? NoC implementation would be much more feasible and efficient if the
encoding/decoding techniques integrated in it uses less area and power.
? Design of Existing technique is too complex and also consumes more area and
utilizes more power.
? The existing Walsh code technique is replaced with standard basis technique.
To meet the growing computation-intensive applications and the needs of low-power,
high-performance systems, the number of computing resources in single-chip has
enormously increased, because current VLSI technology can support such an extensive
integration of transistors. By adding many computing resources such as CPU, DSP,
specific IPs, etc to build a system in System-on-Chip, its interconnection between each
other becomes another challenging issue. In most System-on-Chip applications, a shared
bus interconnection which needs arbitration logic to serialize several bus access requests,
is adopted to communicate with each integrated processing unit because of its low-cost
and simple control characteristics. However, such shared bus interconnection has some
limitation in its scalability because only one master at a time can utilize the bus which
means all the bus accesses should be serialized by the arbitrator. Therefore, in such an
environment where the number of bus requesters is large and their required bandwidth forinterconnection is more than the current bus, some other interconnection methods should
be considered.
Such scalable bandwidth requirement can be satisfied by using on-chip packet-switched
micro-network of interconnects, generally known as Network-on-Chip (NoC) architecture.
The basic idea came from traditional large-scale multi-processors and distributed
computing networks. The scalable and modular nature of NoCs and their support for
efficient on-chip communication lead to NoC-based system implementations. Even though
the current network technologies are well developed and their supporting features are
excellent, their complicated configurations and implementation complexity make it hard to
be adopted as an on-chip interconnection methodology. In order to meet typical SoCs or
multi-core processing environment, basic module of network interconnection like
switching logic, routing algorithm and its packet definition should be light-weighted to
result in easily implemental solutions.
As the semiconductor processing technology is advanced to sub-nano one, there are
several side effects awaited. One of critical issues is a wiring delay. While the speed of
basic elements such as gate delay becomes much faster, the wiring delay is growing
exponentially as shown in Figure 1 because of the increased capacitance caused by narrow
channel width and increased crosstalk. Therefore, if this trend be sustained, the wiring is
one of the critical issues to be concerned.
In communication between several cores in System-on-Chip (SoC) environment, some
prevailing mechanisms for this purpose are several bus-based architectures and point-to-
point communication methodologies. For simplicity and ease of use, the bus-based
architectures are the most common. However, in bus-based architecture, it has
fundamentally some limitation in bandwidth, i.e. while the number of components attached
to the bus is increased, a physical capacitance on the bus wires grows and as a result its
wiring delay grows even further. To overcome the fundamental limitation of scalability in
bus-based architectures, some advanced bus architectures such as ARM AMBA , OpenCores WISHBONE System-on-Chip (SoC) interconnection , and IBM CoreConnect , are adopted. The Figure 2 illustrates basic structure of ARM AMBA. As shown in Figure
2, most of advanced bus architectures adopt a hierarchical structure to obtain scalable
communication throughput and partition communication domains into several group of
communication layers depending on bandwidth requirement such as high-performance,
Another approach to exceed such a limitation of communication and overcome such an
enormous wiring delay in future technology is to adopt network-like interconnections
which is called Network-on-Chip (NoC) architecture. Basic concept of such kind of
interconnections is from the modern computer network evolution as mentioned before. By
applying network-like communication which inserts some routers in-between each
communication object, the required wiring can be shortened. Therefore, the switch-based
interconnection mechanism provides a lot of scalability and freedom from the limitation of
complex wiring. Replacement of SoC busses by NoCs will follow the same path of data
communications when the economics prove that the NoC either reduces SoC
manufacturing cost, SoC time to market, SoC time to volume, and SoC design risk or
increases SoC performance. According to , the NoC approach has a clear advantage overtraditional busses and most notably system throughput. And hierarchies of crossbars or
multilayered busses have characteristics somewhere in between traditional busses and
NoC, however they still fall far short of the NoC with respect to performance and
The success of the NoC design depends on the research of the interfaces between
processing elements of NoC and interconnection fabric. The interconnection of a SoC
established procedures has some weak points in those respects of slow bus response time,
energy limitation, scalability problem and bandwidth limitation. Bus interconnection
composed of a large number of components in a network interface can cause slow
interface time though the influence of sharing the bus. In addition the interconnection has a
defect that power consumption is high on the score of connecting all objects in the
communication. Moreover it is impossible to increase the number of connection of the
elements infinitely by reason of the limitation of bandwidth in a bus. As a consequence,
the performance of the NoC design relies greatly on the interconnection paradigm.
Though the network technology in computer network is already well developed, it is
almost impossible to apply to a chip-level intercommunication environment without any
modification or reduction. To be eligible for NoC architecture, the basic functionality
should be simple and light-weighted because the implemented component of NoC
architecture should be small enough to be a basic component constructing a SoC. Even
though the basic functionality should be simple, it also satisfies the basic requirement in
general communication. On the other hand, to apply the prevailing mobile environment, it
should be low-powered. In order to be low powered one has to consider many parameters
such as clock rate,operating voltage, and power management scheme.Here this paper by JIAN WANG and YUBAI LI compares the two methods of
encoding/decoding and gives a summary on the same.
The first step is to encode original bits with a spreading code (an XOR operation in the
WB encoder and an AND operation in the SB encoder). Since the chip frequency is equal
to the clock frequency, the number of clock cycles spent on spreading is related to the
length of spreading codes. Because we use standard basis in the SB scheme, only p clock
cycles are required to finish the spreading operation for p senders. However, for the WB
scheme, a q chip Walsh code is required to spread the original data bits for p senders. As
mentioned in Section I, q=2( logp2 +1)?(p+1) .
In the following steps, both methods need sum, extract, and accumulate operations, and
these operations are realized using a multibit adder (an XOR gate), a demux logic module
(an AND gate), and two multibit accumulators (one single accumulator) in the WB (SB)
method. Since these operations work as a pipeline, only one clock cycle is required in each
operation. Moreover, the WB scheme needs additional comparator that spends one more
clock cycle (corresponding to the last line of Table II).
Therefore, the total logic cost of the SB method is lesser than that of the WB method, since
each operation needs less logical resources. Besides, the total latency of the SB method is
(p+3 ) clock cycles. It is always lower than (q+4 ) clock cycles, which is the latency of the WB.Scaling:
The CN (CDMA NoC) can be scaled to different network sizes using two basic methods,
as shown in Fig. In the direct scaling method, the length of orthogonal code will increase
with the number of PEs and thus is more suitable for small-size NoCs (e.g., CDMA NoC
with several PEs . In contrast, the cluster-based scaling method, by which each cluster has
several PEs and clusters are connected with each other, can be used to scale the network
hierarchically to any required size .
2) Topology:
Although a CDMA node cluster may be limited in the star topology, any other topologies
can also be obtained by using the cluster-based scaling method. For example, Kim et al.
developed a hierarchical star topology, Lee and Sobelman developed a mesh topology,
and so on.
3) Routing:
There exist various incremental and global routing schemes for CDMA NoCs. Consider an
incremental routing, where the routing schemes are related to the packet formats. In
general, the packet header contains the destination PE address. The source CN checks the
destination address, determines the next-hop CN or PE, and allocates a corresponding
spread code for the packet encoding and decoding to reach the right output port. The next-
hop CN continues the process until the destination PE is reached. More details and other
routing schemes can be found .
4) Traffic Patterns:
For the CDMA NoC, the influence of traffic patterns has been discussed before and some
real applications have also been mapped onto the CDMA NoCs to show their advantages.
Everyday cyber security professionals go to work without any idea about the identity and
probable actions of their adversaries. In information security, just as on the military
battlefield, if you do not understand the motivations, intentions and competencies of your
opponents, then you cannot understand the risks to your enterprise or focus on your
Even after all the recent data breaches and hacking incidents, many people, companies and
organizations still disregard major security protocols and fail to understand that cyber
security is a discipline where cyber criminals and hacktivists are always a step ahead.
There are several ways by which a company or an organization defends against a cyber
attack. Many companies have adopted the “monitor and response” strategy. This strategy
recognizes that simply a signature-based defense won’t be effective against sophisticated
targeted attacks. This generally takes place in a Security Operations Center (SOC) or a
Network Operations Center (NOC). In most organizations the SOC and NOC run together,
but separately.
There are some similarities between the role of the Network Operation Center (NOC) and
Security Operation Center (SOC); however, often this leads to the mistaken idea that one
can easily handle the other’s duties. This couldn’t be further from the truth.
So why can’t the NOC just handle both functions? Why should each SOC and NOC work
separately, but operate in conjunction with one another?
First, the roles of SOC and NOC are subtly but fundamentally different. While it is true
that both SOC and NOC are responsible for identifying, investigating, prioritizing,
escalating and resolving issues, the types of issues and the impact they have are
considerably different.
The NOC is responsible for handling incidents that affect performance or availability
while the SOC handles those incidents that affect the security of information assets.

Both SOC and NOC are involved in risk management and risk mitigation; however, the
way they accomplish this goal is different.
The NOC’s job is to meet service level agreements (SLAs) and manage incidents in a way
that reduces downtime. It focuses on availability and performance.
The SOC, however, is in charge of protecting intellectual property and sensitive customer
data – a focus on security.
While both of these things are critically important to any organization, combining the SOC
and NOC into one entity and having them each handle the other’s duties can spell disaster
– because their approaches are so different.
Another reason the NOC and SOC should not be combined is because their skill sets are
A NOC analyst must be proficient in network, application and systems engineering, while
SOC analysts require security-engineering skills.
Last but not least, the very nature of the adversaries that each group tackles is different.
The SOC focuses on “intelligent adversaries” while the NOC deals with naturally
occurring system events.
These are completely different directions, which result in contrasting solutions.
Consequently, both SOC and NOC are needed to work side-by-side but in conjunction
with one another.
Our cyber security career track can help you get into the highly in-demand cyber security
field. Network Operations Centers (NOCs), mostly known because they are a fairly
common service today, are usually based on facilities with large screens or video walls
with workstations for operators and analysts, meeting rooms, coffee rooms, break rooms.In
short, an area suitable for continuous of the activity in telecommunication networks,
service systems, TV broadcasts, etc. The main goal is mainly to monitor the “availability”
of networks and services. Perhaps the SOCs (Security Operation Centers) are not so well-
known within the operation areas, and while their physical aspect may be very similar to
NOCs, their goals are quite different, mainly because they are oriented to protect theSecurity (Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability) of networks and services. They must
be able to detect any malicious activity present in the network through sensors installed in
different platforms; they must inform, manage and respond to different alarms. But in the
family of operations, there is one more brother, known as CyberSOC or also as Advanced
SOC. In this webinar, we will explain the general concepts and the main differences
between these “three brothers”, analyzing not only their objectives and functions, but also
their organization and the tools they need to function and deliver value-added services. We
also saw what is expected of each of them as a client, and can we improve as a companyCHAPTER 4
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a digital cellular technology used for mobile
communication. CDMA is the base on which access methods such as cdma One,
CDMA2000, and WCDMA are built. CDMA cellular systems are deemed superior to
FDMA and TDMA, which is why CDMA plays a critical role in building efficient, robust,
and secure radio communication systems.
A Simple Analogy
Let’s take a simple analogy to understand the concept of CDMA. Assume we have a few
students gathered in a classroom who would like to talk to each other simultaneously.
Nothing would be audible if everyone starts speaking at the same time. Either they must
take turns to speak or use different languages to communicate.
The second option is quite similar to CDMA — students speaking the same language can
understand each other, while other languages are perceived as noise and rejected.
Similarly, in radio CDMA, each group of users is given a shared code. Many codes occupy
the same channel, but only those users associated with a particular code can communicate.
Salient Features of CDMA
CDMA, which is based on the spread spectrum technique, has following salient features ?
In CDMA, every channel uses the full available spectrum.
Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence and then

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Chapter 1
write the references?
The intrusion detection system (IDS) handles huge amount of data and plays a strategic role in detecting attacks of various kind. IDS is considered as classification problem because the intrusion detection is depended on a good classifier. Intrusion can be defined as malicious and it is a key to compromise availability, integrity and confidentiality of a computer system. In data mining, classification models is very important techniques applied to intrusion detection. In this paper , the author proposes a network IDS based on SPELM classifier. State Preserving Extreme Learning Machine enhances the attack detection accuracy and it very efficient in distinguishing network traffic is attack or normal.
Intrusion Detection System are software system or hardware systems that automatise the method of observation and analyzing the events that occur during a network, to notice malicious activity. Since the severity of attacks occurring within the network has magnified drastically, Intrusion detection system became a necessary addition to security infrastructure of most organizations. Intrusion detection permits organization to guard their systems from the threats that associate with increasing network property and reliance on data systems. Given the extent and nature of recent network security threats the question for security professionals shouldn’t be whether or not to use intrusion detection however instead that intrusion detection options and capabilities is used.
An Intelligent intrusion or system attack includes following step:
Collecting Information: grouping info regarding the target obtaining all the data and details regarding the user United Nations agency is attacked. this will be done by exploitation the question tools like ”whois”, ”nslookup” or by exploitation network commands in electronic communication to induce information science addresses, name server etc.

Probing and scanning: Scanning the Target host and check the unguarded or unprotected space on system and search for the sensitive info in them.
Remote to root access: it’s gaining the access of user system by R2L (Remote to Local) kind of attack, like password guess, network sniffing, buffer overflow attack, etc. associate R2L attack means that an individual United Nations agency is unknown to user machine send the network packet to induce native access of user machine to execute command on a target. This attack will be done by exploitation the system vulnerabilities, exploitation open ports of the target machine, word guess etc.
User to Root access: during this attack a standard user of system tries to achieve a root access of the system by exploitation system.
Vulnerabilities. These attacks are quite almost like R2L attack however during this assailant are already a standard user of machine and check out to gain root access of machine.
Launch attacks: Finally attacks are created like stealing wind, modifying websites, accessing another person accounts and making a backdoors for future attacks.
An Intrusion Detection System is security technique to notice the attacks over the network. Intrusion detection has been classified below 2 classes, specifically misuse detection and anomaly detection.

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An intrusion detection system is a vigorous method or device that analyzes system and network activity for unauthorized and nasty activity. Intrusion Detection System is any hardware, software, or a mix of each that monitors a system or network of systems against any malicious activity. The final word goal of any IDS is to catch perpetrators within the act before they are doing real harm to resources. Associate in Nursing IDS protects a system from attack, misuse, and compromise. It additionally monitor network activity, audit network and system configurations for vulnerabilities, analyze knowledge integrity, and more. IDS, these days, became important part within the security chest Associate in IDS provides functions: observance, sleuthing Associate in generating an alert. IDS are usually thought-about because the practicality of firewall. however there’s a distinction between them. A firewall should be regarded as a hedge that protects the data flow and forestall intrusions wherever as IDS detects if the network is beneath attack or if the security obligatory by the firewall has been penetrated. along firewall and IDS enhance the security of network.

The operating of the intrusion detection system is sort of similar as that of the opposite programs wont to forestall the system from dangerous threats like malware, spyware, spam and lots of a lot of. The duty of the intrusion detection system starts from the recording the data concerning the matter and check the incidence and also the nature of the threat. once the system monitors the matter and collects the information concerning it, then it sends this data to the administration department of the intrusion detection system that makes many preventive measures to guard the system and keep the system within the safe hands. Intrusion detection system will add the precise manner by observance some vital things. These vital things area unit as follows.
1. observance the activity of the network and activity of the threat within the network.
2. this technique has ability to sight the viruses, malware, spyware and totally different kind of viruses and also the vital factor concerning this it also can find their restore purpose.
3. Intrusion detection system will work by perceptive the unauthenticated and unauthorized use of various programs of networking.
So, the entire operating of the intrusion detection system supported the examination of such events of networking.

The performance of current IDS doesn’t defend increasing range of attack sorts as several current IDS are still supported professional rules that are manually made by human specialists and solely describe acknowledged attack signatures. We tend to analyze 3 views of technical challenges in IDSs supported machine learning, that are feature extraction, classifier construction and ordered pattern prediction. To elucidate the 3 views of technical challenges, a general framework for IDSs supported machine learning is bestowed in Figure 1.1. The framework consists of 3 main components. the primary one is for information acquisition and have extraction. information acquisition is observes network flow information or method execution trajectories from host computers. A feature extraction module is employed to convert the data into feature vectors. The period detection half, confirm whether or not associate ascertained pattern or a sequence of patterns is traditional or abnormal. The third half is that the machine learning half, in that audit information for training are keep in databases which are dynamically updated either by human analysts or by machine learning algorithms.

Figure 1.1 A Framework for IDS Based On Machine Learning
A. Feature Extraction
As illustrated in Figure 1.1, feature extraction is that the basis for superior intrusion detection. If the options are improperly elite, the final word performance of detection models are going to be influenced loads. This drawback has been studied throughout the first work of W.K. Lee 3 and his analysis results cause the benchmark dataset of KDD99, wherever a 41-dimensional feature vector was created for every network association.
B. Classifier Construction
The classification exactitude of most existing ways must be improved since it’s terribly tough to sight uncountable new attacks by solely coaching on audit knowledge. victimization anomaly detection strategy will detect novel attacks however the warning rate is sometimes terribly high since to model traditional patterns alright is additionally onerous. Thus, the classifier construction in IDSs remains another technical challenge for intrusion detection supported machine learning.

C. Sequential Pattern Prediction
The host-based intrusion detection drawback may be thought of as a successive prediction drawback since it’s onerous to work out one short sequence of system calls to be traditional or abnormal and there are intrinsic temporal relationships between sequences. though we will still remodel the on top of drawback to a static classification drawback by mapping the total trace of a method to a feature vector, it’s been shown that dynamic behavior modeling ways.

One of the most challenges for IDSs is to create effective behavior models or patterns to tell apart traditional behaviors from abnormal behaviors by observant collected audit knowledge. to unravel this drawback, earlier IDSs typically believe security consultants to research the audit knowledge and construct intrusion detection rules manually. Since the number of audit knowledge, will increase vary quick, it’s become a long, tedious and even not possible work for human consultants to research and extract attack signatures or detection rules from dynamic, vast volumes of audit knowledge. additionally the detection rules made by human consultants area unit typically supported mounted options or signatures of existing attacks, thus it’ll be terribly troublesome for these rules to sight misshapen or perhaps fully new attacks.
Due to the on top of deficiencies of IDSs supported human consultants, intrusion detection techniques victimization data processing have attracted a lot of and a lot of interests in recent years. As a crucial application space of information mining, intrusion detection supported data processing algorithms, that is sometimes mentioned as reconciling intrusion detection, aims to unravel the issues of analyzing vast volumes of audit knowledge and realizing performance improvement of detection rules. By creating use of information mining algorithms, reconciling intrusion detection models is mechanically made supported labeled or untagged audit knowledge.

A methodology for intrusion detection is planned that involves a attribute choice method for choice of relevant attributes and there on applying a classifier for classifying network knowledge to 2 categories : normal categories and attack categories.

A. Attributes Selection from Dataset
Effective attributes choice from intrusion detection datasets is one in all the vital analysis challenges for constructing high performance IDS. inapplicable and redundant attributes of intrusion detection dataset might cause advanced intrusion detection model additionally as scale back detection accuracy. This downside has been studied throughout analysis on KDD99 benchmark intrusion detection dataset, wherever 41 attributes were created for every network affiliation. The attribute choice strategies of knowledge mining algorithms establish a number of the vital attributes for detective work abnormal network connections. Attributes choice in intrusion detection exploitation data processing algorithms involves the choice of a set of attributes from the full original attributes of dataset, supported a given improvement principle. The attribute choice strategies search through the subsets of attributes, and take a look at to search out the simplest one amongst the candidate subsets in line with some analysis operate. Therefore, building IDS supported all attributes is impracticable, and attributes choice becomes vital for IDS. The attribute choice is completed by exploitation Principal part Analysis (PCA).

B . Classifier Construction
Classifier construction is another vital challenge to create economical IDS. Nowadays, several data processing algorithms became extremely popular for classifying intrusion detection datasets like call tree, naïve Bayesian classifier, neural network, genetic formula, and support vector machine etc. However, the classification accuracy of most existing data processing algorithms has to be improved, as a result of it’s terribly troublesome to notice many new attacks, because the attackers are endlessly ever-changing their attack patterns. Anomaly network intrusion detection models are currently wont to detect new attacks however the false positives are sometimes terribly high. The performance of an intrusion detection model depends on its detection rates (DR) and false positives (FP). DR is outlined because the variety of intrusion instances detected by the system divided by the overall variety of the intrusion instances gift within the dataset. FP is an alarm, that rises for one thing that’s not extremely an attack. it’s desirable for an intrusion detection model to maximize the DR and minimize the FP. so classifier construction for IDS is another technical challenge within the field of knowledge mining.

1.4 Motivation
Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) became a crucial security tool for managing risk and an important a part of overall security design . associate IDS gathers and analyzes info from varied sources among computers and networks to spot suspicious activities that plan to lawlessly access, manipulate, and disable computer systems. samples of IDSs are general network intrusion detection systems, net application firewalls, botnet-malware detection systems, and so on.

The two main intrusion detection approaches ar misuse detection and anomaly detection . Misuse detection systems, find intrusions by viewing specific signatures of illustrious attacks. This approach is comparable to the approach of sleuthing viruses in several antivirus applications. a group of patterns of illustrious attacks is critical to be in-built advance for more detections. it’s simple to implement misuse detection systems. However, these systems aren’t effective against novel attacks that haven’t any matched patterns nevertheless. Anomaly detection systems, like day, will overcome the defect of the misuse detection systems. associate anomaly detector assumes that ordinary behavior are totally different from abnormal behavior. Therefore, abnormal activities are often detected by viewing traditional activities solely. In fact, in these systems, a profile of traditional behavior is about up and is employed to flag any ascertained activities that deviate considerably from the established profile as anomalies or attainable intrusions. though anomaly detection systems have potential of sleuthing novel attacks, it’s troublesome to supply effective models of traditional patterns by hand and these systems tend to get a lot of false positive alerts than the misuse detection systems.

To deal with these issues, the intrusion detection task has been developed as a applied mathematics pattern recognition task and machine learning is that the core to make these systems because of its potency and effectiveness. machine learning may be a field of study that provides computers the power to be told while not being expressly programmed. machine learning speech that a bug is alleged to be told from expertise E with relation to some task T and a few performance live P, if its performance on T, as measured by P, improves with expertise E. By means that of this approach, associate intrusion detection system learns and models the traditional and abnormal behavior from a given dataset, that is that the expertise E. The IDS then uses the gained model to classify new patterns. Figure 1.2 shows the formal model of the IDS, that is basically a applied mathematics pattern recognition system. The IDS consists of 2 phases: coaching and testing. within the coaching section, many models learn or, in different words, are designed to differentiate traditional and abnormal behavior within the given dataset E. The performance of the designed models is measured by decisive the classification accuracy P. within the testing section, the simplest model performed on the testing dataset is chosen as a possible intrusion detection system.

Figure 1.2: Model for statistical pattern recognition
In more detail from Figure 1.2, the take a look at and coaching patterns as data area unit normalized, noise furthermore as unwanted knowledge area unit removed by the pre-processing modules. within the coaching section, to possess associate degree economical and precise modeling of the conventional and abnormal behavior, associate degree automatic method named feature extraction/selection initial appearance for a representative attribute set from the coaching patterns. There exist many alternative ways in which of choosing attributes by considering the relationships between them, like correlation-based or mutual information-based strategies. Second, betting on whether or not the given coaching dataset has truth labels or not, to model the behavior there are 2 totally different approaches: supervised and unattended learning models. With supervised learning algorithms, like neural networks or support vector machines, truth labels of the coaching dataset are on the market for learning method. In some cases, the unattended learning algorithms, like the K-means bunch, will still learn the conventional and abnormal behavior on the dataset while not their true labels. within the classification section, the engineered model or trained classifier is applied to assign the take a look at pattern to 1 of the pattern categories into account of the chosen attributes from the training section.
Due to the potency of the automated learning techniques, the machine-learning-based intrusion detection systems (ML-IDSs) permit to detect quickly the attacks whereas tightened a lot of less manual work. The approach is turning into additional and additional vital for system security, particularly once the massive quantity of network knowledge that must be analyzed by intrusion detection systems is increasing quickly. Moreover, the ML-IDSs have incontestable to be simpler in terms of classification accuracy than domain consultants and different existing IDS approaches.

The dissertation work consists of five chapters. The first chapter among these gives a basic overview of the work that has been described above with in this dissertation. It provides a brief explanation of the intrusion detection systems and machine learning that are going to be used in the proposed model.
Chapter 2 Literature review and Problem Identification :
This chapter is a review on various intrusion detection techniques and also discuss the problem identification and objective of the dissertation.
Chapter 3 Research Methodology
This chapter discusses the proposed research work and methodology which is used to build up an efficient and effective machine learning classification model.
Chapter 4 : Implementation
This chapter details about the implementation of proposed work and tools used to code the proposed research work.
Chapter 5 Result Analysis : Conclusion and Future Work
This chapter describes the results obtained after the implementation of classification model. The dissertation ends with the conclusion and scope for the future research work and references.
In this chapter, provides brief introduction of concept used in dissertation , It provides a brief explanation of the intrusion detection systems and machine learning that are going to be used in the proposed model, its contents, need, motivation.



1.1 Composite Materials

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A composite material is one which is composed of at least two phases combined together to produce new material properties that are different to the properties of those elements on their own. Practically, most composites composed of a bulk material termed as the ‘matrix’ and reinforcement added essentially to increase the overall strength and stiffness of the matrix.

Metal matrix composite (MMC) is engineered combination of the metal (Matrix) and hard particle/ceramic (Reinforcement) to get modified properties. Metal matrix composites increasingly found their application in aerospace and automotive sectors because of their properties like high strength, high stiffness, low density, wear resistance, elastic modulus, and tensile strength. Most commonly used metal matrices are Aluminum, Magnesium, Titanium and their alloys. The reasons for using these matrices are less weight, low cost and availability. Similarly reinforcements are also classified as fibers, whiskers and particulates. Particulates are extensively used in weight critical application in aerospace, automotive parts fabrication. Hybrid metal matrixes are engineering material that constitutes two or more reinforcement in order to obtain the combined advantage compare to individual constituent.

Particulate reinforced Aluminium matrix composites (PRAMC) have received considerable observation in twenty first century because of their high specific strength and good wear resistance. The PRAMCs were usually produced by Casting technique and Powder metallurgy.

In recent years many research have been investigated by combining Aluminium matrix with SiC, Al2O3, TiC reinforcements to gain better understanding of the mechanical behavior of these composites and their excellent wear resistance.

1.2 Classification of Composites:
The composites can be classified as two types on the basis of matrix constituent and reinforcement form.
The first level of classification with respect to the matrix constituent includes:
1. Polymer Matrix Composites
2. Metal Matrix Composites
3. Ceramic Matrix Composites
The second level of classification with respect to the reinforcement form includes:
1. Fiber reinforced composites
2. Laminar composites
3. Particulate composites.

1.2.1 Classification Based on Matrices
The first level of classification is usually made with respect to the matrix constituent. The figure 1.1 indicates classification of MMC’s based on matrices.

Fig 1.1: Classification of MMC’s based on matrices

Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC’s): Polymer based composites are also known as Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP). These material use polymer based resin as the matrix and a different types of fibers such as glass, carbon as the reinforcement.
Metal Matrix Composites (MMC’s): Metal matrix composites are increasingly found in the aerospace and automotive industry. These materials use a metal such as Aluminium as the matrix and reinforce it with fiber, particulates or whiskers such as Silicon carbide, Boron carbide etc to get tailored properties.

Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC’s): Ceramic matrix composites are used in very high temperature environment. These materials use a ceramic as the matrix and reinforce it with short fibers or whiskers such as those made from silicon carbide and boron nitride.

1.2.2 Classification Based on Reinforcements
The figure 1.2 indicates classification of MMC’s based on Reinforcements.

Fig 1.2: Classification of MMC’s based on reinforcements

1.3 Metal Matrix Composites (MMC):
Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) provide remarkably enhanced properties over regular conventional materials, such as good strength, weight savings and stiffness. Metal matrix composites are used in a wide range of high performance applications today. Most of their current applications are in aviation, ground transportation, electronics and sports industries. The applications of metal matrix composites in aeronautics have been established in the aero-structural, aero-propulsion and subsystem categories. The Aluminium alloys are very attractive because of their low cost and light weight and can be heat treated to fairly high-strength levels. Also Aluminium is one of the most easily fabricated of the high-performance materials, which usually correlates directly with lower costs.
1.3.1 Advantages of MMC’s
• Higher temperature capability.
• Fire resistance.
• Higher transverse stiffness and strength.
• No moisture absorption.
• Higher electrical and thermal conductivities.
• Better radiation resistance.
1.3.2 Disadvantages of MMC’s
• Higher cost of some material systems.
• Relatively immature technology.
• Complex fabrication methods for fiber-reinforced systems (except for casting).
• Limited service experience.

1.3.3 Applications of Metal Matrix Composites

Space: The space shuttle uses Boron/Aluminium tubes to support its fuel usage frame. In addition to decreasing the mass of the space shuttle by more than 145 kg, Boron/ Aluminium also reduced the thermal insulation requirements because of its low thermal conductivity.

Military: Precision components of missile guidance systems require dimensional stability that is the geometries of the composites cannot alter during use. MMC’s such as SiC composites satisfies this requirement because they have high micro yield strength. In addition, the volume fraction of reinforcements can be varied to have a suitable co-efficient of thermal expansion suitable with other parts of the system.

Transportation: MMC’s are finding use now in automotive engines that are lighter than their metal counter parts. Also, because of their high strength and low weight, MMC’s are the material of choice for gas turbine engines.

1.4 Fabrication Process:
1.4.1 Stir Casting Method
Stir casting is an economical liquid phase method of composite materials fabrication. Here a dispersed phase (like short fibers, ceramic particles) is mixed with a molten metal by means of mechanical stirring. Then the liquid composite material is poured into an appropriate crucible and cast by conventional metal forming technologies. However, major challenge in the liquid phase processing is to achieve uniform distribution of reinforcement and to obtain strong interfacial bonding between the reinforcement and the matrix. The stir casting set up is shown in figure 1.3.

Fig 1.3 Stir casting

1.4.2 Characterization of Stir Casting

1. Percentage of dispersed phase is limited (usually not more than 30% by volume)
2. Dispersed phase distribution is not perfectly homogeneous throughout the matrix.
• Gravity segregation of the dispersed phase can occur due to a difference in the densities of the dispersed and matrix phase.
• Clusters of the dispersed particles (fibers) may form.
3. The technology is relatively simple and low cost.

1.5 Aluminium Alloys:
Aluminium alloy is a composition consisting mainly of aluminum to which other elements have been added. The typical alloying elements are Magnesium, Manganese, Copper, Silicon and Zinc. There are two primary classifications namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable.

About eighty-five percentage of Aluminium is used for wrought products, for example foils, rolled plate and extrusions. Cast Aluminium alloys yield cost-effective products due to the low melting point, although they generally have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys. Alloys comprised mostly of Aluminium plays crucial role in aerospace manufacturing since the introduction of metal skinned aircraft.

Aluminium alloys are extensively used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. Wrought Aluminium alloys are used in the shaping processes: stamping, rolling, forging, extrusion, pressing. Cast Aluminium alloys comes after sand casting, permanent mould casting, die casting, investment casting, centrifugal casting, squeeze casting and continuous casting.

1.5.1 Cast Aluminium Alloys

Aluminium and its alloys are used in a variety of cast and wrought form and conditions of heat treatment. Forgings, sections, extrusions, sheets, plate, strip, foils and wire are some of the examples of wrought form while castings are available as sand, pressure and gravity die-castings e.g. Al-Si and Al-Mg alloys. The designation of Cast Aluminium alloy is shown in Table 1.1.
Table 1.1: Designation of Cast Aluminium alloys

Alloy Designation Details
1XX.X 99% pure Aluminium
2XX.X Cu containing alloy
3XX.X Si, Cu/Mg containing alloy
4XX.X Si containing alloy
5XX.X Mg containing alloy
7XX.X Zn containing alloy
8XX.X Tin containing alloy
6XX.X Unused series

1.5.2 Wrought Aluminium Alloys

To meet various requirements, Aluminium is alloyed with Copper, Manganese, Magnesium, Zinc and Silicon as major alloying elements. A four-digit numerical designation system is used to identify wrought Aluminium alloys. As shown in table 1.2. below, the first digit of the four-digit designation indicates the group.

Table 1.2: Designation of Wrought Aluminium alloys

Alloy designation Details
1XXX 99% pure Aluminium
2XXX Cu containing alloy
3XXX Mn containing alloy
4XXX Si containing alloy
5XXX Mg containing alloy
6XXX Mg and Si containing alloy
7XXX Zn containing alloy
8XXX Other alloys

1.5.3 Designation of Aluminium Alloys

The Aluminium Association of America has classified the wrought Aluminium alloys according to a four-digit system. The classification is adopted by the International Alloy Development System (IADS). Table 1.1 & 1.2 gives the basis of designation of wrought and cast Aluminium alloys in the four-digit system. The first digit identifies the alloy type the second digit shows the specific alloy modification. The last two digits indicate the specific Aluminium alloy group.


This system proposed the student attendance online system using students smart card with QR code. The existing student attendance system(SAS) is inefficient and not systematic. In former attendance system the student attendance system needs to take time for sign the attendance sheet during the class hour.

After that the total attendance will and need to be entered into a computerized system by using Microsoft Excel. It is also affecting the efficiency of teachers where teachers have to calculate the student attendance percentages through of years.

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A system that takes down SAS using QR code more efficient. In student attendance system, every student is provided with smart card containing a unique QR code. The students need to scan the code in order to confirm their attendance. Each QR code contains a unique id for students. The system will store all students’ attendance record on database.

The student must scan the smart card that containing the QR via a teacher smartphone application. Knowing that smartphones are most popular with users at the age around 26, using smartphones to speed up the process of taking attendance by school teachers would save time and hence enhance the educational process.

By using this system, not only save time but also save the efforts that were supposed to be put by teacher during each instruct. It will speed up the process of taking attendance and leave much time for the teacher to be given properly.

Nowadays, SAS in school is still practicing the manual way of taking daily attendance. The existing manual student attendance system is inefficient and not systematic. The teacher will personally mark the attendance sheet one by one by calling out student name accordingly. However, the attendance sheet can be lost easily and the whole attendance process is tending to human mistake.

In the manual system, students can easily forge their friends signature purposely fill in the class attendance. This can cause students to be dishonest and will bring problems at work later. The issue are data not secure because all teachers or staff can get student information without student know. It will risk and harm to student if personal data is used in criminal matters.

The student attendance online system using QR code reader is the best solutions on how we can keep the data more efficient and safety. The data is always being updated in the database and the report can be viewed and be printed by the teachers and staff whenever they want.

The objectives of SAS are identified based on the review of the problem statements.

The purposes are listed as below:
To develop student attendance system using QR code.

To create the data base for student attendance online system.

To generate unique QR code based on the student information.

The main scopes of project are;
This system is developed for the teacher that working on primary and secondary school.

The proposed student attendance system used a smart card that provides with a QR code.

The QR code is generated by SAS system that can save in the document folder.

The student attendance online system using smartphone, student only use their own smart card.

This thesis consists of three chapters which is introduction, literature review and methodology.

Chapter 1 is an introduction chapter that discuss on the introduction of the project proposed project which is student attendance system. It discusses the introduction, problem statement, objective, scope and thesis organization.

Chapter 2 discusses on literature review. The discussion is about the current systems and comparison between four existing systems for analysis. It will cover about the system flow and technique used.

Chapter 3 explain methodology used in the system. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body, methods and principle of the body, methods and principle related with branch of the knowledge.

The reviews of related literature for this project involves local and literature either in book, websites and others forms of media that help us formulate in analysing the system that it fitted for the school. The review focuses on how to use the system effectively that related in the system. It will help me to get ideas and it became the researcher basis on how to start the document to analyses the current student attendance system of school.

The teacher will send students attendance to Pejabat Pendidikan Daerah(PPD) every day, PPD compile all information based on school before send to Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia(KPM). Current system takes students’ attendance manually. The teachers have to write down and manually calculate the details of the attendance.

It is a very tiresome tasks to maintain the record for the teachers. Besides that, it also will be hard to retrieve all of the information since the records are written on papers and saved manually.

Purpose of this proposed system is develop a students’ attendance system that can be used during teacher take students attendance. The aims of this system is to lessen work for the filing process and save the time to create precise results from the student’s attendance. The system will be presented in a user friendly GUI.

2.1.1Golden Screen Cinemas(GSC)
Figure 2.1Golden Screen Cinemas(GSC)
According to its official website, GSC provides this QR code system through its website and mobile application. Besides using the QR code in its the web, GSC also has a mobile ticketing system. It allows clients to buy the movie ticket through hand phone. This application allows client to buy ticket using their smart phone. By using this method, clients can use the paperless ticket. All they have to do is just scan the 2D barcode using the phone screen at the cinema checkpoint gate. Clients will receive a barcode receipt in the form of QR code on the mobile phone. Hence, it will eliminate queuing line and waiting time by scanning the QR code at the auto-gate.

GSC also has mobile application that will connect with website of system and also a data update between website and mobile simultaneously. After than that the barcode automatically generates after user do payment. Next, Golden screen cinemas also have some of disadvantages such as no password rate for reconfirm when want to payment the online ticket. The GSC system only have one factor authentication for the system. Booking number not display on the screen, if have overlap ticket the booking number of seat not display. This show the system is not systematic or consistent. For any transaction that is not finished in eight minutes; the seats will be unrestricted automatically.

Before proceed with the payment process, users can review the ticket details. Through the statement above a system not friendly and not comfortable to user for use with other system. For the payment six E-Payment choices that already list name of E-banking. One account for one user only, user can buy more ticket but cannot share own account with other. Last not least, duplicate ticket between user online booking.

2.1.2Boarding Pass
Figure 2.2Boarding Pass
In 2005 the IATA (International Air Transport Association) commenced a five-year project to deploy Bar Coded Boarding Passes (BCBP) across its member airlines to eliminate magnetic boarding passes. Airlines and third parties use a barcode reader to read the bar codes and capture the data. Reading the bar code usually takes place in the boarding process, but can also happen when entering the airport security checkpoints. The newest mobile developments are the ability to check-in to a flight via a mobile device using a QR code, or mobile boarding pass.

The airline sends user boarding document, with a link to user QR code, directly to user mobile device via e-mail. Anytime user need to present user boarding pass, at security checkpoints or at the gate, when on the gate user hold up user QR code to a scanner..Furthermore, TSA requirements and support the Apple Passbook electronic wallet application, while passengers with Gmail addresses get real-time flight status information and have their boarding passes displayed automatically on their smartphones. Finally, most of the information contained within the barcode is harmless,
and besides the booking reference there is nothing that can’t be gleaned from a boarding pass left behind in a seat pocket.

But user need to register first for new user of online banking or new user to buy the boarding pass. The boarding pass also use mobile application that user can buy ticket with android. System of boarding pass support for mobile application and data will update same with website.

The generate password takes input from a random or pseudo-random number generator after that password will automatically generate. For example, password for user will randomly give to user to save and staff honest about the not share user personal information for secure.

The other advantages are giving a foreign application permission they don’t recognize. So easy to user cause have multiple language for chooses. One account can buy one ticket only for boarding pass this will secure the user personal information from hacker to attack, cause if hacker know a few data of user they can fake other information
they already have. After user already done for booking ticket the QR code will be automatically generate.

Disadvantages of boarding pass are challenge when traveling with multiple people on one reservation cause will confusing if happen some changes, no two-factor authentication and no password rate such as when have multiple or second round open the QR code already display on the mobile phone. The QR code also can screen short for scanning at the gate that user no need to login. The boarding pass a not secure cause can fake QR code to spoof a boarding pass, after that boarding pass not available for more than one guest in one booking number and one accounts for one person only.

Figure2.3 Parkaide This cutting-edge technology brings together geo-location, payment platform and mobile technologies in a single application to facilitate a more convenient and reliable parking experience because of the speed achieved in its processes.

The QR code displayed on a screen mounted where user would typically find a ticket dispenser to ‘check-in’ to the parking lot pre-book a bay for user parking before proceeding to user destination. Reserve the bay an hour before reaching the car park. Additional charges are applied when user use this premium service. ParkAide lets user save the location of user parking bay in the phone. It will tell user the exact location of user car with floor and section number.

At the location user just scan the pillar after user park user car and when user return to the car park, just re-open the app and user car’s location will be displayed. The system deducts the appropriate amount of credits from the user’s account. Users only need to download the app and register for the service, buy payment tokens via a credit card or through a supporting bank .The advantages of parkaide are environmentally-friendly parking solution employing the convenience cause the system easy to use and user familiar with design interface, drivers also not use the ticketing system, the user will use the code that already generate for user make a reserve parking lot and user use the code on the mobile. Before user reserve the parking lot user must have the credit on application account cause user need to pay for booking free lot.

The parkaide application just can use one account for one parking empty. Parkaide also are open source that user can install through the phone without license or key. User can found the application on the google play. The parkaide has mobile application and always connect with website application.

Furthermore, disadvantages of parkaide are always need to connect with internet when using because the data and information will be updated after user reserve the parking lot. At Malaysia limited place using parkaide system for parking lot because parkaide system very highest cost for hardware and also will take time when troubleshooting the system. The parkaide system that user cannot upload the data, user can view and register on the parkaide password. The parkaide also cannot store files such as images, documents and not responsive web design in desktop websites.

2.2.4 Obike221805524130000
Figure 2.4oBikeThe figure may surprise you dock less bicycle-sharing allows users to park the bicycles anywhere. With the old model of bike-sharing, people could only go from one bicycle dock to another, so this meant a lack of flexibility and convenience.

Furthermore, users should download oBike application and register for make account. User also should provide user personal information with users phone number and other needed information. Through the account the service may send user information The oBike app is used to find nearby bicycles as well as to unlock and lock the bicycles. With the app, users can see available bicycles on a map and can even reserve one.

Lastly, to unlock the bicycle, oBike users just have to scan the QR code on the bicycle. To lock it, user have to pull the lever on the lock after selecting the lock button on the app and wait for the notification that it’s been locked. All bicycles are fitted with GPS tracking devices, bells and reflectors, and the app also allows users to report faulty bicycles. oBike users must park the bicycles in either designated oBike parking lots, motorcycle or bicycle parking lots in buildings or in open public spaces.

The advantages oBike is has mobile application that easy to use cause for now all user have a mobile phone and always with own.
bike employing the convenience and also allow user to report fault of bicycles from notification owner will alert about it.

The oBike using GPS and Bluetooth for detect the location of bicycles park, to prevent the loss of the bike. Through application users can see available bicycles on a map and can even reserve one through the app. For the refundable deposit is to ensure the bicycles are taken care by users as well as for insurance, as all oBike users are insured. More secure to users when has anything happen during ride. In addition, User can share the distance of ride and how many calories already burn.

After that, for disadvantages to oBike is not have using password rates when login the application and also need to connect with internet for unlock the bike. The oBike must park on parking lots, motorcycles or open public. Furthermore, oBike app have one account for each user when using the system cause each user need to scan the code at bike.

password in mobile, one account can buy more than ticket and multiple account in one login. For GSC and boarding pass both of it have using mobile application and website at system it easy to user for using a system.

Meanwhile Parkaide system only for mobile application but three of existing system the QR code automatically generate password, password will save in mobile for each system after user register, for each system not support multiple account in one login and also all system are open source and free installer which user can find from google play application. The data at mobile application will update when website have some changes or improvement for GSC compare with boarding pass that data will not updated for last minute changes such as flight delay, seat changes, flight changes no.

The parkaide system cannot share account other,because one account can empty one parking lot . Next GSC and boarding pass can save document and image on the database of system and GSC system allow buy more ticket on one account at the same time compare with boarding pass not allow cause afraid of a problem duplicate ticket and seat. The system that have platform that support mobile application and website, automatically generate code, open source ; free, the system able to save images and document, if have some changes at website system automatically update data at mobile data one account for one user for secure the user personal information to fake from hacker.

Technique that are used in activities that may have different method. To achieve a goal, method is the technique that needed.

2.3.1QR code
After that, user can generate and print their own QR codes for others to scan and use by visiting one of several pay or free QR code-generating sites or apps. Users with a camera phone equipped with the correct reader application can scan the image of the QR code to display text, contact information, connect to a wireless network, or open a web page in the telephone’s browser.

The QR codes are used over a much wider range of applications, including commercial tracking, entertainment and transport ticketing, product and loyalty marketing
The feature of QR Codes is that instead of requiring a chunky hand-held scanner to scan them, many modern cell phones can scan them. The QR code scanner, displaying the code and converting it to some useful form .Its purpose was to track vehicles during manufacturing; it was designed to allow high-speed component scanning.

Mobile operating system
A mobile operating system, also called a mobile OS, is an operating system that is specifically designed to run on mobile devices such as mobile phones, smartphones, PDAs, tablet computers and other handheld devices. The QR codes can be used on various mobile device operating systems. Mobile operating system which allows QR codes to send metadata to existing applications on the device.

Firstly, URL is an acronym for Uniform Resource Locator and is a reference (an address) to a resource on the Internet. The type the URL and often did not have a web browser in front of them when they first viewed. The advantages from URLs are URL conversion rates are fading away now that smartphones are putting web access
Barcode is an optical, machine-readable, representation of data, the data usually describes something about the object that carries the barcode. Furthermore, originally barcodes systematically represented data by varying the widths and spacing’s of parallel lines. For later two-dimensional (2D) codes were developed, using rectangles, dots, hexagons and other geometric patterns in two dimensions, usually called barcodes although they do not use bars as such.

Barcodes were initially scanned by special optical scanners called barcode readers. Their use has spread to many other tasks that are generically referred to as automatic identification and data capture (AIDC). This helps track items and also reduces instances of shoplifting involving price tag swapping, although shoplifters can now print their own barcodes. Use barcodes to uniquely identify consumers. At the point of sale, shoppers can get product discounts or special marketing offers through the address or e-mail address provided at registration.

The benefit of using barcode are Fast-selling items can be identified quickly and automatically reordered, items can be identified, preventing inventory build-up, the effects of merchandising changes can be monitored, allowing fast-moving. Historical data can be used to predict seasonal fluctuations very accurately.

The items may be repriced on the shelf to reflect both sale prices and price increases and this technology also enables the profiling of individual consumers, typically through a voluntary registration of discount cards. While pitched as a benefit to the consumer, this practice is considered to be potentially dangerous by privacy advocates.

Types of Barcodes:
Linear barcodes
A first generation, “one dimensional” barcode that is made up of lines and spaces of various widths that create specific patterns.

Table 2.6 Linear barcodes Example SymbologyUses
CodabarOld format used in libraries and
blood banks and on airbills(out of date)
Code 11 Telephones (out of date)
Code 39 Various international
standardISO/IEC 16388
The Codabar has a large installed base in libraries. It is even possible to print Codabar codes using typewriter-like impact printers, which allows the creation of a large number of codes with consecutive numbers without having to use computer equipment. After each printed code, the printer’s stamp is mechanically turned to the next number, as for example in mechanical mile counters.

Furthermore,. The barcode itself does not contain a check digit but it can be considered self-checking on the grounds that a single erroneously interpreted bar cannot generate another valid character.

Matrix (2D) barcodes
Two-dimensional (2D) barcodes. Two-dimensional (2D) barcodes look like squares or rectangles that contain many small, individual dots. A single 2D barcode can hold a significant amount of information and may remain legible even when printed at a small size or etched onto a product.

Table 2.7 Matrix (2D) barcodes Example Name Uses
Aztec Code The aztec code is also published
as ISO/IEC standard.

Data Matrix Creasingly used throughout
the United States. Single
segment Data Matrix is also
termed SemacodeHan Xin Barcode Barcode designed to encode
Chinese characters introduced
by Association for Automatic
ntification and Mobility
Thus the registration of an automobile has become much easier and quicker process. Aztec code is most widely used in the transportation section.

Next, The DataMatrix codes is surrounded by an L-shaped frame called the alignment pattern and dotted lines called the clock pattern. Readers capture these patterns to
determine the position of the code with image processing. The dominating application areas are direct part marking and laser marking both especially in the aerospace, electronics, and automotive industry.

In the next paragraphs, a comparative study on the replication strategies is discussed in the previous subsections. A table of comparison about these techniques is presented in 2.3 technique part.

For replication techniques namely QR code and barcode, barcode only holds information in the horizontal direction. They are looking at is a different matter altogether, visual representation of machine readable information about the product to which it’s attached serve the basic purpose of storing information pertaining to a certain product or an organization.

In QR codes have gained popularity during the last decade due to the rise of smartphones. QR code, just scan it using the app on your phone. The barcode only holds information in the horizontal direction, a QR code does hold information in both horizontal and vertical directions. QR code holds hundreds of times more information than a barcode, and has a greater potential to hold more information in a smaller space than a barcode.

The barcode is that small box printed on the packaging of a product, that has a small collection of black parallel lines of varying widths. Contains important information like the manufacturer’s name, type of item, price and so on. QR code contains information both in vertical and horizontal directions.

RFID doesn’t need line of sight. For a barcode to be read, the scanner must be placed directly in front of each label, and both need to be oriented in a very specific position in order to work properly. RFID tags on the other hand, don’t need to be directly in sight of an RFID reader. Because RFID uses radio waves to communicate, RFID tags only need to be within the read range of the reader, which will vary depending on the equipment.

A barcode can only be read, and the data can never be changed once it has been printed onto a label. RFID tags can be read, and the data on the tag can be rewritten or modified as needed. Barcodes are easily counterfeited, and the data itself
This chapter reviews the existing system as well as Golden screen cinema (GSC), Boarding pass, Parkaide and oBike. In addition, this chapter also analyses data replication techniques such as QR code, Bar code and RFID.

Finally, comparisons about all the techniques has been discussed. In this research, student attendance with database to manage student attendance using QR code. This new proposed technique is discussed in the next chapter.

This chapter will have discussed on what methodology will be implementation for development of this project. The methodology consists of four phase, which will guide the system developers in their choice of techniques that might be appropriate. That will help to plan, manage, control and evaluate research.

The selected methodology for the software development is considered as a structure used for planning and controlling the procedure of creating a specialized information system. There is some software development such as waterfall model, prototype methodology, Rapid Application Development (RAD) and Join Application Development, that have advantages and disadvantages.

i.Traditional method
The process into a linear flow with a specified sequence to let the users understand that further level. That user easy to understand, simple enough to handle as model is rigid and allows for easy testing and analysis. The using traditional waterfall not applicable for maintenance project, does not allow editing in the testing phase and no option to know possible outcome of project.

ii.Prototype Methodology
It is a specialized software development procedure that initiates developers towards making only the sample of the resolution to validate its functional essence to the customers. Prototype give clear idea about functional
process of the software, reduces the risk of failure in a software functionality and assist well in requirement gathering. But prototype will chance of extension in management cost, excessive involvement of client can effect processing and too many changes affect the workflow of the software.

3.2.1Rapid Application Development(RAD) Phases
The Rapid Application Development (RAD) can group into four different phases. These requirement planning phase, design phase, construction phase, cutover phase.

Figure 3.1Rapid Application Development(RAD) Requirement Planning Phase
In the requirements planning phase, users and analysts meet to identify objectives of the application or system and to identify information requirements arising from those objectives of system and identify information requirement. The meeting that conducted is initial the development process by establish understanding of the system development.

In the meeting, will discuss about agree on business needed, project scope, constraint, and system requirement. The meeting ended with the final decision.

General task performed during this phase are:
Describe and finalize the scope and objective of the project. (Refer chapter 1)
Planning software, method, and technique that should be used in system (Refer chapter 2) Design Phase
The objectives of the design phase stage are to develop the system structure in terms of the automated and manual functions that will comprise the system, to analyse in detail the business data associated with the proposed system area, to select the appropriate construction approach for the system the effort required to perform these
steps, to analyses in detail business activities associated with the proposed system area, to select the appropriate construction approach for the system.

General task performed during phase are:
System design: design flow of the system to show how the system work. Such as flow chart, use case diagram and context diagram. (Refer chapter 2).

Interface design: draft design of component interface in the system. During this phase, user can request and features needed to be set in the interface. Construction Phase
The objectives of construction stage are to create and test the software that implements the proposed system, to complete the detailed design of the proposed system, to prepare documentation necessary to operate the proposed application.

General task performed during phase are:
Coding: code or programming language chosen for this system: PHP and Java script.

Testing: testing to determine whether the system meet the objective and user requirement of the project. Testing part will be done at PSM 2.

Debugging: This part is to fix any defects that come after the testing part. The defect part will be fix as long as not changing the flow the system. (PSM2) Cutover Phase
Objective of cutover phase is the phase which client. This phase also resembles final task in the system development life cycle(SDLC) implementation phase, including data conversion, testing and user training. That compare with traditional method, the entire process is compressed.

General task performed during phase are:
Deliver: Correcting and completing all the defect, the system will be presented.

3.2.2Advantages and disadvantages
The Rapid Application Development advantages are can reusability of component. The reduced development time of system and also productivity can increase because only one developer. Requirement changes can be easily evaluated and done.

The disadvantages of RAD is reduced scalability and reduced features. Reduced stability occurs because a RAD developed application starts as a prototype and evolves into finished application
3.2.3Flow Chart
The proposed student attendance system uses smart phone. In identification, recognizes an individual by comparing their smart card with every recorded in the database. During enrolment, the smart card of the student is captured (using a smart phone for scanner) and the smart card number stored in the database. The objective of the enrolment module is to enable a student using their smart card into database after feature extraction. The enrolment process of carried out by an administrator/teacher in the attendance system. Flowchart is shown in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2Flow Chart of System
3.2.4 Context Diagram of Student Attendance System
The context diagram is structured graphical tool used for identifying the functional areas and the process which are performed within and between the system and outside the system. It helps in investigating the output and the process of the system. It helps defining the boundaries of the proposed system. The symbols used in the context diagrams are external entities, data storage and data flows and process. This is the Figure 3.2 contest diagram, represent student attendance system which has three external entities i.e.

Admin/Teacher, student and Server Database and the data flowing in and out of the system is the attendance details.

Figure 3.3Context Diagram of System
3.1.5Use Case Diagram of Student Attendance System
Student attendance system consists of many functions that determine the purpose of the system. The actor/use of the system is admin/teacher and student. Refer Figure 3.3 for overall illustration on system functionality and the involvement of user into the system. Use case diagram is one of the diagrams listed under Unified Modeling Language (UML) that depict the interaction between the user and system. Some of the activities in the system require the involvement of both user and the data updated by the user will be recorded sequentially into system.

Attendance report generate by admin/teacher divided into three type of report such as daily, weekly, and monthly report as documented in manual attendance recorded. Indirectly this system also aids generating warning letter to students who didn’t full the requirement on the attendance matter.

Figure 3.4Use Case Diagram of System
3.1.6Module of Student Attendance System
Figure 3.5Module Diagram of system
Login Module
Teacher enter login information which password and username and the admin will enter the code for login
ii)Create Student Record Module
Teacher or Admin add student record at server database which are all student data information such as IC number, username, password, name, matric number, class name. After enter all information above teacher or admin click a button register
iii)View Student Record Module
Teacher or Admin view student record for confirmation that data given from students are right and also check the error.

iv)Update Student Record Module
The teacher always updated the student data information and will student’s attendance record at server database which daily, weekly and monthly.

Delete Student Record Module
Teacher or admin can delete data row by row or all data which not requirement or related.

Search Student Record Module
Make easy for teacher search students information or any data and also can save the time.

Generate Attendance Report Module
Teacher can generate student’s attendance report according to daily, weekly and monthly so will easy for teacher make overall of report.

Generate Student Report Module
Teacher will generate student report more detail which including all information student such as IC number, full name, year of study, and matric number.

View Report Module
Student can view student information only they can’t edit, delete or update your information.

3.1.7Dialogue Diagram of Student Attendance System
Figure 3.6Dialogue Diagram of system
The dialogue diagrams show detail and systems overview based on code implementation. The teacher, must register IC number, username, password, name, matric number, class name as to make student an account. The students can continue with login the system using username and password but student capable view only, they cannot edit, update or delete the data. After that teacher can create student account, update student record, delete student record, generate student report and save student attendance on the database server by daily, weekly and monthly.

3.1.8Architecture Design
Figure 3.7Architecture design of student attendance system
Student attendance system in use mobile phone for scanner record attendance. The data captured using mobile scanner sent to the attendance system for the purpose of recording and preparing attendance record. Refer Figure 3.6 to the high level of the student attendance system. Architecture diagram shows to high level of the attendance system. Diagram show the relation between internal and external entities in the student attendance.

3.1.9Database Table
Data Dictionary
Data dictionary is a medium to store the whole of data about the students’ information. It is defining and describe the element that have the data. Table below shows about all the data have been use in Student attendance online system.

Attribute Data type Length Description Key
Class_idnchar10 Class _id (PK)
Class _name nvarchar10 Class _name Student
Attribute Data type Length Description Key
Stud _id nvarchar8 Student _id (PK)
Stud_namenvarchar50 Student_nameStud_icInt12 Student_icSchool _code nvarchar15 School_codeStud _gen nvarchar10 Student _gender Teacher
Attribute Data type Length Description Key
Teach _id nvarchar10 Teacher_id(PK)
Teach_namenvarchar50 Teacher_nameTeach_gennvarchar10 Teacher gender Sub_codenvarchar10 Subject_codeClass Teacher
Attribute Data type Length Description Key
Teach _id nvarchar10 Teacher_id(FK)
Class_idnvarchar10 Class _id (FK)
Attribute Data type Length Description Key
Username nvarchar15 Staff_if(PK)
Password nvarchar- Password 39
Student Class
Attribute Data type Length Description Key
Stud_idnvarchar10 Student_id(FK)
Class_idnvarchar10 Class_id(FK)
Attribute Data type Length Description Key
Stud_idnvarchar10 Student_id(FK)
Stud_namenvarchar30 Student_nameTeach _id nvarchar10 Teacher_id(FK)
Class_idnvarchar10 Class_id(FK)
Figure 3.8Entity relationship diagram
3.1.10 Propose User Interface
Figure 3.10Info page about Student Attendance System
Figure 3.8 shown the of info page about Student Attendance System. After admin login, this page will appear as first page before admin can proceed with the function of this system which locates at the pop of the interface. The function is register student, list student, report, attendance and log out.

Figure 3.11Registration Student Page
Based on the figure above admin have to register student. From this pages, the admin creates username and password for student to login, and all information of student will insert for generate the QR code. After done insert all data click button “Generate QR” the data will save on the database and student QR code will generate and display on next page.

Figure 3.12Display Student Registration Information and QR code
The Figure 3.10 above display after admin insert all student information. student must revise again information that have been written into system by teacher before click button” Print” for hardcopy smart card.

Figure 3.13List of Student Page
Admin will register new student; the new student can be seen in list of student page. In list of student page has three function/button which is view, update and delete. Button “View” display student information based on student id selection. Button “Delete”, for remove a student that teacher don’t want on database and lastly “Update” button for edit the error or want to add new student info.

Figure 3.14Update Information Student Page
Admin/Teacher also can update information of student. This page can update student information with edit new student info or remove not relevant info. After that click button “Update” the info will have updated on the database and list of student page.

Figure 3.15View Information Student Page
The student detail information will show for student recheck. If have any error or want to change user click back button and select button update.

Figure 3.16Delete student list
The student that not required or not have on the school should be delete so the list of student always up to date.

Figure 3.17Result from search
Teacher insert the student IC number for searching student it is can save time teacher for scroll students list.

Figure 3.18Result from search
Figure 3.19Result from search
The hardware and software tools are used to creating diagram, Web browser for compiling PHP code word processing software.

3.1.1Hardware Requirement
Student attendance System uses the phone for scanner QR code as a device. Beside that it need a computer that to make as a server as medium to receive and sent the data about student information.

3.1.2Software Requirement
The process to develop this system, some software is needed to use during the developing processing.

Table 3.1 Software Requirement Software Specification
PHP – For run the student attendance system
Android – To scan QR code
Database – MySQL
– store student information
Xampp- Local web server installed to store
web pages
Microsoft Project – Create Gantt Chart
Io.draw- To Drawing diagram
The implementation of project started with collecting requirement based on comparison of existing systems. Furthermore, we can produce a feature from current ones which lack of features and have some of disadvantages which will improving with add and enhancing current feature.

Project started with drawing the flow of diagrams which are Context Diagram, Use Case, Flow Chart, Dialogue Diagram and Packages Module. From the drawing we will know the flow and interaction of system analysing the structure of diagrams.

The first step of setup is installing local web server which Exampp Apache. The system will start develop the source code using a text editor name Notepad++ and also we will develop the interface of website and mobile according to the flow of the diagram already drawing.

The source code will have stored inside html, css and php file extension inside htcdocs folders in Xampp folder in local Hard Disk C. Xampp control panel and turn on both Apache and MySQL server until green indicator light on. After that enter localhost
to check the location of the folder of source code and creating database and table inside phpmyadmin.

The basic operating such as view, update, delete and search. We add student attendance and student report for generating. For generate QR code we using data encryption technique to create the QR code. The student information we will convert to Matrix barcode, the student information secure. Teacher can scan this QR code and this allows them to store the information for future reference. QR codes acts as the link and it also exposes teacher to other forms of advertising the student attendance or student report of the QR code has done.

Lastly, generate attendance and student report, teacher will generate attendance of student report within daily, weekly and monthly from database server. Meanwhile, generate student report are all student information will we add on the database for reference teacher.

For this case, have two types of testing technique which are used in this development project. These techniques provide systematic guidance for designing test that.

The internal logic of software component
The input and output domains of the program to uncover errors in the program function, behaviour and performance.

The software is tested from two different perspectives that internal program logic is exercised using white box test case design technique and software requirement are exercised using black box test case design technique. In both cases, the intent is to find the maximum number of errors with the minimum amount of effort and time.

In performance testing is designed to test the run-time performance of software within the context of an integrated system. Even at the unit level, the performance of an individual module may be assessed as white-box tests are conducted.

In White Box testing, we focus on testing activity which the internal structure, design and structure which are known by tester. We used the diagrams which are Use Case diagram, Context diagram, Package diagram and Dialogue diagrams as reference for the structure of development, interaction and modules with functions for implementation. After that including unit testing input and outputs and function of each module.

In Black Box testing, focus on testing internal structure, design and structure which are not known by tester. We will review documentations whether it is tally to the requirement and development of the prototype.

This chapter will discuss about the result of the system. It will include stage of the system prototype. This part is the most important part to keep the objective of the project is achieved. This chapter also will discuss of the constraint of the project. The system will give more clear result to planning and arrangement of the system for the future work.

The testing method for developer is Whites Box Testing which a method where internal structure, design, implementation of tested is known to the tester and applies to lower levels of testing which are Unit Testing and Integration Testing that is included in this section. Tester will start testing using use case that contains all test plan that cover different inputs and output of the systems.

The testing method for users are Black Box Testing which a method where internal structure, design, implementation of tested is not known to the tester and applies to higher levels of testing which are Acceptance Testing and System Testing in User Acceptance Test in Appendix. Tester will start testing using use case that contains all test plan that cover different inputs and output of the systems. This session, user want to know the usage and function whether it is working as it should be. The system is tested using web browser and results are recorded in the Appendix.

The system is built by study of comparison of other three reasons. The technique used in creates a web based password management system based on the following objectives;
To develop student attendance system using QR code,
To create the data base for student attendance online.

To generate unique QR code based on the student information.

The system user guide is produced for beginners and users that want to setup the configuration of the system in local Xampp Server or online webhosting site.

The system achieved the objectives of the system based on the problem statement and objectives and with User Acceptance Test and Testing Thesis and System Testing Approval.

Below appendices are attached:
User Manual. Refer to Appendix B.

User Acceptance Test. Refer to Appendix C
Testing Thesis and System Testing Approval. Refer Appendix D
The main conclusion is that the system built according the requirements and comparison study of the existing system. The system also built according to the development schedule and performs required function. The student attendance system(SAS) to enhance taking attendance sheet, the testing can reduce the teacher time to take attendance. By having SAS possibility to process the information directly on the smart card. Student can use smart card securely because the unique identification that smart card provided.

5.2.1 Send QR code via Localhost in XamppThe system cannot send QR code in localhost when it is run in local drive using Xampp local web server. After some testes run in localhost in Xampp local web server. An error is shown because the generate QR code, open PHP website and QR code to database function only can function well in online web hosting.

5.2.2Same IP address between Mobile Phone and Web Server
The QR code, date/day and class name cannot insert to database. IP address between mobile phone and web server need to same IP because the web server cannot read from different way. But the QR code can scan and display on mobile phone.

5.2.3Inability to Make more Table
The different class cannot insert QR code and class in different table it is constraint of system. That teacher need to search from class name for calculate average students absent for each class.

To make this system to be more realistic it should implement in each class. So that this system can be applied my any students and teacher of school. Teacher can scan the QR code using teacher mobile phone application with this system. Last but not least, the system should be able to use without any error.

1.1 System Overview
The system is Student attendance system using QR code. The system is run using localhost server which is named Apache Server, in web hosting,000webhost and contains phpmyadmin that manages the database and tables.

The system has following functions;
Login Module
User enter login information which are username and password before access their account.

User Registration Module
User registers before QR code generate. The system will prompt user to enter username and password as login information for creating an account.

Save Password Module
User can decide want to remember password or not. But the way user password will save on the MYSQL database.

Generate QR code Module
User can generate unique QR code according to their information that needed to insert on system.

QR code update module
User can edit student information for update the QR code that it will more secure.

1.2 Organization of the manual
The manual includes System Configuration, User Access Levels, Installation Guide and User Guide.

2.1 System Configuration
The system can be run using any web browser whether it is desktop or mobile browser. The Xampp server must be installed and started. The Xampp Control Panel is main menu for controlling the Apache and MySQL services. Both services must turn on. Open any web browser and enter localhost in URL on the web browser.

2.2 User Access Levels
The common user of the system can use all function. They can login and logout of the system. They can use all functions in the website which are saving password, generate unique QR code and QR code update.

3.2 SAS Web Application
3.2.1Login category Page
Figure 3.4Login category page
This page has two type of category for login that “Teacher” and “Admin”:
If click button “Teacher” will go to the page teacher which is like figure 3.5
If click button “Admin” will go to the page admin that shown at figure 3.7
3.2.2Teacher login page
Figure 3.5Teacher login page
This page teacher need to enter username and password for using the system. For example, of username and password are username:” teacher” and password: teacher12. The password it will show in password type it for secure. If teacher enter wrong password or username the message pop up will be display as figure 3.6.

Figure 3.6Message pop up wrong password and username
Message will pop up if teacher enter wrong password or username. Click “ok” return to teacher page login.

3.2.3 Admin login page
Figure 3.7Admin login page
Admin enter code for login and done enter code click button “submit” for go to next page. If enter wrong code the message pop up will display as shown in figure 3.8. After that if click button “Back” will back to previous page such as login category.

Figure 3.8Message pop up wrong code
Message will pop up if admin enter wrong code. Click “ok” return to admin page login.

3.2.4About page
Figure 3.9About page
In this page user can view the information related to school which are location, contact number, email and schedule library give service. After that have three function link such as link for “Register student” page, “Class list” page and “log out”.

3.2.5 Register student page
Figure 3.10Register student page
The registration phase is an administrative phase in which the administrative need to log in. The teacher need to enter detail student information such as full name, address, mother name, father name, email and matric number. Then, click “Generate QR” button to submit the data to database and display to next page. If teacher click “Reset” button the form will blank and teacher need to enter again.

3.2.6 Class category page
Figure 3.11Class category page
This page “admin” and “teacher” can select class. If click button”5A” will go class “5A” page and if click button “5B” will go to class “5B” page. After that if user don’t want to continue can click “log out” link.

3.2.7 Class page
Figure 3.12Class page
The class page, user can now list of student, attendance student and know the total absent and present every day and month. If user click “List student” button the list of student for that class will be displayed. Such as if page “5A” the list of student for class”5A” will display. Furthermore, if click “Attendance” it will go to page attendance as shown figure below and click “Report” button will go the attendance detail that already calculation.

3.2.8 List of student page
Figure 3.13List of student page
Figure above shows the list of students’ names of a school. That teacher can view, delete and update student information. Teacher enter IC number at search text. The IC number compares the IC number with those stored in the database.

Match (of IC number): captured student IC number is matched with stored in database. The detail of student attendance is automatically recorded for that teacher. A message shown to show that the student has been recorded for the attendance.

Non-match (IC number): the student is not accepted for attendance and student list not shows that the IC number is invalid.

If click “View” button the student information detail will display that teacher can check with student for confirmation. Figure 3.17 shown student detail information.

If click “Delete” button the student at list will delete that id teacher selected to click for delete. Figure 3.16 shown the message pop up list student deleted.

If click “Update” button that id teacher click. The teacher can edit to update student information. Figure 3.14 shown page updated.

3.2.9 Update Student information page (specific id selected)
Figure 3.14Update Student information page
Teacher can edit student information if have some changes. After done enter student information teacher need to click “Update” button the data will update with new QR code. Figure 3.15 shown page display updated information.


Figure 3.15Update Student Information page (after edit)
3.2.10 Delete student page
Figure 3.16Delete student page
The student will remove from list of student and database. Teacher need to click “Ok” button at message pop up and click “Home” link for back to about page.

3.2.11 View student page
Figure 3.17View student page
In this page, teacher can view each student that teacher selected for recheck. If not have any wrong or missing about student information that teacher enter before teacher click “Back” button for return the previous page.

3.2.12 Student attendance page
Figure 3.18Student attendance page
Figure 3.18 shown the attendance of student, that user can select date and click “search” button, the list name of student present and absent will display with “Total present” and “Total absent”. After that user click “Send Report” button for send date, “Total Present” and “Total absent” by day to database. If user click “Submit Attendance” user will go to page attendance detail and user can see percentage student attend and absent in month.

3.2.13 Student attendance report by date page

Figure 3.19Student attendance report by date page
Figure above indicating the number of students who are absent and absent from that date. click submit report to send the report to the database which will show all dates and total attend and absent students to school.

3.2.14 Student attendance report each date page
Figure 3.20Student attendance report each date page
In this, page user can see overall of attendance for each date with total absent and present, it easy to analyses by admin and teacher. If user click view attendance will go to student attendant page as shown figure 3.18.

3.2.15 Student attendance report by month page
Figure 3.21Student attendance report by month page
Figure above shown detail attendance for each student by class selected. Teacher and admin need to select class name and select date from start date until when. The data will display with student name date absent and attend. Attend will represent with”1″ and absent “0”. Furthermore, percentage will be red colour if students attend school less than 50%.

3.2.16 Smart card with QR code
Figure 3.22Student Smart Card
3.2.17 Mobile application for scan QR code
Figure 3.23Mobile application for scan QR code
The purpose of this section to show the User Acceptance Test(UAT) for Student Attendance System (SAS). Approval of this testing implies that reviewers are confident that following execution of the test plan, the result system will be considered fully-tested and eligible for implementation.

The chose user will go each instruction in user manual. Any errors or problems found by user must be noted on this form. The form also needs to be signed by users after the test is finished.

1.1 Use Case for Login Category Module
Table 1.1 Use Case Table Login Category Module
Event Test Data Expected Result Actual Pass/Fail Comment Result Select click “admin” or system will go to correct the selected login “teacher”buttonbutton page for login category category The system have specific, Select wrong User cannot code button for admin and ccess to system category (username and password) for teacher using 2
1.2 Use Case for User Registration Module
Table 1.1 Use Case Table for User Registration Module
Event Test Data Expected Result Actual Pass/Fail Comment Result Register Teacher Application insert all with valid show” QR code” student data in data and student data a form Register with Teacher The web will uncompletenot fill in all display only register data in a data insert. data form 3
1.3 Use Case for Login Module
Table 1.2 Use Case Table for Login Module
Event Test Data Expected Result Actual Pass/Fail Comment Result Login with Teacher insert Successfully correct Login to Correct username application and username and access to about and password password system Login with Teacher wrong Insert invalid Show error username username and message. and password password Successfully Login with Admin insert login to application and correct code correct code access class category page Login with Admin insert Show error wrong code wrong code message. 4
1.4 Use Case Student List Module
Table 1.4 Use Case Table for Student List Module
Event Test Data Expected Result Actual Pass/Fail Comment Result Teacher insert student name, IC number, matric Successfully Add new number, login to Student on address, application registration phone and access student form number, to about father name, system fatherIC, mother name, mother IC Update student Teacher edit Show “have information student info been updated in form and message”. click “Submit” button Delete Teacher click Show “data Student “Delete” have been list name button delete”message” View Teacher click All student information “View” button information will be display 5
1.5 Use Case Attendance Detail Module
Table 1.4 Use Case Table for Student Attendance Detail Module
Event Test Data Expected Result Actual Pass/Fail Comment Result Successfully Add Teacher scan QR to student Scan valid code with QR attendance mysqlscanner database,theStudent application student QR code on mobile attendance will phone display on that date. Scan unvalidTeacher scan Show wrong data Student QR unvalid QR code code with QR scanner application on mobile phone View total Teacher/admin Show total Student select date student absent absent and and present on present that day each class Analysis Teacher/admin Show all student Total click “view absent and present Student attendace”checkwith total on that attendance detail who not date selected absent and present 6
1.6 Use Case Search Student Module Table 1.5 Use Case Table for Search Student Module
Event Test Data Expected Result Actual Pass/Fail Comment Result Search Teacher insert icShow student specific number and information ic number based on click “Search” match icbutton. number. data Teacher enter Search unmatches icShow invalid invalid icnumber and message to number. click “Search” Teacher. button. 1.7 Use Case Report Student Attendance Module
Table 1.6 Use Case Table for Report Student Attendance Module
Event Test Data Expected Result Actual Pass/Fail Comment Result View total student Teacher/admin Show total absent and Student click “report” present absent and button each present each date. day View each Teacher/admin Show student Student select class name and date attendance. Attendance “from until to” Analysis Teacher/admin Show all each select 1st date date student Student of month until absent and Attendance by month end. present 7
Student Attendance System (SAS) is tested to ensure that it is meet user requirement. The list of use case above shows the result that has been recorded during testing process. Moreover, feedback form filling up by the random user include Teacher and Student at school during testing session is about discussion on the satisfaction of using this application. Table 1.7 show the example of questionaire that give to the user during testing session.

Table 1.7 Example of Questionnaires
1-Very Poor 2-Poor 3-Moderate 4-Good 5-Very Good Question 1 2 3 4 5
1. The overall rate for take SAS. 2. Does this application provide the user the convenient way for taking attendance at school 3. How easy teacher use this application for taking attendance? 4. Does the interface design is suit and easy to understand? 5. Do overall function in this application give a quick response when you using it? 8


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