Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION 1

Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Toll Collection System
While driving along Highway, we all encounter single or multiple booths in which we Have to pay a fixed amount of money. These booths are known as toll booths and the Money we pay is the tax for using the road known as the toll road or toll way. Since, most of the roads are built with the money that is raised by state or national government through the taxes. So, toll is a kind of tax that we pay to the government for the maintenance of the highways.
1.1.1Methods of toll collection
There are basically three methods of toll collection:
1. Manual Toll Collection: This method is the most widely used method in India.In this, when the vehicle arrives at the toll booth the driver gives the money to the collector at the booth who feeds the information in the computer and provides a receipt to the person in the vehicle. Each vehicle has its amount fixed. For eg: a two-wheeler driver needs to pay Rs 20, for car it is Rs 40 and for larger vehicles like buses and trucks its more. But these amounts vary from state to state.
2. Automatic Toll Collection: Unlike manual collection method, it does not use any human. Instead, machine known as an Automated Coin Machine (ACM) is used. This machine accepts coins or tokens provided by agency operating the booth.
3. Electronic Toll Collection: As the name suggests, the whole system is automatic and no human efforts are required. It uses a card or a tag to identify the vehicle and automatically deducts the amount from the bank account. It is much faster way.

Fig.1.1 A Manual Toll Collection System in India
(www.electronicshub.com)

1.1.2 Problem Definition:
The study of the feasibility reports the very need of improvement in the toll collection system. It states that if there are in total 100 manned/manual toll booths and if every day about 100 vehicles pass through each system then; the count of total vehicles passing one such tool
booth per year would be about 36,000 (100 x 30 x 12).
Similarly, for 100 systems, the number goes high up to 36, 00,000. For simplification, the table shows the same data as mentioned above:
Table 1 Vehicle Passing a Toll Booth Year-Wise
Number of toll booths Days Number of vehicles
1 1 100
1 30*12 3600
100 30*12 36,00,000

This table shows that per year nearly 36, 00,000 vehicles remain in the still position for nearly 6 hours in a condition where their engines are roaring and consuming fuel, at the same time creating air pollution. Now if we suppose that in that 6 hours a certain vehicle uses about 1 L fuel; the total volume of fuel for all those 36,00,000 vehicles go up to the same amount i.e. 36,00,000 L.
Table 2. Total Fuel Consumption
Total Vehicles Amount of Fuel Consumed Total Amount
1 1 100
36,00,000 36,00,000 L 360,000,000

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
1.2.1 AIM
The ATC system involves various components which work together and form the whole system. As the vehicle arrives at the booth a sensor which has been incorporated at the booth, senses the tag or a card embedded in the vehicle. This tag is known as a RFID card. This RFID card has a unique identity for every user and thus has the information regarding the user. The system reads the card and authenticates the person to pass through the toll after deducting a fixed amount from the user’s bank account. The payment in the ATC system is made through wireless mode. There is an antenna at the tollgate which establishes a wireless Connection with the on-board device when the vehicle’s RFID card is sensed and thus, automatically deducts the amount from the account. There is no need for the vehicles to stop and wait for the process to happen. It occurs in few seconds and thus, it is a very effective and a fast system.

. Fig. 1.2 an Electronic Toll Collection System
(www.electronicswing.com)
1.2.2 OBJECTIVE
1 Manual toll collection system is slow as it ceases the vehicle flow as each vehicle approaches the toll booth for cash transfer and entry into the database. This leads to various issues like fuel wastage, time wastage and air pollution.
2. Manual toll collection system is often found guilty of embezzlement as the toll booth operators who are in charge of the same are involved in the theft of toll books and cash. This and other cases lead to this type of collection system not secure in terms of money.
3. The manned systems often see themselves vulnerable to harassment by the vehicle owners. Mostly in India, where such cases have been found that the toll operators are physically harassed and beaten for they have done nothing wrong. The use of ATC can curb this problem single handed.
1.3 Problem Specification
RFID systems is disrupted during the frequency reading Also, active RFID tags (those that use a battery to increase the range of the system) can be repeatedly interrogated to wear the battery down, disrupting the system.
RFID Reader Collision- Reader collision occurs when the signals from two or more readers overlap. The tag is unable to respond to simultaneous queries
RFID Tag Collision-Tag collision occurs when many tags are present in a small area; but since the read time is very fast.
1.4 Literature Survey
The Toll Collection System has changed drastically over the years; from being a single borderline, a small passage booth to the huge toll collection infrastructure that has a key role in the revenue generation as well as the working of the traffic of a city or even a state. While the majority of the population is travelling via different means it has become a necessity and a regulatory method to control traffic.
The following papers were referred and reviewed in order to understand the role of Toll
Collection System:
Kamarulazizi & Ismail, 2005 the paper mentioned the benefits of Electronic Toll Collection System often abbreviated as ETC over the Manual Toll Collection System.It stated that the former helps in controlling the congestion that is generally caused by the traffic during the festivals. Moreover, it is also beneficiary for the operators as it helps in Controlling the Audit which is centralized.
Chhoriya, Paliwal & Badhan, 2013 it was presented in the paper that the use of image processing tools can be used for the toll collection. The number plate on the vehicle can be processed and checked so as to match any existence in the database; from which the toll can be deducted thus giving it an upper hand from the manual toll collection.
Salunke, Malle, Datir & Dukale, 2013 the following paper conceptualised the use of RFID i.e. Radio Frequency Identification for the toll collection thus making the whole system easy and feasible. The use of ATCS expanded to Automated Toll Collection System is an effective way that could lead to reducing the losses the Government faces. The idea proposed in the paper had an edge over other electronic methods due to its flexible nature and easy implementation.

1.5 Plan of their work
When the vehicle arrives at the toll plaza, the RFID tag attached to it is sensed by the sensor. The moment the tag comes within the magnetic field of the RFID reader, the current is induced in it and it gets energized. Then, it sends the information stored in the chip in form of the radio frequency signals through the antenna. When the antenna of the reader receives the signal, it again converts it into digital form thus making it suitable for displaying on the LCD screen of the operating person.

Fig. 1.3The RFID Toll System
(www.electronicshub.com)

Fig. 1.4 Microcontroller, LCD and EM-18 Interfacing
(www.circiuttoday.com)
This project works like this:
1. A car will approach the toll booth. The RFID reader at the toll will read the RFID card embedded on the vehicle.
2. Then, it will pass the information stored in the card to the microcontroller.
3. The microcontroller will track information and will check whether the card is valid or not.
4. If the card is valid, the validation of card will be displayed on the screen. A certain amount will be deducted from the owner’s account. Here, we have fixed the amount for everyone is 100. Along with this, a green LED light will glow.
5. After this, a command will be send to the motor to open the gate and the vehicle will pass. Now, GSM module will send message to the owner informing him about amount deducted from their tag. Here, message will be: ‘Rs 100 deducted’
6. If the card is not valid, the screen will show ‘invalid card’ and no amount would be deducted. Along with this, a green LED light will glow. Thus, no command will be send to the motor.
7. If the balance is insufficient then display will show “NO BALLANCE” with the buzzer making noise continuously. Thus, no command will be send to the motor
.
1.6 Material and tools used
1. PCB Board with AT mega 328 microcontroller
2. EM-18 RFID Reader
3. RFID cards (125 kHz)
4. IR sensor
5. LEDs
6. Buzzer
7. DC Stepper Motor
8. 5v DC Power Supply
9. SIM300 GSM Module
10. Jumper Wires

Chapter-2 System Design/Material used/Methodology
2.1 systems Design

Fig 2.1 Block dagram of ATC
2.2 Hardware Image

Fig 2.2 Hardware of ATC
2.2.1 SYSTEM WORKING
When the vehicle passes through the toll initially the RFID tag is detected by the RFID receiver. As soon as the tag is detected the LCD will display modes of operation, namely, transaction mode . If sufficient balance is present in the vehicle stipulated amount will be deducted, motor driver will open the gate and the vehicle will pass through the toll.If the card is not valid, the screen will show ‘invalid card’ and no amount would be deducted. Along with this, a green LED light will glow. Thus, no command will be send to the motor. If the balance is insufficient then display will show ” NO BALLANCE” with the buzzer making noise continuously . Thus, no command will be send to the motor. In both the cases a SMS will be sent to the user using a GSM modem. When the vehicle passes through the toll using the transaction mode a SMS is sent to the user which specifies the toll amount as well as the remaining balance. When the user selects the recharge mode and recharges the card, SMS regarding the recharge details such as amount debited, new balance is sent to the user.
Basically, ATCS discussed in this project contains some of these hardware components shown in above figure 1.5:

1. ATmega328 microcontroller
2. EM-18 RFID Reader
3. RFID cards (125 kHz)
4. LEDs
5. Buzzer
6. DC Stepper Motor
7. 5v DC Power Supply
8. SIM900 GSM Module
9. Jumper Wires
10. PCB Board

There are certainly a lot of methodologies or ways to design a ATCS which include Active RFID, Passive RFID, GNSS, Infrared technology, Microwave technology, but this projects demonstrate the best one of all these i.e. Passive RFID technology. Passive RFID means Radio Frequency Identification device which do not require power source to activate, it works automatically and is detected without the help of any power source.
2.3 Material used
2.3.1 Hardware Requirement
• Atmega328 microcontroller
The Atmel picoPower ATmega328/P is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR® enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega328/P achieves throughputs close to 1MIPS per MHz. This empowers system designer to optimize the device for power consumption versus processing speed. Features
? 8 bit microcontroller
? Operating voltage-1.8to 5.5v
? 1 KB EEPROM,2 KB SRAM

Fig 2.3 pin diagram of AT-mega 328 microcontroller
(www.toshiba.co.jpg)
• EM- 18 RFID Reader
Fig 2.4 EM-18 RFID Reader
(www.perfectrfid.com)
In this project it is used as stationary reader which is always looking for the RFID tags in its range. If any vehicle with RFID tag comes in its range it receives its data and transfers its unique ID to the ATmega328 for further functioning. EM-18 RFID reader is basically microcontroller-based transceiver; it gives power to the tag with help of EM radio frequency or known as RF field. As soon as the RF field passes RFID tag’s antenna, alternating current voltage generates and this AC voltage is rectified to input power of RFID tag. On getting powered from reader, the tag is able to get commands from EM-18 RFID receiver. The hardcoded data of tag now can be read by RFID reader and sent to the microcontroller for processing.
• RFID Tag
A Radio Frequency Identification tag/card usually known as RFID tags are electronic gadgets that can be attached with a product, person, anima or many more for their identification or tracking using radio waves. Every tag its own identity or tag number, these tags are of different types, some can be read from long distance and some can even be read from a distance place up to which a normal human cannot see. Most of these RFID tags are made of two parts, one is an antenna for transmitting and receiving of signals, and other is integrated circuitry for processing and storage of information, it can also be used for specific functions.

Fig 2.5 RFID tags
(www.perfectrfid.com)
There are basically three types of RFID tags:
1. Passive tags, with no power supply,
2. Active tags, with power supply, and
3. Beacon tags.
The RFID tags use in this project is passive type this helps in saving power and has no Problem of providing power supply to the tags all the time to make them work.
• DC Motor
In this project, work of these stepper motors is to lift toll gate to let the vehicle pass on receiving a positive signal from the microcontroller which is generated when RFID tag is valid and the transaction is successful. Stepper motor rotates 90º degrees anticlockwise to lift the gate then waits in that positions until the vehicle passes and then rotate 90º clockwise to close the gate.

Fig 2.6 DC motor
(www.electronicshub.com)
• L293D
L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors

Fig 2.7 L293D Motor Driver IC
(www.electronicshub.com)
• Power Supply
The power supply used is 5 volts to 9 volts DC power supply through DC batteries. The current used is 2 mA.
.
Fig 2.8 9v DC Battery
(www.electronicswing.com)
• LEDs
Light Emitting Diode or IR LEDs is also one of the important components used in this Project; basically it is used as visual indicator to the owner of the vehicle weather his/her RFID tag is valid to let him pass the toll plaza or not. There are two LEDs used in this Project green colored LEDs. The working principle of LED is electroluminescence, they have two semi-conductor light sources which when activated or given electricity produce light and the LED glow.

Fig 2.9 LEDs
(www.google search.com)
• Buzzer
The buzzer is an electronic device which creates a beeping sound when turned on or activated. A buzzer can be mechanical, piezoelectric or electromechanical. This project uses an electromechanical buzzer to indicate the state of the card. This buzzer can be turned on or off by just giving an electrical pulse from the microcontroller.
• SIM300 GSM Module
This is a plug and play GSM Modem with a simple to interface serial interface. Use it to send SMS, make and receive calls, and do other GSM operations by controlling it through simple AT commands from micro controllers and computers. It uses the highly popular SIM300 module for all its operations. It comes with a standard RS232 interface which can be used to easily interface the modem to micro controllers and computers.
The modem consists of all the required external circuitry required to start experimenting with the SIM300 module like the power regulation, external antenna, SIM Holder, etc.
Features
1.Power supply : Single supply voltage 3.4V – 4.5V
2.Power saving : Typical power consumption in SLEEP mode to 2.5mA 3.Frequency bands
(1) SIM300 Tri-band: EGSM 900, DCS 1800, PCS 1900. The band can be set by AT COMMAND, and default band is EGSM 900 and DCS 1800.
(2) Compliant to GSM Phase 2/2+ 4. GSM class : Small MS 5. Transmit power
(1) Class 4 (2W) at EGSM900
(2) Class 1 (1W) at DCS1800 and PCS 1900

Fig 2.10 GSM module
(www.google.com)
• IR sensor

Fig 2.11 IR Sensor
(www.engeeniringsgarage.com)
? This is a multipurpose infrared sensor which can be used for obstacle sensing, colour detection (between basic contrasting colours), fire detection, line sensing, etc and also as an encoder sensor.
? The sensor provides a digital and an analog output. The sensor outputs a logic one (+5V).
? An onboard LED is used to indicate the presence of an object. The sensor outputs an analog
? The analog output can be hooked to an ADC to get the approximate distance of the
Object from the sensor.

2.3.2 SOFTWARE REQUIRED
? software we used – Arduino Ide
? Language used- Embeded c

2.4 METHODOLOGY
The basic methodology used in this project is integration of small Embedded C codes for each hardware to form a large working code for a working model of ATCS(Automated Toll Collection System). Embedded C is a very similar language to C and C++ with few of its libraries and function name being different it serves as an easy and simple language to make embedded systems work according to the coders need. The basic methodology or concept that is developed to make this project is explained through this “V” diagram

Fig 2.12 The “V” Diagram
Chapter-3 Implementation

3.1 Flowchart of the ATC system

Fig 3.1 Flowchart of System

? Starting of the project.
? Car enters in the toll plaza.
? The RFID reader at the toll will read the RFID card embedded on the vehicle.
? Controller will track information and will check whether the card is valid or not.
? If the card is valid, green LED will glow.
? amount will be deducted, a command will be send to the motor to open the gate,
? GSM module will send message to the owner informing him about amount deducted from their tag.
? Gate will be closed.
? If card is not valid green light will be glow and gate stay stop.

3.2 Results of Hardware

3.2.1 RFID Read
The RFID Reader i.e. the EM-18 RFID tag reader was interfaced first with the ATMega328 board so as to read the card or the tag attached to the vehicle. This gave the output as desired showing the tag ID saved into the small memory of the tag.

Fig 3.2 Result of Valid card Deduction
3.2.2Reading Valid and In-Valid Card
The second program to be dealt with was stating as to which card is valid and which is not. A valid card is denoted by displaying that the card is Valid or Correct and vice versa for the other case. The round shown in the fig indicates green LED Glow for Invalid card.

Fig 3.3 Result of invalid car
3.2.3 GSM – Arduino Interfacing
The next step was to interface the GSM Sim300 Module and the Controller. The module helps in sending the user of a RFID Tag a message indicating the amount deducted from his/her account and also displaying the amount left and other details.

Chapter-4 Conclusion and Future work plan
4.1 Summary of the result
The toll collection system works as proposed; when a vehicle approaches the toll booth and reaches the EM 18 card reader, it reads the card as it matches the same frequency range i.e. 125 KHz. The data thus stored in the card i.e. the unique ID is sent to the Arduino where it processes as to what needs to be done. If the program contains the ID read from the card, it gives an output that it is valid/ correct and hence forwards the command to the LEDs and Buzzer to work accordingly i.e. to blink twice and buzz simultaneously. After this is done the Arduino commands the motor to start for a certain time so as to open the toll gate or barrier in a way that the vehicle containing the card could pass easily. After a delay of nearly 5 seconds the toll gate automatically closes so that no other vehicle could pass.
The Arduino further commands the GSM Sim900 Module to forward a message meant only for that registered user suggesting that a certain amount has been deducted and notifying that this much amount is left in their balance for toll. This ends the procedure. If the card is read and the Arduino rejects the card displaying it as invalid/incorrect, a command is sent to the LEDs and the buzzer to beep for a long duration and hence not opening the gate.

Table 4.1 Overall Summary Result of the project.
Sr.no TAG Status LCD display MSG Result of LED
And Buzzer GATE position
1 Valid “Card id Valid” LED=1 Buzzer=0 OPEN
2 Invalid “Invalid Card” LED=1 Buzzer=0 CLOSE
3 Insufficient amount “NO Balance” LED=1 Buzzer=1 CLOSE

4.2 Advantages
The benefits of the proposed system are:
1. Time Saving: This is one of the major benefits of ETC systems. Since, user is not required to stop and pay the cash. So, it saves a lot of time.

2. Reduced Congestion/ traffic: ETC toll plazas play a major role in reducing the traffic. The manual systems make the vehicles stop and pay the cash to the collector.Thus, making a long trail of vehicles waiting for their chance to pay. But in ETC plazas, the users don’t stop to pay the cash unless there is a problem regarding their identity.

3. Saves Fuel: In manual systems, when vehicles wait for their chance to come they don’t shut the engines off. This makes the vehicle to consume more fuel. Whereas in ETC system, the vehicle doesn’t stop and passes directly without wasting any fuel.

4. Cash Handling enhanced: In ETC systems, there is no use of cash. So, all the problems related with cash handling are eliminated.

5. Reduced number of accidents: Since, there is no congestion around the toll plaza; the chances of accidents are also reduced due to these systems.

6. Reduced human error: In ETC systems, there is no need of a collector or any human to operate. Thus, the chances of human errors are also reduced. The database may face faults due to human error which is reduced in these systems.

7. Reduced corruption: Since, there is lesser manual interruption in ETC systems; the chances of corruption are also reduced.

8. Environmental aspects: Apart from all the above benefits, ETC systems also have few points favourable to environment. Fuel consumption has been discussed. Other than this, there is one more aid of this system i.e. the use of SMS service as payment receipt instead of paper. This saves a very large amount of paper.

4.3 Conclusion
At the ending of this report, the conclusion that came out is that, to implement modern system of toll collection i.e. ATCS embedded systems were used and a new technique RFID came into This project is reliable and easy way to collect toll comparing to manual one. This system can easily collect toll from people without even making them stay at the toll booths. This system will definitely help both the ends i.e. toll authorities and the people in form of cost, time, increased capacity and better convenience.

4.4 Future Aspects
This project describes Automated Toll Collection System using, RFID, ATmega328 microcontroller and GSM. Since the RFID used in this project has low range, so the system works only if the vehicle is near the toll booth, due to which the owner has to slow down his/her vehicle’s speed. Using RFID that has high range can help solve this problem so that vehicle can be detected from far distance and vehicle owner can pass the toll plaza without reducing the speed of the vehicle. With slight modification in design this can be easily achieved.
There are lot of future aspects which can be achieved using this technology:
1. No violating of traffic rules: Further, if we deploy RFID readers and speed calculators at small distances on the highways, police can easily catch vehicle exceeding speed limit by getting the vehicle details captured through vehicle’s RFID tag. This can be done to catch people violating rule of overloading their vehicles by replacing speed calculators or speedometers with weight calculators. This will reduce traffic police work and make traffic rules more efficient.
2. Adding image processing technique: Implementing DIP technique with RFID can help in making ATCS more efficient fast reliable and secure for users as well as authorities. This can be done by using IR sensors and camera at the toll gate for taking images of vehicles entering toll plaza to collect the vehicle’s License number. This will help in matching the license number with the tags id so that no crimes like changing of tag or the license plate could take place. This will help in reducing a lot of load at traffic police check posts.
3. Instant recharging for defaulters: Let’s say if any vehicle owner has a valid card but the current balance in the card is not sufficient to pay for his/her toll, a mobile app can be developed for users to help the recharge there card through their bank account details by using internet banking or their credit or debit cards. This can be implemented with a SMS facility from the Registration offices, which will send a SMS to the owner of the vehicle as soon as there is less money in their RFID card from a proposed limit, to remind them to recharge again.

REFERENCES
• Khadijah K, Dr. Widad I (2005), Electronic Toll Collection System using Passive RFID Technology, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), I: 70, Vol. No. 4, Issue 2.
• Priyanka C, Govinda P, Poonam B (2013), Image Processing Based Automatic Toll Booth in Indian Conditions, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology (IJCSIT), I:410, III:411-412, Vol. No.5.
• Pranoti S, Poonam M, Kirti D, Jayshree D (2013), Automated Toll Collection System Using RFID, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical Electronics ; Instrumentation Engineering(IJAREEIE), II: 62, Vol No.3, Issue.
• Rakhi K, Anand P, Akshay M, Rohan K (2014), RFID Based Toll Collection System, International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Research (IJEER), 3: 2582 Vol No.2 Issue -2.
• Microcontrollers ; Embedded Systems by Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillispie Mazidi, Prentice-Hall.
• Auto identification ; computing applications using RFID ; smart technology by Judith Symonds ; David Parry

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ATCS: Automate Toll Collection System
ETC: Electronic Toll Collection
RFID: Radio Frequency Identification
GSM: Global System for Mobile
CPU: Central Processing Unit
LED: Light Emitting Diode
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display
RAM: Random Access Memory
ROM: Read only Memory
EEPROM: Electronically Erasable Permanent Read Only Memory
DC: Direct Current
SIM: Subscriber Identity Module
TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol
GPRS: General Packet Radio Service