CHAPTER North India with clients in India and

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTIONOBJECTIVE/PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The main objective of the proposed study was to find out how the compensation affects the employee in a company and to what extent they are satisfied and how far has their performance improved.To identify the attributes of the compensation management that benefits employees and have a positive attitude towards the organization.

COMPANY PROFILECompany Name: KANTHWAL SERVICES Kanthwal Services is a 14 year old Manpower Management firm, which is being promoted by professional who have long year of multiple industry experiences. It can be now found amongst the top Management Manpower firms in Delhi/NCR, and North India with clients in India and overseas.Endurance and Principled approach, appointed with honest, accomplished and diligent executives and workers with sufficient knowledge experience in the field with an adequate knowledge in technical support. The firm works across verticals including Retail/FMCG industry/IT industry, Banking and financial services/apparels/textiles/ITES/engineering consumer Durable.They do a lot of work of supporting functions as well as including the work of operations and maintenance services, technical support, finance, administration etc. They also have a signed code of conduct with SIEMENS.They are eminently dedicated and qualified professionals in various field, taking care of customer requirements of facility services such as- Elecro-Mechanical Engineering, Preventive Maintenance, security services ,IT services and many more allied services.

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COMPENSATION MANAGEMNT Compensation of workers for their administrations is a vital duty of human asset administration. Each association must offer great wages and incidental advantages to draw in and hold gifted workers with the association. In the event that whenever, the wages advertised by a firm are not aggressive when contrasted with different firms, the effective labourers may leave the firm. Subsequently; specialists must be compensated satisfactorily for their administrations. Pay to specialists will fluctuate contingent on the idea of employment, abilities required, chance included, nature of working conditions, paying limit of the business, bartering energy of the exchange association, wages and advantages offered by alternate units in the locale or industry and so forth.DefinitionGary Dessler in his book ‘Human Resource Management’ defines compensation as “compensation of employees refers to pay of all forms that employees are getting and arising from their employment”.Thomas J. Bergmann (1998) defines compensation as a term consisting of 4 distinct components: Wages or Salaries+ Employee benefits+ Non-recurring financial rewards+ Non-financial rewards.

The concept of CompensationCompensation alludes to an extensive variety of money related and non-monetary prizes to representatives for their administrations rendered to the association. It is paid as wages, compensations and representative advantages, for example, paid vacations, protection maternity leave, free travel office, retirement benefits and so on., Monetary instalments are an immediate type of repaying the workers and have an awesome effect in rousing representatives. The arrangement of compensation ought to be designed to the point that it accomplishes the accompanying targets.The fit workers are pulled in towards the association The representatives are persuaded for better executionThe representatives don’t leave the business every now and again• Direct Financial Compensation comprising of pay got in the type of wages, compensations, rewards and commissions gave as standard and reliable interim. • Indirect Financial Compensation including every single monetary reward that are excluded in coordinate pay and can be comprehended to frame some portion of the social contract between the business and worker, for example, benefits, leaves, retirement designs, training, and worker administrations. • Non-Financial compensation alluding to points, for example, vocation improvement and progression openings, open doors for acknowledgment, and also workplace and conditions.

In deciding compelling prizes, be that as it may, the uniqueness of each representative should likewise be considered. Individuals have distinctive requirements or purposes behind working. The most suitable remuneration will meet these singular needs. To an expansive degree, sufficient or reasonable pay is in the brain of the worker. A decent compensation methodology incorporates a harmony between interior value and outside intensity. Remuneration and advantages influence the efficiency and joy of representatives, and in addition the capacity of your association to viably understand its targets. It is your leverage to guarantee that your representatives are imaginatively repaid and proficient of their advantages.

Components of Compensation Wages/Salaries Wages/pay rates allude to the money segment of the wage structure in view of which different components of pay might be organized. It is typically a settled sum which is liable to changes in light of yearly augmentations or subject to periodical pay climbs. Wages speak to hourly rates of pay, and pay alludes to the month to month rate of pay, independent of the quantity of hours put in by the worker.

Wages and pay rates are liable to the yearly increases. They contrast from representative to worker, and rely on the idea of employment, rank, and legitimacy. Dearness Allowance The instalment of dearness recompense encourages representatives and specialists to confront the cost increment or expansion of costs of products and ventures devoured by him. The invasion of cost increment has a noteworthy bearing on the living states of the work.

IncentivesIncentives are considered as an amount that is being paid in addition to employers’ wages and salaries and are therefore called “payments by results” and they rely on profitability, deals, benefits, or cost decrease endeavours. There are: (A) Individual motivating force plans, and (B) Group motivation programs.Reward The reward can be paid in various ways. It can be settled rate on the fundamental wage paid every year or in extent to the benefit.

The Government likewise recommends a least statutory reward for all representatives and labourers. There is likewise a reward arrange for which remunerates the supervisors and representatives in view of the business income or overall revenue accomplished. Extra designs can likewise be founded on piece compensation yet relies on the efficiency of workTypes of Compensation Direct CompensationDirect compensation alludes to money related advantages offered and gave to representatives consequently of the administrations they give to the association.

The money related advantages incorporate fundamental compensation, house lease remittance, and transport; leave travel stipend, restorative repayments, exceptional recompenses, reward, Pf/Gratuity, and so forth. They are given at a standard interim at a distinct time. Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1- Direct CompensationBasic Salary Compensation is the sum got by the worker in lieu of the work done by him/her for a specific period say a day, seven days, a month, and so on. It is the cash a representative gets from his/her boss by rendering his/her administrations House Rent Allowance Associations either give facilities to its workers who are from diverse state or nation or they give house lease recompenses to its representatives. This is done to give them standardized savings and propel them to work.

Movement /ConveyanceAssociations accommodate taxicab offices to their workers. Scarcely any associations to give vehicles and petroleum stipends to their representatives to inspire them Leave Travel Allowance These stipends are given to hold the best ability in the association. The workers are offered stipends to visit wherever they wish with their families. The stipends are scaled according to the situation of worker in the association.Medical Reimbursement Associations additionally take care of the wellbeing states of their workers.

The representatives are furnished with medi-claims for them and their relatives. These medical-claims incorporate medical coverage and treatment charges repayments.Indirect CompensationAberrant compensation alludes to non-money related advantages offered and gave to representatives in lieu of the administrations gave by them to the association.

They incorporate Leave Arrangement, Overtime Policy, Car approach, Hospitalization, Insurance, Leave travel Assistance Points of confinement, Retirement Benefits, Holiday Homes. Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2- Indirect CompensationAdditional time Policy Representatives ought to be given the satisfactory remittances and offices amid their extra minutes, on the off chance that they happened to do as such, for example, transport offices, additional time pay, and so on. Hospitalization The representatives ought to be given recompenses to get their standard registration, say at an interim of one year. Indeed, even their wards ought to be qualified for the medical-claims that give them passionate and government managed savings.Leave Travel The representatives are given leaves and travel stipends to run for occasion with their families.

A few associations mastermind a visit for the workers of the association. This is generally done to influence the workers to peaceful. Retirement Benefits Associations accommodate annuity designs and different advantages for their workers which benefits them after they resign from the association at the recommended age.

Holiday Homes Associations accommodate occasion homes and visitor house for their representatives at diverse areas. These occasion homes are generally situated in slope station and other most needed occasion spots. The associations ensure that the representatives don’t confront any sort of challenges amid their stay in the visitor house.Factors Considered In Deciding the CompensationThere are two types of factors that affect the compensation. They are: External FactorsRequest and Supply of Labour Wage is a cost or remuneration for the administrations rendered by a labourer. The firm requires these administrations, and it must pay a value that will deliver the supply which is controlled by the individual specialist or by a gathering of labourers acting together through their associations. The essential consequence of the task of the law of free market activity is the creation of the going pay rate.

It isn’t practicable to draw request and supply bends for each activity in an association despite the fact that, hypothetically, a different bend exists for each activity. Typical cost for basic items Another essential factor influencing the wage is the typical cost for basic items modifications of compensation. This has a tendency to fluctuate cash wage contingent on the varieties in the average cost for basic items file following ascent or fall in the general value level and purchaser value file. It is a fundamental element of long haul work contract unless arrangement is made to revive the wage condition intermittently. Worker’s guild Composed work can guarantee preferable wages over the sloppy one. Higher wages must be paid by the firm to its labourers under the weight or exchange association. On the off chance that the exchange association flops in their endeavour to raise the wage and different stipends through aggregate bartering, they depend on strike and different strategies therefore the supply of work is confined. This applies a sort of effect on the business to surrender at any rate in part the requests of the worker’s parties.

Government To shield the average workers from the abuses of capable businesses, the government has instituted a few laws. Laws on least wages, hours of work, rise to pay for square with work, instalment of dearness and different remittances, instalment of reward, and so on, have been instituted and implemented to realize a measure of reasonableness in remunerating the working class. Subsequently, the laws sanctioned and the work strategies confined by the administration have a vital effect on wages and compensations paid by the businesses. Wages and pay rates can’t be settled underneath the level endorsed by the administration.Internal FactorsCapacity to Pay Employers’ capacity to pay is a vital factor influencing compensation not just for the singular firm, yet additionally for the whole business.

This relies on the monetary position also, benefit of the firm.Top Management Philosophy Wage rates to be paid to the representatives are likewise influenced by the best administration’s rationality, qualities and dispositions. As wage and pay instalments constitute a noteworthy bit of expenses and/or division of benefits to the representatives, top administration may get a kick out of the chance to keep it to the base. Then again, top administration may get a kick out of the chance to pay higher pay to pull in top ability. Profitability of Workers To accomplish the best outcomes from the labourers and to inspire him to expand his effectiveness, compensation must be efficiency based. There has been a pattern towards outfitting wage increment to efficiency increments.

Efficiency is the key factor in the activity of an organization. High wages and low expenses are conceivable just when efficiency increments considerablyEvaluation Of CompensationThe present compensation frameworks have originated from far. With the evolving authoritative structures labourers’ need and pay frameworks have likewise been evolving. From the bureaucratic associations to the participative associations, workers have begun requesting their rights and proper pay. The advanced education principles and higher abilities required for the occupations have influenced the associations to give focused remunerations to their representatives. Pay methodology is gotten from the business system. The business objectives and goals are lined up with the HR methodologies. At that point the pay board or the concerned expert details the pay system.

It relies upon both inner and outer factors and additionally the life cycle of an associationOBJECTIVES OF COMPENSATION MANAGEMENTTo Establish a Fair and Equitable Remuneration Powerful pay administration goals are to keep up inward and outer value in compensation paid to representatives. Inner value implies comparable pay for comparable work. As such, pay differentials between occupations ought to be in extent of contrasts in the value of employments. Outer value suggests pay for work ought to be equivalent to pay for a comparative occupation in different associations. Instalments in view of occupations prerequisites, worker execution and industry levels limit bias and imbalances in pay.

To Attract Competent Personnel A sound wage and pay organization draws in qualified and dedicated individuals by guaranteeing a satisfactory instalment for all occupations. For instance IT organizations are contending each other and attempt their level best to pull in best gifts by offering better remuneration bundles. To Retain the Present Employees By paying aggressive levels, the organization can hold its faculty. It can limit the frequency of stopping and increment worker dedication. For instance representatives wearing down are high in information segments (Ad-office, KPO, BPO and so forth.) which compel the organizations to offer better pay to hold their workers. To Improve Productivity Sound wage and pay organization enhances the inspiration and spirit of workers which thus prompt higher profitability. Particularly private areas organizations’ offer generation connected pay bundles to their workers which prompt higher efficiency.

To Control Cost Through sound remuneration administration, organization and work expenses can be kept in accordance with the capacity of the organization to pay. On the off chance that encourages organization and control of pay roll. The organizations can methodically plan and control work costs. To Improve Union Management Relations Compensation in light of occupations and winning pay levels are more adequate to exchange associations. In this manner, sound wage and compensation organization disentangles aggregate haggling and arrangements over pay.

It diminishes grievances emerging out of wage disparities.CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEWBrown (2003) considers compensation to be an arrival in return between their representatives and themselves as a privilege for being a worker of the association, or as a reward for an occupation well done. Representatives’ compensation does not depend exclusively on the employments they hold.Armstrong (2005) in his own particular examination says compensation is all in regards to building up a constructive work relationship and psychological contract that embraces an aggregate pay approach which perceives that there are various manners by which individuals can be compensated.Armstrong and Brown (2005) hypothesize that being an integral part Of HRM approach to manage people, compensation management supports the achievement of the business and also being strategic in the sense that longer term issued can be addressed, determining how people should be valued for what they want to achieve; It is subsequently coordinated with other HRM capacities, particularly those worried about HR advancement.

Compensation is a crucial instrument for the attraction and retention of talented employees that are dedicated to their responsibilities within the firm. Compensation management aims to promote the achievement of business goals through attracting, motivating and retaining hard working employees (Shieh 2008; Petera 2011).Employee compensation refers to all the returns that flow to employees which rose from their employment (Dessler2008; Van Der Merwe 2009). Accuracy and precision is important for compensation management, is not adequately dealt with it, and it may affect the operations of the organisation. Compensation is not all about money, it deal with the non-cash form too. Advantages; pension, life and health insurance ,retirement plans, and allowances including subsidized transportation or company cars , representing a significant kind of pay in many big firms.Hewitt (2009). Compensation Management as the name recommends, infers having a pay structure in which the workers who perform preferable are paid more over the normal performing representatives.

This urges top-entertainers to work harder and manufactures a focused environment in the association.Robert and Angelo (2001) opined that the achievement or disappointment of associations relies on the capacity to draw in, create, hold, enable and remunerate a differing exhibit of suitably gifted individuals and is the way to enhanced execution thus the enthronement of vote based administration in 1999 brought some polite administration changes and Anambra State Civil Service Commission got vested with level powers by law to deal with the workforce of the common administration for more noteworthy productivity.In addition, inquire about has demonstrated that getting both pay and advantage short of what you need and getting more than you need prompts substantial errors amongst wants and result and in the end prompts low occupation fulfilment subsequently to low quality if working execution. (Rice, Bennett, and McFarlin, 1989) Hence, wants assume an imperative part in evaluating if expanding salary impacts a person’s activity fulfilment and work execution. Additionally, if the wants of the individual are as of now met, at that point an expansion in wage won’t build fulfilment and in addition working execution. (Solberg, Diener, Wirtz, Lucas, and Oishi, 2002) at the end of the day, expanding remuneration and advantages may not generally prompt representative’s employment fulfilmentAs per Deluca (1993) and Rajkumar (1996), pay is characterizes as pay, reward, compensation, or pay and wage administration.

These terms are regularly utilized conversely in association. In an association point of view, pay is frequently characterizes as a vital human asset administration work where it accentuates arranging, sorting out, and controlling different kinds of pay frameworks. For instance, immediate and circuitous instalments, fiscal and non-money related rewards and money and non-money instalments, those remuneration is utilized for compensating representatives who perform in their work or administration (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright, 2004). In this exploration, pay alludes to all types of budgetary returns and unmistakable administrations workers get as a major aspect of business relationship. It can be viewed as a measure of equity. Milkovich and Newman (1999) expressed that, Compensation alludes to all types of money related returns and unmistakable administrations and advantages representatives get as a feature of a work relationship. The Journal of Global Business and Economics (2010) too characterizes pay as “the mix of all money motivating forces and the periphery benefits blend that a worker got from an organization which constitutes a person’s aggregate remuneration.

” (Chabra 2001) alludes to Compensation as a wide scope of monetary and non-money related prizes given to workers in return for their administrations rendered to the association. As indicated by him, it is paid as wages, compensations and worker advantages, for example, paid excursions, protection, maternity leave, free voyaging office, retirement benefits, and so on. He demonstrated that the term ‘wage’ is utilized to indicate compensation to specialists doing manual or physical work. Subsequently, compensation is given to remunerate the untalented specialists for their administrations rendered to the association. Wages might be founded on hourly, every day, week after week or even month to month basesZhou, Qian, Henan and Lei (2009) expressed that compensation gives aggressive base pay levels important to pull in and hold ability and makes up for everyday duties performed at completely worthy level or more. Chen and Brian (2004) recommend that the sorts of pay commonly contain the accompanying segments base pay, extra time pay (OT), rewards, commissions, the dollar estimation of limited stock honours and picks up from practicing investment opportunities, benefit sharing, et cetera.

The accompanying is the definition for the two parts of pay.Steven and Loring (1996) watched that for representatives, remuneration is a vital issue since pay is seen to be a sign to their own and market an incentive to the association. In view of about.

com (2009), for businesses, pay is one of the significant specialized apparatuses, to communicate something specific about your association’s desires and objective accomplishment rewards. Furthermore, Yale and Donald (2002) expressed that compensation rewards execution in respect to others and dynamic change in year-to-year comes about and giving customary measures of achievement or advance. It additionally balances rewards with hazard and giving capital aggregation opportunity. Thus, pay has extremely pivotal to the representatives as well as the businesses.Researchers have contended that pay frameworks furnish untouchables with data about less unmistakable hierarchical qualities (Gerhart and Milkovich, 1990) and subsequently, they may flag to a vocation candidate what an association’s way of life, standards, furthermore, values resemble (Rynes and Barber, 1990).

It is additionally proposed by Rynes (1987, p.190) that “pay frameworks are fit for drawing in (or repulsing) the privilege sort of individuals since they impart such a great amount around an association’s logic, qualities, and practices.” Organizations could along these lines look again at their pay bundles and overhaul them to draw in those hopefull at work showcase who they believe are exceptionally gifted and can enable them to achieve their objectives.Thierry (1987) expressed that of compensation frameworks to be compelling relied upon about 3 saw highlights, which are Transparency, Fairness and controllability. These recognitions have a linkage with each other which is talked beneath in additional detail.(a) Transparency: As indicated by how a compensation framework supposedly is straightforward, will rely upon how it is imparted and the level of multifaceted nature. A straightforward framework not just educates representatives who might not have any desire to go for broke of the guidelines of the pay framework; however it additionally brings them side by side with the targets of the association. The guidelines assuming viably imparted to these work force will encourage their comprehension of the framework works and make and condition to help the execution of the remuneration framework.

(Seen) vulnerability diminishes the adequacy of motivating force remuneration (Gibbons, 1998). To put it plainly, how representatives recognition a pay framework to be straightforward will have a positive and impelling impact on their level of inspiration to perform. Reducing the danger of buckling down and not getting repaid as needs be consequently is anticipated to influence workers to need to invest more exertion and accordingly increment execution. (b) Fairness: As per Prendergast (1999) albeit monetary hypothesis of trust isn’t very much built up, the unwavering quality and reliability of the central is anticipated that would impact the activities of the representative incredibly. Different hypotheses like the Reciprocity hypothesis have likewise focused on the idea of decency too, however have utilized distinctive points. It specifies that in connection to the business, worker’s remuneration ought to be a sum that is reasonable.

As indicated by this hypothesis in the organization get any surpluses made must be partitioned decently in order to upgrade motivators. On the off chance that the representative sees that this idea of reasonableness has not been conveyed in at any rate, there is the probability that their inspiration to perform will be decreased henceforth decreasing execution.(c) Controllability: The third trademark we use to assess the remuneration framework’s adequacy is the apparent connection amongst exertion and (variable) pay.

Pastry specialist (2002) characterizes controllability as the degree to which the worker is ready to control or impact the result. The impact on the execution measure ought to shift as meager as conceivable with a specific end goal to have control of one’s impetus remuneration.CHAPTER 3METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDUREIntroduction to methodologyThis section traces the means and techniques followed in directing the research. To be exact, the section exhibits the techniques to be utilized as a part of choosing research subjects, building up the exploration instruments, assembling and breaking down information, and making importance of the information that is gathered. In characterizing the term ‘technique’ it can be directing an exploration. A system inside which to record actualities, report them and decipher them in said to allude to the arrangements of organized techniques and instruments utilized as a part of a bit of research.

Two key methodologies exist to technique and analysts are normally disposed to utilize both of them, they are the qualitative and the quantitative strategies. Qualitative inquire about is more graphic and quantitative research all the more regularly draws surmising in view of measurable techniques and regularly makes utilization of graphical introductions and figures in its investigation (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2005). As of late analysts usually utilize the utilization of both qualitative and quantitative techniques in a solitary examine (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2005). The Quantitative research philosophy took into account gathering experimental estimation of the effect of pay administration on employee performance and the Qualitative approach was more helpful whiles examining into and observing the perspectives of respondents and clearing up questionable reactions.Research Design A descriptive review was utilized for this investigation.

Descriptive research can be clarified as an announcement of issues as they are present with the analyst having no influence over factor. Also, “descriptive studies might be portrayed as just the endeavor to decide, depict or recognize what is, while systematic research endeavors to set up why it is that way or how it came to be”. Descriptive study is “aimed for throwing light on current issues or issues through a procedure of information accumulation that empowers them to depict the circumstance more totally than was conceivable without utilizing this method.”In its embodiment, Descriptive studies are utilized to portray different parts of the wonder.

In its mainstream organize, engaging exploration is utilized to depict attributes or potentially conduct of test populace.Information from both primary and secondary sources was utilized for the examination. Primary information was assembled from employees of Kanthwal Services with the assistance of the study poll and individual meetings to elucidate a few reactions and secondary information was assembled from sources including different distributed sources which included books on general association, HR administration, diaries and internet.Developing a research Plan The data for this research project would be collected through 100 questionnaires. A Structured interrogation questionnaire would be framed as it is less time consuming to fill for the respondent, generates specific and to the point information, easier to tabulate and interpret. Moreover respondents prefer to give direct answers.Study PopulationIn this study the researcher decided to use cross-section of 100 permanent staff of the population of Kanthwal Services.

Sample and Sampling Procedures Sampling Units would comprise of 100 urban male ; female employees of age from 18 and above.Since it is not possible to study whole population, it is necessary to obtain representatives samples from the population to understand its characteristics.Research Instruments Structured Questionnaire, which is attached in the next page, consisting of a number of questions in a definite order on a form which the respondents read and answered.CHAPTER 4DATA ANALYSISThe data obtained from the questionnaire responses are as follows:Interpretation – Majority of the working Interpretation -51% and 49 % of male and female employees (respectively) of population residing in Delhi, NCR are employed.Interpretation -73% of the people are engaged in working in private sector.

27% of the people are engaged in working in public sector. Interpretation – Majority of the employees were having work experience of 0-2 years.29% were having work experience of 2-5 years , 18% had work experience of 5-7 years and 7% were having work experience of 7-10 years.Minority consisted of 1% of population having work experience of 10 and above years.

Interpretation – Majority of the working population belongs to 20,000-40,000 monthly income groups.Minority of the working population belongs to 60,000 and above income group. Interpretation-67% of the working population is satisfied by their working conditions while 32.6% weren’t. Interpretation-52% of the working population agreed and 7% strongly agreed to being motivated by salary increment.While 13% disagreed and 6% strongly disagreed to being motivated by salary increment.Interpretation -67% of the working populations’ working hours ranged from 0-8 hours while 4% were engaged in working for more than 10 hours.

Interpretation -Minority of the employees, 4% wish to work for the organization for less than 6 months while majority of them, 28.3% intend to work for the organization for as long as possible and for 1-3 years. Interpretation- 59% of the employees were not satisfied with the compensation management provided by their company while 41% of them were satisfied.FINDINGSFrom the data analyzed and interpreted, the following conclusions can be reached: 51% and 49% of urban male and female employees (respectively) of population residing in Delhi, NCR are employed .The majority of the employees ranged between ages of 18 and 25 (52%).Half of the employees were most satisfied by their basic salary (50%) and Bonus (44%) while most were not satisfied by the travel allowances (23%) and incentives (23%) that were being provided to them.

Dearness Allowances seems to have a neutral effect on 62% of the employees while 24% were satisfied with the dearness allowances being provided to them with 8% with being not satisfied and 1% with highly not satisfied. 3 attributes that were classified as important to the employees in a compensation management system are : 1) Basic salary 2) Bonus 3) IncentivesThese 3 attributes tells us about an individuals’ requirement of a sufficient income for a day to day needs and how much they desire these attributes at the first place. Employees seek to be these attributes as main component of any organizations’ compensation management process.CHAPTER 5 : CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSIn line with this study, the following recommendations were made:It is necessary for the organization to make sure that a friendly and positive relationship between employees and employers are maintained.Good management helps in creating friendly working conditions that helps in aiding performances of the employees.It is the duty of the organization to ensure the provision good welfare packages that would help employees in gaining more confidence and thereby encouraging them and promoting their performances.Increasing productivity constantly is the very desire of any organization and in order to achieve it it is necessary to motivate employees by providing comprehensive compensation policies.


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