arrives atthe scene and gets killed by Brian. The novel ends with Dexter helping Brianget away out of his loyalty for him.   Freudsays that ,”The Id, Ego and Super-ego together constitute the psyche”in his 1923 book, The Ego and the Id.An individual’s personality is made based on how well they work insynchronization and when it malfunctions the personality gets deviated.

The sameprinciple has been applied on the protagonist of the novel , Dexter Morgan whois portrayed as a sociopathic vigilante but with a motive.  TheFreudian theory of Psychoanalysis proposes a three component setup that makesup an individual’s personality namely the id,the ego, the superego that is solely responsible for the way he acts/ behaves.The id represents a resolute in the personality asit is always present. The id by definition is the unconscious : dark, inaccessiblepart of our personality . The ego is the interface of the personality, the part youusually show the world.

It enforces a practical approach to the world. It worksto convert the id’s drive to behaviour with conscious awareness. It representsreason and common sense, in contrast to the id. Its task is to balance betweenprimeval drives and reality while satisfying the id and super-ego.

 The superego comprises that part of the personality, mainlyunconscious which includes the individual’s “conscience” that judges andprohibits his or her drives, fantasies, feelings, and actions. The superego canbe thought of as a type of conscience that punishes misbehavior with guilt. In the novel DarklyDreaming Dexter, the character of Dexter Morgan can be considered to be the ego, whereas the “Dark Passenger”, his inner voice thatpersuades him to act on his killer instincts is the id. Dexter’sfoster father Harry Morgan continues to be the representation of the superego balancing the actions ofDexter and his Dark Passenger. Dexter, as a toddler witnesses his get mother brutally murdered. He is found crying next to his mother’s corpse drenched in her blood.

HarryMorgan, the investigating officer shelters Dexter and raises him as his ownson. As Dexter grew up Harry finds irregularities in his behaviour. The traumaDexter went through when he was a child had influenced his personality to agreat extent that he started acting on his killer instincts. Harry makes up aset of rules that he calls “The Code” which allows Dexter to kill only thedeserving criminals, so that he gets to have a normal life while still actingout on instincts. Dexter grows up with Deborah , the biological daughter ofHarry Morgan.

The Code remains a secret between the father and the son. Afterthe demise of their father , the siblings start working together at the Miami–Dade Police Department (MDPD). Dexter becomes the Forensic Blood SpatterAnalyst and Deborah , an investigating police officer. The job becomes theperfect cover for him and  also offershim better chances to track down his victims through the MDPD ‘s criminaldatabase.

He appears to be a geek , leaving no clue of his dark inner self tothe world . He continues on his cautious killing spree in order to satiate theDark Passenger. Whenever he is found to deviate from The Code , Harry Morganreaches out to him through flashbacks and hallucinations prompting him to acton the intended plan.  Thepurpose of this study is to advance the understanding of the human psyche withreference to Jeff Lindsay’s DarklyDreaming Dexter. This research focuses on how an imbalance in the psychecan create abnormalities in one’s personality.

The psychoanalytic theory ofFreud has been applied to this text with the intent of making a study of thesame through the character/figure(s) found in the novel.

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