Review of Literature
This chapter details the reviewed literature relevant to this study by different researchers. This shows the different views and theories of the Ivatan Farmers Strategies and Challenges on Climate Change (1) Ivatan farming (2) Farming strategies (3) Challenges (4) Climate Change.
One of the common source of income and daily foods for their family of the Ivatan is through farming. On the study of Dayo, (2011) farming is their major livelihood, the productions from farm is intended for family consumption because every family produced and expected to provide their own food, specially root crops. Usually, Ivatan women focus around farming together with their male partners and children, they both working in the field base on to their traditional farming calendar.
Ivatan labor system have a close community relationship wherein labor sharing is one their tradition, not just among family members, relatives, but also among peers Navarro (2009). There are different types that will be helpful on the labor work among the Ivatans. The first type called payuhuwan or exchange of labor without payment. second type is the mangju, a third of the day’s harvest goes to the worker, with lunch and snacks provided by the farm owner. The third type, chalangdan is the owner were hired someone and paid it in cash. All members of the family are involved in farming. Their children’s help to farm chores during summer vacation while The women usually take care of the lighter tasks like weeding. After work, the Ivatans together with family members and friend celebrates by getting together and drinking a palek or local wine.
Farming strategies is Farming cultivation, changing crops, livestock, irrigations, using fertilizer and to adapt on-farm technology for crops to ensure the survival of the family even if the climate change occurs. Andear, (2009) asserted that the agricultural sector’s reliance on seasonal, rain-fed cultivation makes the sector particularly vulnerable to climate unpredictability and change. McElwee (2008) identified farmers “as those occupied on a part or full-time basis and engaged in a range of activities that are mainly focus on the farm and agriculture they practice cultivating the soil, raising livestock and growing crops as the main source of their income.
Ndlovu, (2010) Pointed that the agricultural inputs, supporting irrigation schemes, supporting conservation farming, promoting planting of drought tolerant crops, promoting the small gardens, food relief and capacity building in various aspects of drought handling and risk reduction. It is important to have plan in case of climate change farmer’s, household to minimize the impacts of drought and other cause climate change.
Brayant et al. (2000) asserted that Climate change is agriculture that address the adaptation and adjustment to the risks connected to the changes in averages and, more recently, with recurring extreme events. Specific adaptation strategies to climate change effects include changing the timing of planting and using heat and drought resistant varieties, with new cultivars having been selected and applied for the same purposes, proper use of fertilizer, irrigation, practicing soil and water conservation techniques, and diversification to non-farm activities, are also adaptation strategies that practiced at farm level in response to climate change.
Deressa & Hassan, (2009). Suggested that the Ethiopia they coping strategies that have been recommended to lessen the negative impact of the climate change such us livestock ownership, investment in irrigation, planting early-maturing and drought-tolerant crop varieties. Moreover, In Ghana, Fosu-Mensah et al. (2010) identified that the crop diversification and changing plants for crops, enter croping is one of the common adaptation strategy used by the farmers. And also in Zimbabwe, Gukurume, (2013) supported the crop and livelihood diversification were the main coping strategies used to lessen the crop failure and livelihood vulnerability.
Farming challenge like flood and drought are the common problems of the farmers in fieldwork that they encounter. Food production is threatened by climate changing through several ways increases the temperature and changing rainfall patterns that could affect crop yield. Lasco, (2012) said that in crop-growing areas due to sea-level rise, drought and extreme rainfall that leads farm damage. The impacts of climate change followed by the density can increased the risk effect upon the social and environmental welfare as well as the economic drivers in the ROM UNESCO1, (2009).
According to the study Wilhite et al., (2000); Wilhite, Hays & Knutson, (2005) Drought is a consequence of a natural reduction in the amount of rainfall received over an extended period of time, usually a season or more and is also related to timing and effectiveness of the rains such as delays in the beginning of the rainy season, amount of rains in relation to crop growth stages, rainfall intensity and the amount of rainfall events. The effects of drought in the farmer requires to use all of components of the risk disaster management cycle rather than to use the crisis management portion cycle. Heavy rainfall events can cause floods, can wipe out the entire crops in the farms and also lead to soil water logging and reduce plant to growth.
Brian, (2009) cited that drought and seasonal rainfall uncertainties coupled with disease infestation, high pest and increasing rates of soil erosion and consequent soil fertility decline, short growing season due to late rainfall characterize by agricultural system in the district. This has had a negative impact on agricultural production subsequently reducing household income and subjecting communities in this district to high levels of poverty and very limited livelihood options.
Fisher et al, (2005) prove that there is a large concern regarding the impacts of climate change and its variability upon agricultural practices worldwide concerning the agricultural production in developing countries, the impacts of climate change does not always provide a unified picture. Pannell (2010) noted, the characteristics of climate change slow: there will be the time to adapt later, small changes in climate relative to annual variations in weather, farmers respond to weather, not climate, and the spatial heterogeneous.
Seenattun, (2010) stated that the primary victims when it comes to the impacts of climate change are the Mauritian agricultural producers since agriculture is highly dependent on climate stability, therefore affecting the yields of the producers. Without increased research and development of sustainable agricultural models in order to tackle the consequences of climate change, socio-economic development risks to stagnate and affect the income of private households in Mauritius Stern, (2006) observe the facing threats of climate change today and its impacts on the environment is certainly a challenge difficult to tackle.