Chapter variables that affect the student outcomes: prior

Chapter IIReview of Related Literature We the researchers find new knowledge, techniques and skills to develop and present the review of related literature and studies. We were greatly involved in the fast growing trend innovation in technologies and communication in today’s generation. The researchers conduct studies about the effects of smart phones and smart tablets in learning performance of the college students.

This chapter presents a review of literature related to the topic and various studies both foreign and local that are related to the topic. Smart phones have now become popular to the students especially college students. There are many classroom management, one of this is a policy prohibit mobile phone uses and text messaging in class discussion, according to some research has found that mobile phones and short message service (SMS) texting can help students to collaborate and interact and assess student learning and participation. This mobile infrastructure can be used inside and outside of classrooms. Researchers have recognized the potential for these devices to foster collaboration and extend learning opportunities by allowing anywhere-anytime learning. Walberg et al. already identified the main variables that affect the student outcomes: prior achievement or students ability, developmental stages/ age, motivation, quality of instruction, quantity of instruction, environment at home, climate in the classroom, peer group and the exposure of the students to mass media outside of the school campus (Walberg, Fraser ; Welch, 1986).The student’s learning performance can affect to the gadgets that they are using outside the school, it has a case to case basis: The students that can search information that widens the knowledge of the child, it can really affect the learning performance where in the student at the school can give much more information and can share knowledge to his/her classmates.

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