CHAPTER bands in Europe and the 1.9GHz

This part will exhibit the exploration work that comparative with this anticipate by journals, theses, articles, research papers and different sources. The literature review is the using of the works of other before initiating on examination work to acquire enough significant data and information on comparable projects done by others.
GSM Technology
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is that an open, digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services. Then the uses of GSM was in time division multiple access (TDMA) and is the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephony technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). Thus, the GSM digitizes and squeeze data, then sends it down a channel with two others streams of user data, each in its own time slot. Today, more than 690 mobile networks included GSM services across 213 countries used in world wide. The SIM cards (Subscriber Identify Module) holdings home network access configurations may be switched to those will metered local metered local access. GSM is part of the evolution of wireless mobile telecommunication that includes High-Speed Circuit- Switched Data (HSCSD), General Packet Radio System (GPRS), Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE), and Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS). GSM is a circuit-switched system that divides each 200 kHz channel into eight 25 kHz time-slots. GSM operates in the 900MHz and 1.8GHz bands in Europe and the 1.9GHz and 850MHz bands in the US. The 850MHz band is also used for GSM and 3GSM in Australia, Canada and many South American countries. GSM supports data transfer speeds of up to 9.6 Kbit/s, allowing the transmission of basic data services such as SMS (Short Message Service). Another major benefit is its international roaming capability, allowing users to access the same services when travelling abroad as at home.

2.2 GSM Telecommunication Services
GSM telecommunication services include all the services offered to GSM users: from basic telephony, the chief reason a GSM mobile phone might be bought in the first place, all the way to fax, data, or other more specialized services. There are two categories of services: teleservices and bearer services. Teleservices provide a complete service to the user within the GSM network. Teleservices is a kind of telecommunication provider that offers entire capability, which includes terminal equipment functions, for communication between users according to installed protocols.On the other hand, bearer services is a kind of services that provides the functionality for the transmission of indicators between person network interfaces.

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Figure 2.1: Bearer services and teleservicesFigure 1 shows the difference between the two services. It illustrates the end-to-end teleservice connection by means of a normal phone connection, and the end-to-end bearer service connection through data connection. The teleservices allow an end-to-end connection within the GSM service area, which supplies all the necessary higher layers to support the services.

Global System for Communication (GSM)
Subhramanya Sarma.Gollapudi et al, (2013), mentioned that Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is a technology mobile phone for networks. An open GSM on digital cellular is technology created to allow transmission of voice signals in the form of mobile data services. GSM operates in the 900MHz and 1.8GHz band. Other than that, GSM supports data transfer speeds of up to 9.6kbps that can support the use of basic data services such as SMS. GSM standard is built to solve these problems. SIM300 Module is the solution for tri-band GSM/GPRS compact plug in module featuring an industry standard interface. Feature of GSM is single supply voltage 3.2V-4.5V. It has the typical power consumption in SLEEP mode of 2.5mA with supported SIM card of 1.8V and 3V.

P. Raveendra Babu et al, (2013), State that it is a global standard for digital cellular communication and a common European mobile telephone standard for a mobile cellular radio system operating at 900MHz. In the current work, SIM300 GSM module is used widely. The SIM300 module is a Tri-band GSM/GPRS solution in a compact plug module presenting an industry-standard interface. This technology is broadly used in mobile device use. Since the GSM network has covered all over the country, it makes the GSM technology important in connection when using wireless technology feature.

Harshadbhai Krishna Patel, (2013), From the Designs of GPS and a GSM Based Vehicle Location and Tracking System, he illustrated that the GSM modern is a specialized type of modem that accepts a SIM card, and operates a subscription to mobile operators, such a mobile phone. GSM uses a communication process known as circuit switching which allows two devices to communicate to each other. When both devices are connected, a constant stream of digital data will be transmitted. The GSM network consists of the main system, Switching System (SS), Base Station (BSS) and Mobile Station (MS). GSM module is used to transfer data from wide distance. It also can identify the data being transmitted. It usually supports AT commands. SIM300 can be integrated with a variety of applications.

Dr.N. Suthanthira Vanitha, el al, (2013), created the Vehicle Tracking and Locking System Based on GSM and GPS mentioned that the GSM modem is a specialised kind of modem that accepts SIM cards on mobile numbers of  users via a network, such as cell phones.MAX232 logic is used to convert TTL logic levels to RS232 converter which is usually used between the microcontroller and the GSM board. GSM Modem is the RS 232-compatible logic because it takes -3V to -15V logic high and +3V to +15 as low. The signal at pin 11 microcontroller sent to modem through MAX232 pin 11 signal. It is a cell phone without a display.

Global System for Communication (GSM) Architecture
2095502268855A GSM system is designed as a mixture of three main subsystems: the network subsystem, the radio subsystem, and the operation support subsystem. In order to make sure that network operators would have some sources of cellular infrastructure equipment, GSM deterined to specify not only the air interface, but also the majotr interfaces that discovers different parts. There are three dominant interfaces, namely, an interface between MSC and the Base Station Controller (BSC), an A-bits interface between BSC and the Base Transceiver Station (BTS), and an Um interface between the BTS and MS. These three interfaces are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2.2: Typical GSM architecture
The network subsystem consists of the tools and features associated to end-to-end calls, management of subscribes, mobility, and interface with the fixed PSTN. In particular, the switching subsystem consists of MSCs, Visitor Location Register (VLR), Home Location Register (HLR), Authentication Center (AUC), and Equipment Identity Register (EIR). The MSC offers call setup, routing, and handover between BSCs in its very own location and to/from different MSC; an interface to the constant PSTN; and other features such as billing. The HLR is a centralized database of all subscribers in a PLMN. There may be more than one HLR in PLMN, but the individual subscriber has entry to only of them. The VLR is a database of all mobile, currently roaming in the MSC’s area of control. As soon as an MS roams into a new MSC area, the VLR connected to that MSC will request informations about the MS from the HLR. At the same time, the HLR will be informed as to which MSC region the MS resides. If, at a later time, MS wishes to make a call, the VLR will have all the data needed for the call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time. Thus, VLR in one sense is a distributed HLR. VLR also contains more exact information about the mobile location. The AUC is connected to the HLR. The function of the AUC is to provide HLR with authentication parameters and ciphering keys that are used for security purposes. The EIR is the database where the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) numbers for all registered mobile equipment are stored.

Benefits of GSM
GSM or Global System for Mobile Communications is how mobile phones communicate around the world. Over 3 billion human beings are using it. GSM cellphones have made text messaging as a everyday incidence in many locations around the world, even third world countries.

1) Emergency Response. 112 is now a standard emergency number among GSM networks. No matter where the consumer is, if they’re using GSM, they can call for help.

2) Technological Growth. The growth of communications technology has been caused by worldwide competition, allowed by the universality of GSM. This has led to a reliable cell-phone service and improved quality in both connection stability and ease.

3) Universal Data Transfer. The Global System for Mobile Communications permits for dependable and efficient infomation transfer. It even lets in textual content and images to be sent from anywhere the system is available.

4) Greater security. Due to the way it’s designed, a call needs to request access. This is a safety features that makes sure that only the caller and the receiver are in the conversation.

5) Has international capabilities. While sometimes costly, GSM phones have built-in worldwide capabilities. Occasionally, it charges more depending on what region the call is being placed to, but it stays a valuable benefit.

Short Message Service (SMS)
Global System for Mobile Communication is a cellular digital system standard phones which are widely used in advanced technology industries. First named after the frequency band around 900MHz, GSM-900 provides the basis for several other networks using GSM technology, usually GSM networks operating at frequencies band around 1800MHz and 1900MHz when referring to “GSM” it stands for short message service (SMS) is part of the GSM network technology it has become a largest source of industrial technology for and the communication protocol that allows the transmission of text messages between phone devices and sending short message. Technology become the largest facilitated the improvement and increase of text messaging. The word “SMS” is used as a synonym for a text message from another person to another by sending a text message using global system communications.
2.7GPS Technology
GPS( Global Positioning System which is one of network were orbiting satellites that send the precise details of their position or coordinates in the earth with correct position, speed and time at the vehicles location ( latitude and longitude). The GPS was capture the signal from satellites, which are able to use in mathematical term principle of trilateration to pinpoint our location. So in the clear view, that we standing somewhere on the earth with three satellites in the sky above us. If we know how far away we from satellite A, then we know must be located somewhere the red circle. If we does the same for satellites B and C, we can work out our location by seeing where the three circles intersect. This is simply what our GPS receiver does, even though it makes use of overlapping spheres instead of circles. Moreover, the GPS satellites have its own atomic clocks on this very own major frame to maintain an accurate time. The common and special relativity however predict that variations will appear between these clocks and an same clock on Earth. Therefore, the regular relativity predicts that time will show up to run slower under greater gravitational pull- the clocks on the main frame the satellites will therefore seem to run faster than clock on earth.

2.8GPS Telecommunication Networks
There are some aspects of network harmonization for telecommunication services. So, the GPS provides a global universal and cost effective source for critical timing and harmonization for operation of telecommunication networks, including the global fiber networks (SDH and SONET) and the global wireless networks (PCS, GSM, TDMA, CDMA, Wideband CDMA). Moreover, reducing from noise in voice communication, loss of information content for faxes, forcing data retransmission, freeze frames in video that are number of problems who user could experience. So the importance of reliable telecommunication to our daily lives is hard to quantify it is of such high value. However, the reliability of service reduces or is disturbed, dependent industries such as banking and internet services will also be adversely affected. Absence of telecommunication can also lead to moderated safety, particularly since so much of the transportation and public safety systems are increasingly hooked on upon wireless communication. The GSM wireless and CDMA wireless communication, enhanced emergency services, digitized video services distribution, telemedicine, video conferencing are all services which are corrupted or lost completely if the primary reference source of telecommunication harmonization is lost, unreachable, or corrupted. Therefore, the GPS can proportionate effect on telecommunications services, both wireless and wireline. The GPS is a going up utility and requires protection and promotion as a utility both locally and worldwide to insure the continued smooth and trustworthy operations of dependent industries such as telecommunication. Meanwhile, the GPS signal can cause degradation of the GPS based harmonization signal, problems such as loss of GPS spectrum, interference from other system, as well as GPS rejuvenation all can have lasting effects on the telecommunication systems around the world.

2.9GPS Communication Works in GPS Tracking Devices
There are GPS communicate works in GPS tracking gadgets to some industries or some private company in worldwide. Because the vast majority of trackers use both satellite and cellular signal to communicate away from the GSM network and onto Verizon’s CDMA network. That are passive tracker, that the records transmitted from GPS satellites and save it. To access location and speed information, the consumer need to retrieve the GPS tracker and either plug the gadget into pc or plug SIM card into a computer to see the data. Which mean for active trackers, which comprise GPS satellite receivers in addition to cellular transmitters which allow the gadget to take in location data and transmit it as it happens. So, the GPS tracker receives area data from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), it is receiving microwave alerts containing location, speed, time, and direction information. The GPS device trackers requires any given time, from any point on earth, there are about nine satellites seen from the ground , offering a fair quantity of redundancy in information. The receiver use the data from more than one satellites to triangulate a place based on variances in time. Once that area data is obtained via the GPS tracker, the data is transmitted at set intervals using radio frequencies over the cellular network. So many actual time trackers can be set to less regularly in order to retain battery life, or more often to supply more accurate location information.


2.10Global Positioning System (GPS) Architecture
The GPS architecture is separated into three main segments which GPS Space Segment, GPS Ground Segment and GPS User Segments. The space segment function is to transmit radio navigation signal with a specific signal structure, and to save and retransmit the navigation messages sent through the control segment. These transmissions are managed by relatively steady nuclear clocks on board the satellites. The GPS space segment by a satellite pattern with adequate satellites to make sure that the customers will have, at least, four simultaneous satellites in view from any point at the earth surface at any time. Then the GPS ground segment is the responsible for the appropriate operation of the GPS system. The GPS control section is composed by network of Monitor Station, a Master Control Station and the Ground Antennas. The Master Control Station processes the measurements obtained by the Monitor Stations to determine satellite orbits and clock errors, among other parameters, and to generate the navigation message. These upgrades and the navigation messages are uploaded to the satellites although the Ground Antennas, which are co-located in four of the Monitor stations. Moreover, the GPS user segment is composed by GPS receivers, its feature is to obtain GPS signals, determine pseudoranges, and clear up the navigation equations in order to acquire their coordinates and supply a very accurate time.


2.11 Benefits of GPS
Save time- there are some occasions when our fleet gets stuck in the traffic for quite a few minutes, so with the appropriate fleet management system, our fleet managers will able to guide the drivers to avoid the busy streets in real-time basis.

Ease of use- the important informations such a location data, vehicles status, driver’s behavior can be accessed effortlessly with the assistance of GPS fleet management software.
Improve safety- GPS fleet management structres can also assist our enforce two-way communications between drivers and fleet managers.

Be competitive- The GPS can beat competing by streamlining transportation business with GPS fleet management systems.

Utilize digital timekeeping- the GPS tracking can get rid of billing discrepancies by making use of the digital timekeeping.

Be more predictable- the GPS can be predictable by offering with correct delivery times, real- time tracking info and other minute details.

Previous project
“Vehicle Tracking and Locking System Based on GSM and GPS”
R. Ramani, S. Valarmathy, Dr. N. Suthanthira Vanita, S. Selvaraju, M.ThiruppathiR. Ramani, S. Valarmathy, Dr. N. Suthanthira Vanita, S. Selvaraju, M.Thiruppathi, (2013), were done ‘Vehicle Tracking and Locking System Based on GSM and GPS’ this project. The purpose of this project was to avoid robbed in parking area and driving unsafety places. They used the GSM (Global system mobile communication) and GPS (Global Positioning system) which integrated with Arduino UNO R3, Raspberry Pi Model B and Web Camera. This project was follow by the owner when he/she parking the car and access the password via SMS (Short message service) by communicate with the GSM and Arduino. After that, the GSM interface with GPS to send current location (latitude and longitude) by access the GOOGLE MAPS application to owner for confirmed. Given the situation when the vehicles was access by unauthorized person that the car moved from parked area, automatically the notification send to owner via SMS which interface to GSM and arduino. Then the GSM communicate to GPS which send the coordinates where is latitude and longitude to owner’s smartphone. So the owner can tracking the vehicles when moved from current location that access by unauthorized person. Next, the Arduino communicate with the Raspberry Pi to confirm that the vehicle was robbed and send the image of theft by Raspberry Pi interfaced with WEB Camera via email to owner in format of JPEG picture. Once the owner gets the picture and confirmed that unauthorized access the GSM send SMS to the police control room by valid information such as Model, Car number, Colour of the car and coordinates of the vehicles.
Module Arduino UNO R3 Raspberry Pi Model B GSM Module GPS Receiver Web Camera
Model Atmega328P microcontroller ARM1176JZF-S SIMCOM SIM900 V1.0 ITEAD Studio GPS-01 Tenet Technetronic CirocommQuantum Logitech 25MP Webcam 6 light Night Vision
Supply 9v battery 5v battery – – –
Speed – 1GHz operating speed 900MHz-1800MHz – –
Baud rate 9600bps– 115200bps – 115200bps – –
Memory 32KB flash memory 512 MB DRAM
(2 to 16 GB SD card) – – –
Imported libraries TinyGPS , GSMShieldSmtplib, MIMEText, MIMEMultipartGSMShieldTinyGPS-
Code Embedded C code Python code – – –
Additional 8-bit RISC based AVR made by Atmel Consists of CPU and GPU UART protocol Using NMEA 0183 protocol Inbuilt sensitive microphone and image sensor high quality CMOS sensor
25 Megapixels
“Vehicle Theft Intimation Using GSM Modem”
Minakshi Kumari, Prof. Manoj Singh
Minakshi Kumari, Prof.Manoj Singh, (2014), Vehicle Theft Intimation using GSM Modem actually state that automobile monitoring device is turning into more and more vital in massive cities and it is extra secured than other systems. Now a day’s vehicle stealing is unexpectedly increasing. Nowadays, GPS tracking system is used in the vehicle. But this safety is no longer sufficient for security. Due to this reason, the mission is introducing the wireless technology efficiently for the automotive environments by using the GSM Modem. It is used in sending SMS intimation to owner in case of theft of vehicle. When a individual making an attempt to steal the vehicle. At that time, programmable microcontroller 8051 receives an interrupt and microcontroller that stores owner’s number upon a miss call for the first time, sends an alert SMS to that authorized number. When any individual tries to steal the automobile then microcontroller receives an interrupt and orders GSM Modem to send the SMS, the owner receives a SMS that his vehicle is being stolen then the owner sends lower back the SMS to the GSM modem to ‘stop the engine’, while the vehicle will be stopped. The control guidance is delivered to the microcontroller via interface, the output from which prompts a relay driver to trip the relay that disconnects the ignition of the automobile resulting in stopping the vehicle. This mission can be extra effective when this is use in financial institution for security purpose. When unauthorized individual tries to unlock financial institution locker then a security locker which is also accessible in financial institution locker automatically get locked. So that theft can’t be able to open the bank locker. For this, we can also provide protection in the bank.

“Integrated Vehicle Accident Detection and Location System”
MD. Syedul Amain, Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz, Salwa Sheikh NasirDepartment of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
MD. Syedul Amain, Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz, Salwa Sheikh Nasir,(2014), were done ‘Integrated Vehicle Accident Detection and Location System’ this project. The main purpose of this project is to detect an accident location system by classify the deceleration and data fusion from accelerometers and GPS. Furthermore, to overcome this problem of noise in accelerometers and GPS outage limitation by integrate with Kalman filter. From that, we can see that the project can able to overcome the location of accident and save human lives immediately.

They were used the GPS system and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Looking the GPS is one of the most technology which developed by America Department of Defence. They used the GPS technology to locate accurate location and current position. The main advantage of GPS is when the signal was block by any obstruction the signal still pass received satellite to the GPS module.

They were used Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) which one of device accelerometer sensor that can detect the vehicle accident. The IMU was very cheap and contain of the accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer that all provide information about a sudden acceleration, angular and heading change. Moreover the IMU was can also provide navigation information. But this performance was affect the drift and sensor noise errors, scale factor variations and accumulated. So the combination of the GPS and IMU was provide such an efficient navigation system.

From this project they used 3 main research method. Firstly, the GPS and IMU fusion for acceleration where is the sensor readings are limited by accumulated bias error, drift and noise. Next, the speed over the ground obtained from the $GPRMC comprise accurate speed.Moreover, Kalman filter is broadly used to combine inexact forecast of a system state with an inexact measurement of the state. Second research technique is accident detection algorithm which the system viewing the deceleration records from the GPS and IMU accelerometer sensor. The final research technique is GPS/IMU integration for accident location. The GPS track the accident area in term of latitude and longitude.

“Anti- Theft Mechanism System with Accident Avoidance and Cabin Safety System for Automobiles”
Harish Chandra Mohanta, Rajat Kumar Mahapatra, Jyotirmayee MuduliDepartment of ECE, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Odisha India
Harish Chandra Mohanta, Rajat Kumar Mahapatra, Jyotirmayee Muduli, (2014) had been completed “Anti- Theft Mechanism System with Accident Avoidance and Cabin Safety System for Automobiles” . The most important goal of this mission is to plan a security and safety gadget for automobile via interface, communicate modified the modules. This mission research under three essential subject matter which is gas sensing module, obstacle detection module and anti-theft alert system. But we look often for gasoline sensing module which is the gas sensor used to be locate in vehicle close to presences of the gases which communicate to the microcontroller which send the data to the individual who inside the vehicle the automobile with an alarm and also send a SMS to the owner used by GSM technology. Furthermore, there some associated to anti-theft alert system due to the fact they used microcontroller for alert the driver with an alarm and received car by stopping it. Simply stated that when unauthorized individual gets into the car, the car provide indication through raised an alarm that the vehicle is being under theft. They used microcontroller Atmega 16 is a low electricity CMOS 8-bit microcontroller primarily based on the AVR improved RICS architecture. The Atmega 16 microcontroller used to be effective instructor in a single clock cycle, achieves thru approaching 1MIPS per MHz permitting the system designed to optimize power consumption versus speed running. Thus the AVR core combine with 32 general purpose working registers. The microcontroller used to be On-Chip ISP Flash permits the program memory to be reprogrammed in the system via an SPI serial interface. The Atmega 16 was once supplied a high flexible and less cost to many trouble in embedded control system. The Atmega used AT+CMGS command to send the SMS which in the GSM was connected to the microcontroller. They also used the GSM technology to send notification in way of SMS (short message subscriber) to alert. On this mission the GSM modem need to support an “extended AT command set” for sending or receiving SMS messages through the usage of ETSI GSM 07.05 AND 3GPP TS 27.005 specifications.

“Design and Implementation of Vehicle Tracking System Using GPS/GSM/GPRS Technology and Smartphone Application”
Seok Ju Lee, Girma Tewolde, Jaerock Kwon
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Kettering University Flint, MI, USA
Seok Ju Lee, Girma Tewolde, Jaerock Kwon, (2014) have been carried out this project, “Design and Implementation of Vehicle Tracking System Using GPS/GSM/GPRS Technology and Smartphone Application” . The motive of this mission is to make a system that proper for use for technology that combines a Smartphone application with microcontroller to monitor the movement of any automobile from any place at any time. They use the GSM, GPS and GPRS technology to track the vehicle. This project was working as real time application. Thus, the microcontroller is a heart of this project which integrate with the GSM, GPS and GPRS to give the guidance to them in tracking the vehicle. While the GPS module used to find the earthy coordinates at regular time intervals. The GSM/GPRS module was used on this project to broadcast and update the vehicle position or location to a database. They monitor the vehicle location by using the Smartphone application. So the Smartphone gets the notification from the GSM as SMS technology, in the SMS the coordinate of the vehicle was viewing in term of latitude and longitude, which can open by GOOGLE MAPS apps for tracking the location. Moreover, the Smartphone can determine the estimated distance and time for the vehicle to arrive at a given destination. The project provides a good service and less costly and effective for user. The advantage of this project is it can monitor the movement of the vehicle on GOOGLE maps in real time by using the Smartphone.

Moreover, they used Atmega 328 microcontroller in Arduino Uno R3 to control the vehicle monitoring system. The Atmega328 is a high-performance Microchip 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller combines 32KB ISP flash memory with read-while-write capabilities, 1KB EEPROM, 2KB SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, three flexible timer/counters with compare modes, interior and exterior interrupts, serial programmable USART, a byte-oriented 2-wire serial interface, SPI serial port, 6-channel 10-bit A/D converter (8-channels in TQFP and QFN/MLF packages), programmable watchdog timer with interior oscillator, and 5 software selectable energy saving modes. The gadget operates between 1.8-5.5 volts. Moreover, the Atmega 328 used for executing effective guidelines in a single clock cycle, the gadget achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz, balancing energy consumption and processing speed. The Arduino used C programming language which saved into the microcontroller’s flash memory and convenient to use due to the fact that it is reprogrammable.

Next, they used the GPS module that is usually used to provide users with dataacting as the area coordinate, speed, and time anywhere in the earth. They used precise GPS module which is 20 channel EM 406 to this project. This GPS module was from USGlobalSat primarily based on the outstanding SiRF StarIII chipset. This whole module consists of on-board voltage regulation, LED statusindicator, battery backed RAM, and a built-in patch antenna! 6-pin interface cable included.

43434008509020-Channel Receiver
Extremely high sensitivity : -159dBm
10m Positional Accuracy / 5m with WAAS
Hot Start : 1s
Warm Start : 38s
Cold Start : 42s
70mA at 4.5-6.5V
Outputs NMEA 0183 and SiRF binary protocol
After that, the GSM/GPRS module is used on this project. The GSM/GPRS module with SM5100B is used due to the fact of a miniature, quad-band GSM 850/EGSM 900/DCS 1800/PCS 1900 module, which can be built-in into a high-quality variety of wireless projects. It can be use in this module to accomplish nearly anything a ordinary mobile phone can – SMS textual content messages, GSM/GPRS, TCP/IP, and more. This module features two UARTS, an SPI interface, and two 10-bit ADCs. It additionally supports Li-ion battery charging, a 4×6 keypad, and an LCD interface. Inputs/outputs are accessible for a speaker and microphone. An antenna does come connectedto the module. Power provided to the module need to be regulated between 3.3-4.2VDC (3.6V nominal). The module can connect it up to a mating 60-pin, surface mount connector, or can pair this module with our SM5100B evaluation board. There is no SIM socket on the real cellphonemodule, may prefer to think about the usage of the SIM card breakout board.

The HTTP communication take place through TCP/IP connection. For the HTTP it’s was 80 standard port to send data over the internet, socket connection need to be working well. The socket is very helpful for working with server and it able users to establish a TCP socket connection to transmit data. There are three main characterizes of socket, a protocol, an IP address or host name, and a port number. Furthermore, they also used the web server and database services to implement in this project in order to store the vehicle’s location information can be entered into a designated table by refer the MySQL database. Moreover they also used the GOOGLE Maps in the smartphone to track the location or coordinates in the real time application. This app was easy to use in free hand because it’s automatically access to this apps server by displaying the map. It also provide the estimated distance and time information between the current location of vehicle and the user location.
“Advanced Vehicle Monitoring and Tracking System based on Raspberry Pi”
Prashant A. Shinde, Prof. Mr. Y.B. Mane
Department Electronics Walchand College of Engineering Sangli, India
Prashant A. Shinde, Prof. Mr. Y.B. Mane, (2015) were done “Advanced Vehicle Monitoring and Tracking System based on Raspberry Pi” this project. The main objective of this project is to monitoring the vehicle and tracking system designed for the school vehicle from any location from school to student’s houses for purpose of safety of the students and the students was secure from kidnapping them. The system was done with the Raspberry Pi because it was heart of this project that integrate with the GSM, GPS, GPRS module to purpose of monitoring and tracking the school vehicle. The GSM technology was used in this project because its send the alert messages to authorised person mobile, whereas the GPS was used for track the current location or position or coordinates of the vehicle and the GPRS was used because to send the tracking information to server. The machine was positioned inside the car where monitor and track on the web page at actual time. The project was carried out with three major goals which is wrong way detection, protection by the usage of LPG Gas leakage sensor MQ6 and temperature sensor DS18B20. The wrong way detection is used when driver drives the vehicle on the incorrect direction then alert message will be sent to owner of the vehicle and also sends warning notification of the speed. The program was run because the current car direction is already specified route inside the file system of Raspberry Pi, so the driver can cheat the owner and the students in safety environment.There some module that used on this project:
a. Embedded Linux Board
The Raspberry Pi board used in the proposed system which having following features:
5V @ maximum power from an adaptor.

700 MHz ARM1176JZF-S core (ARM11 family, ARMv6 instruction set).

1GHz operating speed.

4 USB ports for Key board mouse or accessing external memory.

40 GPIO pins.

Ethernet port for internet connectivity.

VGA connector and HDMI connector.

3.5mm stereo jack for audio out to amplifier.

MicroSD card interface slot to carry the OS.

512MB of SDRAM.

b. GPS/GPRS/GSM SIM908 Module:
GPRS multi-slot class 10 standard
GRPS mobile station class B standard
Meet the GSM phase 2/2 standard
At command control (GSM 07.07. 07.05 and SIMCom enhanced At command set)
Support voltage range: GPRS 3,2 -4.8 V, GPS: 3.0 – 4.5V
Low power consumption
Operating temperature: 40 to 85 Celsius
The overview of this system design is vehicle real time tracking and wrong path detection using GPS/GPRS/GSM SIM908 module, which communicate with Raspberry Pi that give the information of real time vehicle location coordinate in term of latitude and longitude. The system gives tracking provision to the user on web page as follows Super user Login that the vehicle owner got the authorized to track the vehicle in his smartphone on web page. Secondly, the Primary user Login, the student who was registered in this system, they only monitor the vehicle moving on their smartphone on web page, whereas the Secondary user Login is the student’s parents can track the vehicle on their own smartphone on web page.
“Internet of Things Based Smart Transportation Systems”
J. Sherly1, D. Somasundareswari2
1PG Scholar, ECE Department, SNS College of Technology, Tamilnadu, India
2Professor, ECE Department, SNS College of Technology, Tamilnadu, India
“Internet of Things Based Smart Transportation Systems” . This project is done by J. Sherly, D. Somasundareswari, (2015).Ihis project is mainly on research method thus about the internet of things of the real world to the virtual world, and allows anytime, anywhere connectivity for anything that has ON and OFF switch. This project mainly to emphasis on to an urban IoT system that is used to build intelligent transportation system (ITS).This mainly works under the wireless sensor networks technology. So, the project working as the cars ingoing and leave-taking the parking slots are taken into count. Thus the information gathered is sent to the garage management systems. There are two types of sensor are work here, parking sensor and roadway sensor. Same as manner two meters are used such as, prevailing parking meters and new parking meters. So this information also attained from the sensor is passed to the sensor management systems. In other track, the smartphone app request for a parking space and the vehicle is directed to the obtainable parking space. Simultaneously, the parking fee is paid directly thorough the mobile app. This system can also be integrated to provide intelligent lighting of the streets. Here the area data is sent to the database at regular intervals because of memory contemplations and this can even be decreased. Handling framework changed over this crude data to significant information. The proposed framework can work with less memory imperatives and can send the area data constantly. The proposed framework even gives stopping help to the driver out and about. This paper exhibits an ongoing movement checking framework to take care of the issue of the constant activity controlling and observing. The proposed framework gives another method for movement control by the better use of assets. The activity organization division can utilize this ongoing movement observing data to identify the hazardous circumstance on the along these lines respond by forcing quick activities. All in all IoT will assume an imperative part in rush hour gridlock observing by enhancing the effectiveness of the activity wellbeing and voyaging costs.

“Vehicle Accident Messenger System”
Dr. Cherian Paul, Nizam Mon K.S and Roshan Varghese Daniel
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SAINTGITS College of Engineering, Kottayam, Kerala.Dr. Cherian Paul, Nizam Mon K.S and Roshan Varghese Daniel, (2017) has done this project,”Vehicle Accident Messenger System” . The objective of this project is to protect accidents prevention using this system to detect any obstacles can reduced the speed of the vehicle. This project was designed to real time application by using the main system of GSM, GPS and Microcontroller. Moreover, this system can protect and monitor the vehicle anywhere and then locate it within a few meters. This system was quite hard to design because there some car mechanism parts involved in this system. In this project, they used microcontroller, which is AT89S52 consists of the cpu, memory and various input/output and the speed of this micro controller is enough to execute the program in real life. This micro controller consists of of 8 bit micro controller, 4Kb flash memory inbuilt in it, that memory enough to dump our code in to the microcontroller. Then this project also uses GPS to detect the latitude and longitude of the location accurately. The GPS play main role in this project to know the accident occurred location. This GPS gets coordinates from the satellite for each and every second. This project also used the GSM technology in second generation (2G) mobile network. The GSM consists of sim slot in which a sim can be inserted which has a unique number, this unique number is used for contact. This technology device has a unique number called imei number and this is different for each and every hardware kit. The GSM transmitting data from GPS to send the location. The operation of this project is the input of the GPS goes to rs232, while the rs232 sends data in to max232 thus convert the data format sends it to the microcontroller. So the microcontroller send the location from the GPS to the GSM.

“GPS Based Vehicle Location Using ARM 7 LPC 2148”
Pankaj Sharma1, Rishabh Pandey2, Rohan Kanchan3, Prof. Prashant Chougule4
123Student, Electronic Dept., Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Engineering Pune, Maharashtra India. 4Professor, Electronic Dept., Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Engineering Pune, Maharashtra India
Pankaj Sharma, Rishabh Pandey, Rohan Kanchan, Prof. Prashant Chougule, (2017) did this project called “GPS Based Vehicle Location Using ARM 7 LPC 2148” . This project main works under new technology of GSM and GPS. So this project used the GSM module and GPS module thus interface with the special microcontroller. The GPS system is precise and held by the computer system. The GPS shows the exact geographical data and other information. The location of coordinates in latitude and longitude send via SMS technology by using the GSM technology. The purpose of this project is to provide security to the vehicle. On this project, microcontroller AT89S52 was used because it can be get in a very reasonable cost and also easy to understand. However, accelerometer sensor is used in this project to detect the accidents. The accelerometer sensor only active when the accident occur. Thus the information is sent to the microcontroller, then the microcontroller send the information to the GPS followed by the GPS send the accident occurred location to the microcontroller, then the microcontroller send the location to the GSM, so the GSM send to the user in SMS technology.

Hardware requirements:
ARM7 LPC2148 Microcontroller ARM 7 Evaluation Board
Power Supply 9v Adaptor, 5v Adaptor
GSM module
GPS module
Software requirements:
Programming Language: Embedded c
Flash magic
In this mission the ARM 7 is part of the ARM (Advanced RISC machines). It can has 8 to 40 kB of on chip static RAM. It has 32 to 512 kB of on chip flash program memory. It has 128 bit wide interface allows high velocity 60 MHz operation. It does In-System/In- Application Programming (ISP/IAP) through on chip boot loader software. It does single flash sector or full chip erase in 400ms and programming of 256 bytes in 1ms. It has single 10 bit D/A converter offers variable analog output. It has two 32 bit timers/ externals counters, PWM and watchdog. It has more than one serial interface which includes two UARTs, two fast I2C-bus (400 kbits/s), SPI and SSP with buffering and variable information size capabilities. It has vectored interrupt controller with configurable priorities and vector addresses. It has up to 45 of 5 V tolerant fast general purpose I/O pins in tiny LQFP64 package. It has On-chip integrated oscillator operates with an external crystal in range from 1 MHz to 30 MHz and with an external oscillator up to 50 MHz. It consists of Idle and Power-down energy saving modes. It has low power real-time clock with independent power and dedicated 32 kHz clock input.

“Vehicle Door Latch with Tracking and Alert System Using Global Positioning System Technology and IoT Based Hardware Control for Visibility and Security of Assets”
Jessie R. Balbin, Ramon G. Garcia, Mary Anne E. Latina, Ma. Anthonette S. Allanigue, Jan Kenneh D. Ammen, Anthony Vil B. Bague, Jack Miller JimnezSchool of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering Mapua University, Manila, Philippines
Jessie R. Balbin, Ramon G. Garcia, Mary Anne E. Latina, Ma. Anthonette S. Allanigue, Jan Kenneh D. Ammen, Anthony Vil B. Bague, Jack Miller Jimnez, (2017) were done “Vehicle Door Latch with Tracking and Alert System Using Global Positioning System Technology and IoT Based Hardware Control for Visibility and Security of Assets” this project. In this paper, propose a vehicle entryway hook with following and ready framework. This bolt with GPS beacon coordinates GPS module, microcontroller, pneumatic bolt and a battery for supply control. The microcontroller is utilized to control the GPS and pneumatic bolt. The following framework utilizes the GPS module to get directions of scope and longitude. The ready framework will actuate when the bolt is shut however the entryway isn’t in its position, which just means the entryway isn’t in place with the hook. The one of a kind site is worked for getting to area information and control to bolt and open. This undertaking was the vehicle following framework and a few encounters on down to earth usage. The gadget is high in versatility, precise in situating, and is with sufficiently quick reaction time which is reliant on the speed of the web. This project was done with certain research based on the internet of things, GPS NMEA data and web mapping. Firstly, the internet of things was orbits around increased machine to machine communication that built in cloud computing and networks of data gathering sensors. Secondly, the GPS NMEA is for the National Marine Electronics Association. The motivation behind NMEA is to enable gear clients to blend and match equipment and programming. The NMEA is organized GPS information additionally makes life less demanding for programming designers to compose programming for a wide assortment of GPS gets as opposed to writing a custom interface for every GPS collector. The NMEA information can be transmitted through various sorts of correspondences interfaces, for example, RS-232, USB, and Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, UHF, and numerous others. For the Web mapping was to post static images of maps on HTML pages; however, people soon recognized the impending for interactive maps.
“GPS and GSM Based Engine Locking System Using Smart Password”
A. Omanakuttan, D. Sreedhar, A. Manoj, A. Achankunju, CM. CherianDepartment of Computer Science, St. Thomas College of Engineering Kozhuvallor (Kerala University), Chengannur, India
Power Supply
A. Omanakuttan, D. Sreedhar, A. Manoj, A. Achankunju, CM. Cherian, (2017), have done “GPS and GSM Based Engine Locking System Using Smart Password” project. The shrewd motor locking framework is an inserted framework based interruption location framework composed and executed to counteract unapproved access of vehicle while stopping in unreliable spots. The proposed framework joins a miniaturized scale controller alongside GSM and GPS modules. This instrument is introduced in the motor of the vehicle whose present position is to be recorded and secured the motor continuous. The primary reason for this undertaking is to shield the vehicle from any unapproved access by giving two locking status, burglary mode and utilized mode. These two modes are controlled by Arduino UNO and GPS innovation is utilized for discovering current area of the vehicle. The GSM modem is additionally associated with the miniaturized scale controller for sending messages to the proprietor’s portable if the vehicle is in burglary mode. This framework puts into the client mode if vehicle is dealt with by proprietor or approved people, generally goes to burglary mode. The most vital idea in this outline is bringing the portable correspondence into the implanted framework utilizing GSM module. The whole plan is on a solitary board.
Relay Driver
Vibration Sensor

GSM Module
Atmega 328

Engine of the Vehicle
GPS Module

The block diagram above showed that the is main frame of this project which contain microcontroller, GSM modem, GPS module, relay driver, Power Supply blocks which are interact with each as follows. When power supply switched on it will give 5V to the microcontroller and all other components in the instrument. If the vehicle is stolen, then the owner will get a messages from the GSM mobile and user can request to stop the engine by disconnecting connection from the 5V relay.


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