Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides an overview of previous research on knowledge sharing and intranet. It introduces the framework for this study that comprises the main focus of the research described in this thesis.
Online Gaming Involvement
Gaming is an integral and ever-developing segment of the global media and entertainment market where Asia Pacific and North America as two largest gaming regions are predicted to have around 78% of global revenues in 2017 stated by the U.S. Online Gaming Industry. According to (Wang, et. al., 2011) online gaming is an amusement, that can generate activity and is played on some form of connection or computer networks. Life activities like social life, family events, and normal daily functioning are affected and replaced by online games (Van Roiij et al., 2011). Online gaming can be extremely engaging and time-consuming that they even neglect eating, sleep, exercise and hygiene and some of these gamers even set an alarm to keep track of time and alert them. These engagements causes delay in their works, assignments and home tasks (Hsu and Yu, 2007; Hussain and Griffiths, 2009; Jiang, 2014).
Simulation is one of the essences of online games where everyone can be entertained, be challenged and be educated. It can also yield positive outcomes which are pedagogical in relation to health-related knowledge behavior development (Thompson and Baranowski, 2008; Barlett, Anderson, & Swing, 2010). Now, users can easily see and interact with other people through the virtual worlds created by online games. This application allows anonymity among users that those with low self-confidence and lacks social skills desire to create their own virtual life and social identities on the Internet to raise their self-esteem. In these cases, the Internet becomes a substitute for real-life social interaction, giving the user an escape from reality (Ng and Hastings, 2005).One research has shown results that online games can promote coordination of hand-eye, visual scanning, discrimination of auditory, and skills in spatial and problem-solving (Johnson, Christie, & Yawkey, 1999; Lisi & Wolford, 2002; Chuang & Chen, 2009). In several cases, gaming restrictions are created by parents and there are also some self-restrictions created by students. An example of these is when excessive nightly gaming has interfered with the daily school work. Almost all students defend their gaming and claim that it gives them a richer life with nice experiences even if there are risks of addiction. One student wrote in his essay about how gaming can be a possible escape in doing daily routines for a while and to be involved to discover and learn (Mozelius, et. al., 2016).
As stated by Iowa State University (2011), online games have become extremely popular among the young generation thus leading to the proliferation of online game addiction on global platform. Internet has so many benefits; it acts not only as an entertainment tool, but also an important professional resource for work, communication as well as education. However, even though it has inherent advantages, the Internet also has its drawbacks. According to a report of Syracuse University on the Science Daily website (2007), academic performance, health and social life are the common things that are being affected by the negative consequences of online gaming. Problematic gamers are more inclined in gaming and turn their attention to it as their reaction to anger and frustration. They use it to regulate their emotion and decrease their negative feelings (Kuss and Griffiths, 2011).
Achievement need, socialization, self-regulation, and immersion are the things that motivates the gamers to have high engagement in game playing as explored by the researchers (Billieux et al., 2013; King, Haagsma, Delfabbro, Gradisar, & Griffiths, 2013; Ryan et al., 2006; Yee, 2006a, 2007). Griffiths, Davies, and Chappell (2004) stated that pleasure, challenge and social motivation are the intrinsic motivations that are important when playing online games. Gender also affects the motivation of an individual. Yee (2006a, 2006b) reported that boys have motives for higher achievement while girls have motives for higher socialization in playing online games.
Attitude towards Performance of School Tasks
School tasks involve school works performed by students. It is also the materials studied in school, comprising home works and work done in class. An attitude on the other hand, is “a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols” (Hogg & Vaughan, 2005). Attitudes structure can be described in terms of three components: affective component (involves a person’s feelings / emotions about an attitude object), behavioral (or conative) component (the way the attitude we have influences how we act or behave) and cognitive component (involves a person’s belief/knowledge about an attitude object). These are the three components model or commonly known as the ABC model (for example Rosenberg & Hovland, in Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975, Výrost, 1989, Hogg & Vaughan, 2005, and others).
Online gaming may affect the attitude of student’s in performance of school tasks. One of the main factors that influences the attitudes of students towards school include the subjects learnt policy and requirements of an individual school (Verešová, et. al.). As online games become accessible almost anywhere at any time, all range of age are now possible to be addicted into playing online video game which at the end of the day they become care about themselves, their performance at school or workplace and their social life
On contrary, two motives have emerged from a research conducted by Wallenius, et. al. (2009) about his examination of relations between digital game playing and parent child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health. One is instrumental (learn new things ; procedures, have a common topic for conversation, use ; develop game playing skills, experience different roles/worlds) and ritualized (pastime, entertainment; recover, relax; escape everyday life, forget worries). These motives are associated with earlier bedtime, worse perceived health better mother communication, and better school grade, but only among boys. Ritualized motives and its importance increased with age and were related to better school performance, worse sleeping habits, and worse perceived health in both sexes. As such data has been stated, gaming is part of the male socio-cultural communication context.