CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTIONBackground of the StudyThe need to develop a new product that will increase company’s profitability in the face of a fierce competition and at the same time brings health benefits to the consumer is one of the challenges that a certain beverage company encounters. As the beverage industry evolves during the past decade, beverage makers had developed new products to cope up with these demands. Here in the country, the beverage industry commonly focuses on the manufacturing of carbonated drinks.
Soft drinks is the most common carbonated product which consist primarily of carbonated water, sugar, and flavorings (Steen, D. ; Ashurst, P., 2006). Carbonated soft drinks are known for their thirst quenching and refreshing properties.
It is known that improper intake of soda can cause a number of health impacts that results in dental problems, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and even cancer which is cause primarily of the high amount in sugar and sweeteners present in it ( Xavier, R. et. al., 2007) .
Milk and dairy products form a part of a healthy and balanced diet. Milk provides an excellent source of calcium but not all can tolerate milk intake. Around 60% of all people have lactose intolerance meaning that they can’t break down the milk sugar lactose, according to Science Daily. However, goat’s milk have been studied that the fats within goat’s milk are smaller in size that makes it easier to digest and has higher nutritional value (Harden, C.J. & Hepburn, N.
J., 2011).Hence, the researchers will make use of goat’s milk as the main ingredient in the development of carbonated milk based beverage which will provide a natural flavouring along with its nutritional value in addition to carbonation benefits. Objectives of the StudyThe general objective of the study is to design a manufacturing plant producing a ready to drink carbonated goat’s milk.The specific objectives are as follows:1.To design a process plant for the production of carbonated goat’s milk with a weekly production of 15,000 bottles.2.To develop Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and construct Pipe and Instrumentation Diagram (P;ID) involve in the manufacturing of carbonated goat’s milk.
3.To solve for material and energy balances for the main processes involved.4.To conduct HAZOP study for the main equipment used.5.To provide the profitability analysis in order solve for the payback period.
.Significance of the Study The outcome of the design project will be of significance to the following:1.To the manufacturers of beverage industry because through this design project, it can serve as a basis for the manufacturing of local brand carbonated milk based beverage such as the carbonated goat’s milk. 2.
To the community because through this design project upon completion can promote employment to the people near the chosen plant site. 3.To the researchers for this will help them learn new knowledge in developing a plant design using software applications like Mathcad and Microsoft Visio.4.To the future researchers, this study could serve as a benchmark for them to develop a plant design project.Scope and Limitation The design project focused mainly on the process flow, process calculation and costing in the manufacturing of carbonated goat’s milk. The design project does not include feasibility study, experimental procedures for the formulation of the product, calculation of water treatment process, and product specification of carbonated milk.Definition of TermsConceptual:Carbonation.
Is defined as dissolving carbon dioxide gas in water utilizing temperature and pressure (Potter, 1978).Codes. Are used for traceability and effective product identification and proper stock rotation practice and removal of over-age product in the market (Steen, D. & Ashurst, P., 2006).Destabilization.
Is the unwanted change in viscosity, excessive foaming and frothing, and even precipitation of solids from the liquid dairy product (U.S. Patent Number 4,804,552, 1989).Emulsifier.
Consist of a water- loving hydrophilic head and an oil-loving hydrophobic tail that positions itself at the oil/water interface and reducing the surface tension and has a stabilizing effect on the emulsion (Potter, N. 1978).Floc. A loosely clumped mass of fine particles (Potter, N. 1978) HTST. “High Temperature Short-Time” is the most common form of pasteurization in the dairy industry basically the milk is heated to a required minimum temperature of 161 0F for 15 seconds (Potter, N. 1978).
Pasteurized. Means that the milk has been heated to a minimum of 161°F for a minimum of 15 seconds or 145°F for 30 minutes for the equivalent kill of bacteria and packaged under clean and sanitized conditions (Potter, N. 1978).Shelf-life. Is the length of time that a food can be held under recommended or practical storage conditions and still maintain its “freshness” or acceptable quality (U.S. Patent Number 6,761,920, 2004).
Definition of TermsOperational:Bottle Washer. This term is defined as the equipment to clean and sterilize the bottles that must be rinsed free from any detergent or cleaning solution (Steen, D. & Ashurst, P., 2006)Capping.
This term is defined as a process of sealing a beverage filled bottles with trademark caps or crowns using a capper or crowner machine (Steen, D. & Ashurst, P., 2006).Deaeration. This term is defined as the process of reducing gas or air content of treated water for product use (U.S. Patent Number 4,804,552, 1989). Filling.
This term is defined as the process of dispensing beverage from the filler machine into individual containers which can be sealed to maintain quality (Steen, D. & Ashurst, P., 2006).Filtration. This term is defined as the process of separating suspended solid matter from a liquid, by causing the latter to pass through the pores of some substance called a filter (Geankoplis, C.
1993).Impregnation. This term is defined as the process of mixing water with carbon dioxide (Potter, N., 1978).Packer. Is the equipment that pile and arrange beverage filled and sealed bottles into washed case following an operational sequence either automatic or manual (Steen, D. & Ashurst, P.
, 2006).Mixing. Is a unit operation that involves manipulation of heterogeneous physical system with the intent to make it more homogeneous (Geankoplis, C. 1993).CHAPTER 2REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC & PATENT LITERAUTUREIn this chapter, the information and relevant data regarding the plant design project are briefly discussed and supported with the article reviews extracted from journals, books, patents and other reliable sources. Nutritional Value & Health Benefits of Goat’s Milk Compared to cow’s milk, goat’s milk is said to have higher nutritional value, is highly digestible, and causes less allergenic reaction because it lacks alpha-s1-casein protein (Getaneh et al.
, 2016). In addition, goat’s milk consumption by animals has been shown to result in lower cholesterol (Alferez, M.J. et. al., 2001). The unique composition of the type of fats found in goat’s milk have been studied, and certain trans fats, the consumption of which are known to be a risk factor for heart disease, were found in significantly lower proportions in goat compared to cow’s milk (Alonso L.
et. al., 1999).
The soft curd of goat milk may be an advantage for adult humans suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances and ulcers (Haenlein G.F., 2004).
High buffering capacity of goat milk appears to be useful for treatment of gastric ulcers (Park Y.W., 1994).
It has also been recommended as a substitute for patients allergic to cow milk. Between 40-100% of patients allergic to cow milk proteins tolerate goat milk (Park Y.W., 1994). Medium chain length fatty acid or Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) which are more in goat milk have been recognized as unique lipid with unique health benefits in mal-absorption syndromes, chyluria, steatorrhea, hyperlipoproteinnemia, and in cases of intestinal resection, coronary bypass, premature infant feeding, childhood epilepsy and gallstones (Getaneh et al., 2016).
According to Getaneh, G. et.al., (2016 ) “Review on Goat’s Milk Composition and its Nutritive Value” it was found that compare to cow’s milk, goat’s milk is rich in Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B2 that acts as an antioxidant, plays an important role in cell metabolism and in energy production respectively.
Table 1: Comparison of the Components between Cow & Goat’s MilkCOMPOSITIONS (Per 100 grams) GOAT’S MILK COW’S MILKProtein (g) 3.1 3.2Fat % (g) 3.5 3.9Calories/100 ml 60 66Vitamin A (IU/gram fat) 39 21Vitamin B1(thiamin (UG/100/ml) 68 45Riboflavin B2 (ug/100 ml) 210 159Vitamin C (mg ascorbic acid/100 ml) 2 2Vitamin D (IU/gram fat) 0.7 0.7Calcium % 0.
19 0.18Iron % 0.07 0.06Phosphorus % 0.27 0.23Cholesterol (mg/100 ml) 10 14Sugars (lactose) 4.4 4.
8Saturated fatty acids (g) 2.3 2.4Monounsaturated fatty acids (g) 0.
8 1.1Review of Patent LiteratureCarbonation process is cheap, safe and apparently does not have any negative effects on cultured dairy products (Abhinav & Amol, 2015). It is scientifically defined as dissolving carbon dioxide gas in water using low utilizing temperature and high pressure (Potter, 1978). Carbonated dairy products have been highly sought after knowing its health benefits to the consumer and several different kinds of product have also been developed. There are a number of different factors which need to be considered in development of a carbonated milk drink.U.
S. Patent Number 4,804,552 (1989) entitled: “Carbonated Liquid Dairy Product and Method of Production” describes a method of carbonating a liquid dairy product to a level of “at least 1.5 volumes of carbon dioxide dissolved in 1.0 volume of liquid dairy product, while not destabilizing the liquid dairy product. U.S. Patent Number 4,919,960 (1990) discloses a method of carbonating a liquid dairy product of which another liquid food ingredient is added in a mixture by heating the mixture to between 160 0F and 200 0F for 5 seconds to 30 minutes, to form a buffer of the indigenous ash of the liquid dairy product, cooling and carbonating the mixture to at least 1.
5 volumes of carbon dioxide.U.S. Patent Number 6,761,920 (2004) entitled: “Process for Making Shelf-Stable Carbonated Milk Beverage”, describes an aerated or carbonated milk product drink made using a method which includes pre-heating, pressurized ultra-heat treating, subsequent carbonation with a gas or gases under pressure, and packaging into a container.
On the other hand, a method to develop an improved carbonated protein beverage drink composition which provides a relatively high protein content, ranging from about 2% by weight to about 15% by weight, while simultaneously employing a carbonation concentration between about 0.1 volumes of carbonation to about 4 volumes of carbonation was described in U.S. Patent Number 7,205,018B2 (2007).
The present study discusses the processes involved in the production of manufacturing carbonated liquid dairy product wherein the product is stable even under highly carbonated conditions. The goat’s milk will undergo pasteurization to inactivate microbes so that the final product exhibits storage shelf-stability. The final product contains 3 volumes of carbon dioxide per volume of liquid beverage solution. The carbonated goat’s milk drink composition of the present study, provides health benefits because of the goat’s milk proper composition of fatty acids, protein and its content of bioactive compounds seem to give properties suitable for treating or preventing certain medical conditions (Tilahun et al., 2014) that is good for consumption especially for the younger generations.CHAPTER 3METHODOLOGYIn this chapter, the procedures used to conduct the plant design project and the manufacturing process are discussed. 1.
Raw Materials InspectionA.Ingredient Quality InspectionIt is crucial for a beverage manufacturer to inspect raw materials before they are mixed with other ingredients. The specific storage for every raw material must meet the required conditions to insure that the beverage to be process will not spoil for safe consumption.a.Goat’s MilkGoat’s milk one of the main ingredients will be bought and delivered via tanker by a supplier to the manufacturing plant per week.
Three suppliers will deliver a total of 2,020L of goat’s milk. The milk will be pump from the tanker and will be stored in a sterilized tank for storage. From the storage area a laboratory analyst will get a sample of the milk to be evaluated through its pH, physical appearance, odor, and taste. It will also undergo for micro-test to determine if it safe from the presence of harmful microorganism like E. coli.
It will ensure that the product will meet the required standards needed to produce the beverage.b.Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide adds that special sparkle and bite to the beverage and also acts as a mild preservative. It is an inert, non-toxic, and relatively inexpensive and easy to liquefy. It will be delivered as a liquid by a road tanker. The quality assurance analyst will get a sample of carbon dioxide upon delivery to test for impurities and for quality inspection.
It is then transferred to pressurized vessels of 5–50 ton capacity and held at a pressure in the region of 20.5 bar at ?17?C, the temperature being maintained by the use of a small refrigeration unit (Steen ; Ashurst, 2006). It is important to ensure that both the gas phase and the liquid phase in the tanker and the receiving tank are connected. This allows the gas, displaced by the liquid, to be delivered to the storage tank, to flow into the tanker and balance the pressure between the two vessels. Non-return check valves must be incorporated to ensure that no backflow occurs. Carbon dioxide fed to the production line should be filtered to remove any possible contaminants.c.SugarSugar is the second main ingredient of a beverage.
It adds sweetness and body to the beverage enhancing the “mouth-feel” which is an important component for consumer enjoyment of a beverage. Sugar also balances flavors and acids. If a beverage are produced with low-quality sugar, particles in the beverage will spoil it, creating floc. To prevent such spoilage, sugar must be carefully handled in dry, sanitized environment. The manufacturing plant has a batch dissolving systems and a total of 202 kg sugar is delivered in bags as a granulated form by a truck from a supplier and stored in a sterilized storage tanks. It will then undergo sugar dissolving process on site because it is cheaper than liquid sugar. Care must be taken in the delivery area in case of any accidental droppage of sugar. Quality inspection of sugar includes taste, odor, appearance, purity, ash content, color, and floc potential the results must be normal and acceptable to the set standards to ensure the quality and safety of the product.
d.EmulsifierAn emulsifier like mono and diglycerides provide stability against phase separation of the dairy beverage. It will help disperse the oil droplets in water considering that goat’s milk has its fat composition while acids specifically the citric and phosphoric acid prevent the growth of pathogenic organisms within the drink. A total mass of 20kg of emulsifier will be delivered in powdered form from the available supplier and will be inspected upon delivery. It will be then stored in conditions wherein the temperature, humidity requirement and shelf life condition are meet in order to preserve its quality.
B.Machine and Packaging Quality InspectionPackaging materials like caps, crowns, bottles must be check upon delivery. Glass bottles are being ordered in San Miguel Yamamura Packaging Corporation in Cebu. Auxiliary Materials like coders and all tanks, pumps, and containers must be thoroughly sterilized and continuously monitored to ensure that it will be from contamination during the process.2.Process PreparationA.Water Treatment Process Flow Diagram A. Water Treatment ProcessThe sources of the plants raw water supply will be from the river.
Raw water from the source will undergo treatment to ensure efficient process and quality product. The important water parameter of the different sources is listed below. This will mandate of what treatment process the water must be subjected to.
Raw Water Parameters:Parameter Concentration, ppmSilica, SiO2 100Carbon Dioxide, CO2 50Total Hardness, TH 168Total Dissolved Solids, TDS 210Total Suspended Solids 26.2Cl- 70Fe+ 0.12Raw Water IntakeRaw water will be drawn from the source by pulling the water in (with pipes) through a mesh screen or grate to eliminate the larger objects, such as twigs, leaves, and fish. The water will be then pumped to the main facility where the treatment begins.
The inlet water source will be fed to the clarifier and after clarification the clear water will undergo stages of treatment in the demineralization water treatment plant. Coagulation involves mixing a gelatinous precipitate, or floc (ferric sulphate or aluminum sulphate), into the water. The floc absorbs suspended particles, making them larger and more easily trapped by filters. During the clarification process, alkalinity must be adjusted with an addition of lime to reach the desired pH level and chlorine to disinfect.
Sand Filtration is a process where in the clarified water is poured through a sand filter to remove fine particles of floc. The water passes through a layer of sand and courser bed of gravel to capture the particle.Water Softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water. The resulting soft water is more compatible with soap and extends the lifetime of plumbing.
Water softening is usually achieved using lime softening or ion-exchange resins.Reverse Osmosis is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules, and larger particles from drinking water. Reverse osmosis can remove any types of dissolved and suspended species from water, including bacteria.
Carbon Purification is a process where in the carbon filter dechlorinates the water and removes residual organic matter, much like the sand filter. Active charcoal carbon filters are most effective at removing chlorine, sediment, volatile organic compounds, taste and odor from water. They are not effective at removing minerals, salts, and dissolved inorganic compounds. The water passes through a polishing filter to remove carbon fines and other impurities. Polisher the term water polishing can refer to any process that removes small particulate material, or removes very low concentrations of dissolves material from water. Lastly is the ultraviolet sterilization which is a process that uses ultraviolet radiation to disinfect the water by permanently de-activating bacteria, spores, moulds and viruses.
Ultraviolet sterilisation works by dissociating the DNA structure gen to prevent nucleation problems. In addition, the lower the oxygen level in the water, the less risk of product deterioration there is. After the de-aeration process treated water is stored in sterilized water tank and will be used as solvent in syrup preparation of thof living cells, thus preventing their multiplication. It is ideal to de-aerate the treated water to