CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1

CHAPTER 1
Introduction

1.1 Objective
Security is the condition of being protected against danger or loss. In the general sense, security is a concept similar to safety. The nuance between the two is an added emphasis on being protected from dangers that originate from outside. Individuals or actions that encroach upon the condition of protection are responsible for the breach of security. The word “security” in general usage is synonymous with “safety,” but as a technical term “security” means that something not only is secure but that it has been secured. This project is designed with ATmega328. This Project presents a women safety detection system using GPS and GSM modems. The system can be interconnected with the alarm system and alert the neighbors. This detection and messaging system is composed of a GPS receiver, Microcontroller and a GSM Modem. PS Receiver gets the location information from satellites in the form of latitude and longitude. The Microcontroller processes this information and this processed information is sent to the user using GSM modem A GSM modem is interfaced to the MCU. The GSM modem sends an SMS to the predefined mobile number. When a woman is in danger and in need of self-defense then she can press the switch which is allotted to her. By pressing the switch, the entire system will be activated then immediately a SMS will be sent to concern person with location using GSM and GPS. This project uses regulated 5V, 750mA power supply. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer. 1

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1.2 Introduction to Embedded Systems
The microprocessor-based system is built for controlling a function or range of functions and is not designed to be programmed by the end user in the same way a PC is defined as an embedded system. An embedded system is designed to perform one particular task albeit with different choices and options. Embedded systems contain processing cores that are either microcontrollers or digital signal processors. Microcontrollers are generally known as “chip”, which may itself be packaged with other microcontrollers in a hybrid system of Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). In general, input always comes from a detector or sensors in more specific word and meanwhile the output goes to the activator which may start or stop the operation of the machine or the operating system. An embedded system is a combination of both hardware and software, each embedded system is unique and the hardware is highly specialized in the application domain. Hardware consists of processors, microcontroller, IR sensors etc. On the other hand, Software is just like a brain of the whole embedded system as this consists of the programming languages used which makes hardware work. As a result, embedded systems programming can be a widely varying experience. An embedded system is combination of computer hardware and software, either fixed incapability or programmable, that is specifically designed for particular kind of application device. Industrial machines, automobiles, medical equipment, vending machines and toys (as well as the more obvious cellular phone and PDA) are among the myriad possible hosts of an embedded system. Embedded systems that are programmable are provided with a programming interface, and embedded systems programming id specialized occupation. 2

Embedded Systems

Hardware

Software

Microcontrollers
or
microprocessors
EX. Kiel, Arduino
etc.

Figure 1.1 Block diagram of embedded system

Figure2.1 illustrate the Block diagram of Embedded System (ES consists of hardware and software part which again consists of programming language and physical peripherals respectively). On the other hand, the microcontroller is a single silicon chip consisting of all input, output and peripherals on it. A single microcontroller has the following features:
1. Arithmetic and logic unit
2. Memory for storing program
3. EEPROM for nonvolatile and special function registers
4. Input/output ports
5. Analog to digital converter
6. Circuits
7. Serial communication ports
1.3 Applications of Embedded System
We are living in the embedded world. You are surrounded with many embedded products and your daily life largely depends on the proper functioning’s of these gadgets, television, radio, CD layer of your living room, washing machines or microwave oven in your kitchen, card readers, access controllers, palm devices of your work space enable to do many of your tasks very effectively. Apart from all these, many controllers embedded in your car take care of your car operation between the bumper and most of the times tend to ignore all these controllers. In recent days you are showered with variety of information about these embedded controllers in many places. All kind of magazines and journals regularly dish out details about latest technologies, new devices: fast applications which make you believe that your basic survival is controlled by these embedded products. Now you can agree to that fact these embedded products have successfully invaded into our world. You must be wandering about these embedded controllers or systems. The computer you use to compose your mails, or create a document or analyze the database is known as standard desktop computer. These desktop computers are manufactured to serve many purpose and applications. 2

1.3.1 Military and Aerospace Software Applications
From in-orbit embedded system to jumbo jets to vital battlefield networks, designer’s performance, scalability, and high-availability facilities consistently turn to the Linux OS, RTOS and LinuxOS-178RTOs for software certification to DO-178B rich in system resources and networking serviced, Linux OS provides an off-the-shelf software platform with hard real-time response backed by powerful distributed computing(COBRA), high reliability’s software certification, and long term support options. 2

1.3.2 Communications Applications
Five-nine” availability, compact PCI hot swap support, and hard real-time response Linux OS delivers on these key requirements and more for today’s carrier-class systems. Scalable kernel configurations, distributed computing capabilities, intergraded communications stacks, and fault-management facilities make Linux OS the ideal choice for companies looking for single operating system for all embedded telecommunication applications from complex central to single line/trunk cards. 2

1.3.3 Electronics Applications and Consumer Devices
As the number of powerful embedded processor in consumer devices continues to rise, the blue cat Linux operating system provides a highly reliable and royalty-free option for system designers. And as the wireless appliance revolution rolls on, web enabled navigation systems, radios, personal communication devices, phones and PDA sell benefit from the cost-effective dependability, proven stability and full product lifecycle support opportunities associated with blue cat embedded Linux. Blue cat has teamed out with industry leaders to make it easier to build Linux mobile phones with java integration. 2

1.4 Industrial Automation and Process Control Software
Designers of industrial and process control systems know from experience that Linux works operating system provide the security and reliability that their industrial applications require. From ISO 9001 certification to fault-tolerance, secure portioning and high availability, we’ve got it all. The advantage of our 20 years of experience with the embedded system. Now a day’s embedded system widely using in the industrial areas to reduce to tike, perform the particular task. This replacing the less work and also more efficient gives the accurate result. 2

CHAPTER 2
Block Diagram and Description
2.1 Block Diagram of the Project

GPS Receiver

Microcontroller
ATmega328

GSM module

12v power
supply

LCD Display

Figure2.1: Block diagram

2.2 Functions of Each Block
Power Supply:
The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of electrical energy into another and, as a result power supplies.

Microcontroller:
The microcontroller is used to manipulate the serial operation based the program present in the output is taken from one of the four ports.

LCD Display:
LCDs are available to display arbitrary images which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words, digits and 7 segment displays as in a digital clock. They use some basic technology, except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of pixels, while other displays have larger elements.

Crystal Oscillator:
Crystal oscillator is used to produce oscillated pulses which are given to the microcontroller.

GSM Modem:
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a Pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900MHz.

GPS Receiver:
GPS, in full Global Positioning System, space-based radio-navigation system that broadcasts highly accurate navigation pulses to users on or near the Earth. In the United States’ Navistar GPS, 24 main satellites in 6 orbits circle the Earth every 12 hours. In addition, Russia maintains a constellation called GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System).

CHAPTER 3
Technologies Used
3.1 GSM Technology
3.1.1 Definition of GSM
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a Pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz

Figure3.1: GSM modules
3.1.2 History of GSM
Global system for mobile communication is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a Pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz It is estimated that many countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership. GSM, the Global System for Mobile communications, is a digital cellular communications system, which has rapidly gained acceptance and market share worldwide, although it was initially developed in a European context. In addition to digital transmission, GSM incorporates many advanced services and features, including ISDN compatibility and worldwide roaming in other GSM networks. The advanced services and architecture of GSM have made it a model for future third generation cellular systems, such as UMTS. This will give an overview of the services offered by GSM, the system architecture, the radio transmission. 3

Figure3.2: Graph for GSM module
3.1.3 GSM Services
• ?Tele-services
• ?Bearer or Data Services
• ?Supplementary services
Tele-services:
Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones Offered services, Mobile telephony, Emergency calling

Bearer or Data Services:
Include various data services for information transfer between GSM and other networks like PSTN, ISDN etc. at rates from 300 to 9600 bps, Short Message Service(SMS) up to 160-character alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal Unified, Messaging Services(UMS), Group 3 fax, Voice mailbox, Electronic mail. 2

Supplementary services
Call related services like Call Waiting- Notification of an incoming call while on the handset, Call Hold- Put a caller on hold to take another call, Call Barring- All calls, outgoing calls, or incoming calls, Call Forwarding- Calls can be sent to various numbers defined by the user, Multi Party Call Conferencing – Link multiple calls together
• ?CLIP – Caller line identification presentation
• ?CLIR – Caller line identification restriction

Figure3.3: GSM Network Architecture
3.1.4 Operation GSM
The basis of the GPS is a constellation of satellites that are continuously orbiting the earth. These satellites, which are equipped with atomic clocks, transmit radio signals that contain their exact location, time, and other information. The radio signals from the satellites, which are monitored and corrected by control stations, are picked up by the GPS receiver. A Global Positioning System receiver needs only three satellites to plot a rough, 2D position, which will not be very accurate. 3

Figure3.4: GSM operation
3.1.5 Security in GSM
• On air interface, GSM uses encryption and TMSI instead of IMSI.
• SIM is provided 4-8-digit PIN to validate the ownership of SIM
• 3 algorithms are specified:
– A3 algorithm for authentication
– A5 algorithm for encryption
– A8 algorithm for key generation

3.1.6 Characteristics of GSM Standard
• Fully digital system using 900,1800 MHz frequency band.
• TDMA over radio carriers (200 KHz carrier spacing.
• 8 full rate or 16 half rate TDMA channels per carrier.
• User/terminal authentication for fraud control.
• Encryption of speech and data transmission over the radio path.
• Full international roaming capability.
• Low speed data services (up to 9.6 Kb/s).
• Compatibility with ISDN.
• Support of Short Message Service (SMS).
3.1.7 Advantages of GSM over Analog system
• Capacity increases
• Reduced RF transmission power and longer battery life.
• International roaming capability.
• Better security against fraud (through terminal validation and user authentication).
• Encryption capability for information security and privacy.
• Compatibility with ISDN, leading to wider range of services.

3.1.8 GSM Applications
• Mobile telephony
• GSM-R
• Telemetry System
– Fleet management
– Automatic meter reading
– Toll Collection
– Remote control and fault reporting of DG sets

3.1.9 Future of GSM
• 2nd Generation
– GSM -9.6 Kbps (data rate
• Generation (Future of GSM)
– HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched data) its data rate: 76.8 Kbps (9.6 x 8kbps)
– GPRS (General Packet Radio service) its data rate: 14.4 – 115.2 Kbps
– EDGE (Enhanced data rate for GSM Evolution) its data rate: 547.2 Kbps (max)
• 3 Generation
– WCDMA (Wide band CDMA its data rate: 0.348 – 2.0 Mbps

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of research

A bank loan is a type of advance that is a specified sum of amount given to an individual or business by bank either a commercial bank, savings bank. etc. (the lender). A bank loan has a specific duration of payment and usually on fixed-interest terms related to the base rate of interest (depending on country), with the principal being repaid either on a regular instalment basis or in full on the appointed recovery date.
Bank loans form at least 80% of the total assets in a bank in countries such as Tanzania, as an assets it generates high interest income for the bank hence is a huge performance determinant in any bank. Hence when even the smallest portion of the loans are not paid in time, the bank financial performance will be shaken. This is where non performing banks or bad loans come from.
Non-Performing Loans (NPL) are bank advances to the market on which the borrower is not making interest payments or repaying any principal. At what point the loan is classified as non-performing by the bank, and when it becomes bad debt, depends on local regulations. A non-performing loan as per BOT policy are classified depending on the number of day s that they are overdue, the scenarios are as follows;
Number of days past due BOT Classification
31 – 60 Especially mentioned
61 – 90 Substandard
91 – 180 Doubtful
181 or more Loss

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In view of the important position the bank sector has in the economy, it is vital to identify causes of non-performing loans. This is as non-performing loans can affect the capability of banks to play their role in the growth of the economy. For many bank, most of their non-performing loan are considered they are in arrears for at least ninety days and above.
1.2 Objectives of research
The general objective of the study is to assess the causes and effect of non-performing loans in Tanzania commercial banks.
The specific objectives of the study is
• To assess the causes of non- performing loans related to Tanzania commercial banks
• To assess the effects of non- performing loans related to Tanzania commercial banks
This proposal is focused in the determination of the causes and the effects of non-performing loans that are related to commercial banks that are in Tanzania. As the banking sector has experienced the slowest growth in the recent years reaching only TZS 166 Trillion in 2016 up from TZS 15.49 Trillion in 2015that was equivalent to 7.2 per cent growth; this is according to data released by the Bank of Tanzania (BOT). the ratio of non-performing loans to gross loans increased to 9.5 per cent for the year 2016 compared to the ratio of 7.88 per cent at December, 2015 according to the BOR monetary statement and annual report of the directorate of banking supervision.
With a benchmark of 5.0 per cent in the country, the country has seen reports of NPL going to stunning length. The list of the top five banks with the largest amount of non-performing loans is steered by mostly the big banks led by CRDB standing at a NPL amount of TZS 436.7 Billion followed by TIB (Tanzania Investment Bank) whose non-performing loans reached TZS 238.5 Billion. NMB who is the largest bank in term of profits and assets recorded an NPL level of TZS 84.3 Billion, followed by NBC at TZS 75.9 Billion and Standard Chartered at TZS 65.6 Billion.
The case study area will with the top banks in Tanzania namely CRDB, NBC, NMB, DTB and Exim. This is due to the fact that the above mentioned banks are currently domination a huge market cap and most have been operating long enough to give an in-depth insight on the aimed market.
1.3 Research question
This research will addressed the following research questions:
a) How does the bank contribute in the rise of non-performing loans?
b) What are the economic factors that affect non-performing loans in commercial banks?
c) How does customer’s related issues causes contribute to non-performing loans?
d) How the rise in non-performing loans effect the overall market?
e) What are the ways to reduce the level of non-performing advances level in commercial banks?
1.4 Scope of research
The research focuses on the causes and effects of non-performing loans that related are related in commercial banks. This research will base on commercial banks in Tanzania especially on the top banks in the country with a huge sizes of deposit and broad branch networks. This is on the fact that those banks that have enough sample size to give out information that will be enough to give the kind of academic insight the research seeks to offer. Besides, the above mentioned bank lends to almost all the major sectors of the economy.
1.4 Significances the research
The research will give an understanding and provide the knowledge of understanding the cause of the increased non-performing loan rate and the effects it has in the market. The study is going to explore and recommends potential areas that bankers need to put more efforts when sanctioning credit services. With good and sound credit policy and easy implementation of the policies, systematic processes for KYC to be carried by the banker, the levels of NPL are believed to improve.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction

This chapter reviews existing literature on the factors that affect non-performing loans. The literature review drew upon secondary materials that have been written around the research topic. The literature review mostly focused of literature that related to the four research questions namely; causes of non-performing loans and mechanisms that will assist in reducing the level of non-performing facilities in various banks to deal with the problem of non-performing loans.
2.2 Summary on non performing loans

When banks are realizing timely installment loan payments, the loans are said to be performing well and the banks become profitable. In fact, lending is the main function of the banking industry as the rates that the banks charge on the advances is the main source of their revenues. Because loans and advances are the most profitable ventures for commercial banks, banks are always willing to provide more loans to borrowers despite the fact that this is a risky venture. Loans that have not been paid over the defined period of time are said to be non-performing and are dangerous to the bank as they may cause the ultimate collapse of the bank, the banking industry and the entire economy.
Non-performing loans are the loans which are unrecoverable within the time stipulated by the laws of the country or as agreed to by the bank and the borrower at the time of provision. As such, the possibility of obtaining income from such loans is uncertain. Non-performing loans has also been deemed as loans whose repayment period is more than 90 days with are categorized as doubtful debts. The issue of non-performing loans has gained a lot of attention in many countries around the world especially since the financial crises of 2007 – 2008, as it was believed to be the main cause of failure of most banks during the crisis.
In fact, non-performing loans are so crucial to the bank because they can be used to determine the banking industries? stability and durability as a well the profitability of the bank. This is because non-performing loans can reduce a bank’s investment resource rendering the bank unable to grow or develop its business and the result is the insolvency or liquidation of the bank. Non-performing loans are potential risks to the banking industry and the economy because they have the potential to reduce bank’s liquidity, cause credit expansion and permit the slump of the real sector. Furthermore, banks with high NPLs in their portfolio of investments will certainly realize a reduction in their revenue earnings and cash flow deficit if most of their deposits have been used to lend in the market.
2.3 Conceptual Framework

2.3.1 Dependent Variable

Dependent variable that guides this research is non-performing loans. Non-performing loans depends on numerous of variables that can be grouped mainly into bank operations variables, customer operations variables and macro- economic variables.

2.3.2 Independent Variable

Independent variables are grouped into banking operations variables, customer operations variable and macro-economic variables.

2.3.2 Variable Related to Bank Operations

Variables that related to bank operations are credit policy, credit appraisal, competition, queue, and under or over financing
2.3.3 Variable Related to Customer Operations

Variable those are related to customer operations are moral hazards, inadequate business, financial, marketing, entrepreneurship and management skills, fund diversion and multiple loans.
2.3.4 Variables related to Macro economic factors

Variables that are related to changes in the surrounding business environment events such as changes in bank policies by the BOT, Taxation changes, stiff market competition, change in exchange rates and political impacts.

2.4 Non performing loans in Tanzania

The Tanzanian market has been facing a huge increase in the Non-performing Loan is the recent years to an alarming rate. Bank have been faced with challenges in the recovery of instalment hence many of their loan have been going bad. The biggest reasons that most of the NPL’S are the current challenges and fluctuations that are facing the market, which has resulted to a fall in the economy.

As per most bank financial reports of 2017, most bank reported high levels of non-performing loans (NPLs) ranging from four per cent to fifty per cent with averaged increase from 6.4 to 9.5 per cent when figures are placed in perspective. There is broadly agreed that high NPL levels ultimately have a negative impact on the bank but as well as reduced the lending to the economy resulting to a decrease in market funding.

This research will look into the reason to the occurrence of high NPL in the market and its effect in the general market. This will give us a better understand of the scenarios and hopefully will lead to a exploration for the solution to at least decrease the NPL rates.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Data Collection and Sampling

The research will use the quantitative technique of research to define the present study. Quantitative research shows quantifying connection between variables by using different statistical techniques for descriptive data analysis and the establishment of the proposed hypotheses (Creswell, 2008).The data for this study was obtained from audited annual financial statements of individual banks for the period of 5 years from 2012 to 2017. We shall use the five banks mentioned above that are CRDB, NBC, NMB, DTB and Exim banks as a sample in the

Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION 1

Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Toll Collection System
While driving along Highway, we all encounter single or multiple booths in which we Have to pay a fixed amount of money. These booths are known as toll booths and the Money we pay is the tax for using the road known as the toll road or toll way. Since, most of the roads are built with the money that is raised by state or national government through the taxes. So, toll is a kind of tax that we pay to the government for the maintenance of the highways.
1.1.1Methods of toll collection
There are basically three methods of toll collection:
1. Manual Toll Collection: This method is the most widely used method in India.In this, when the vehicle arrives at the toll booth the driver gives the money to the collector at the booth who feeds the information in the computer and provides a receipt to the person in the vehicle. Each vehicle has its amount fixed. For eg: a two-wheeler driver needs to pay Rs 20, for car it is Rs 40 and for larger vehicles like buses and trucks its more. But these amounts vary from state to state.
2. Automatic Toll Collection: Unlike manual collection method, it does not use any human. Instead, machine known as an Automated Coin Machine (ACM) is used. This machine accepts coins or tokens provided by agency operating the booth.
3. Electronic Toll Collection: As the name suggests, the whole system is automatic and no human efforts are required. It uses a card or a tag to identify the vehicle and automatically deducts the amount from the bank account. It is much faster way.

Fig.1.1 A Manual Toll Collection System in India
(www.electronicshub.com)

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1.1.2 Problem Definition:
The study of the feasibility reports the very need of improvement in the toll collection system. It states that if there are in total 100 manned/manual toll booths and if every day about 100 vehicles pass through each system then; the count of total vehicles passing one such tool
booth per year would be about 36,000 (100 x 30 x 12).
Similarly, for 100 systems, the number goes high up to 36, 00,000. For simplification, the table shows the same data as mentioned above:
Table 1 Vehicle Passing a Toll Booth Year-Wise
Number of toll booths Days Number of vehicles
1 1 100
1 30*12 3600
100 30*12 36,00,000

This table shows that per year nearly 36, 00,000 vehicles remain in the still position for nearly 6 hours in a condition where their engines are roaring and consuming fuel, at the same time creating air pollution. Now if we suppose that in that 6 hours a certain vehicle uses about 1 L fuel; the total volume of fuel for all those 36,00,000 vehicles go up to the same amount i.e. 36,00,000 L.
Table 2. Total Fuel Consumption
Total Vehicles Amount of Fuel Consumed Total Amount
1 1 100
36,00,000 36,00,000 L 360,000,000

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
1.2.1 AIM
The ATC system involves various components which work together and form the whole system. As the vehicle arrives at the booth a sensor which has been incorporated at the booth, senses the tag or a card embedded in the vehicle. This tag is known as a RFID card. This RFID card has a unique identity for every user and thus has the information regarding the user. The system reads the card and authenticates the person to pass through the toll after deducting a fixed amount from the user’s bank account. The payment in the ATC system is made through wireless mode. There is an antenna at the tollgate which establishes a wireless Connection with the on-board device when the vehicle’s RFID card is sensed and thus, automatically deducts the amount from the account. There is no need for the vehicles to stop and wait for the process to happen. It occurs in few seconds and thus, it is a very effective and a fast system.

. Fig. 1.2 an Electronic Toll Collection System
(www.electronicswing.com)
1.2.2 OBJECTIVE
1 Manual toll collection system is slow as it ceases the vehicle flow as each vehicle approaches the toll booth for cash transfer and entry into the database. This leads to various issues like fuel wastage, time wastage and air pollution.
2. Manual toll collection system is often found guilty of embezzlement as the toll booth operators who are in charge of the same are involved in the theft of toll books and cash. This and other cases lead to this type of collection system not secure in terms of money.
3. The manned systems often see themselves vulnerable to harassment by the vehicle owners. Mostly in India, where such cases have been found that the toll operators are physically harassed and beaten for they have done nothing wrong. The use of ATC can curb this problem single handed.
1.3 Problem Specification
RFID systems is disrupted during the frequency reading Also, active RFID tags (those that use a battery to increase the range of the system) can be repeatedly interrogated to wear the battery down, disrupting the system.
RFID Reader Collision- Reader collision occurs when the signals from two or more readers overlap. The tag is unable to respond to simultaneous queries
RFID Tag Collision-Tag collision occurs when many tags are present in a small area; but since the read time is very fast.
1.4 Literature Survey
The Toll Collection System has changed drastically over the years; from being a single borderline, a small passage booth to the huge toll collection infrastructure that has a key role in the revenue generation as well as the working of the traffic of a city or even a state. While the majority of the population is travelling via different means it has become a necessity and a regulatory method to control traffic.
The following papers were referred and reviewed in order to understand the role of Toll
Collection System:
Kamarulazizi & Ismail, 2005 the paper mentioned the benefits of Electronic Toll Collection System often abbreviated as ETC over the Manual Toll Collection System.It stated that the former helps in controlling the congestion that is generally caused by the traffic during the festivals. Moreover, it is also beneficiary for the operators as it helps in Controlling the Audit which is centralized.
Chhoriya, Paliwal & Badhan, 2013 it was presented in the paper that the use of image processing tools can be used for the toll collection. The number plate on the vehicle can be processed and checked so as to match any existence in the database; from which the toll can be deducted thus giving it an upper hand from the manual toll collection.
Salunke, Malle, Datir & Dukale, 2013 the following paper conceptualised the use of RFID i.e. Radio Frequency Identification for the toll collection thus making the whole system easy and feasible. The use of ATCS expanded to Automated Toll Collection System is an effective way that could lead to reducing the losses the Government faces. The idea proposed in the paper had an edge over other electronic methods due to its flexible nature and easy implementation.

1.5 Plan of their work
When the vehicle arrives at the toll plaza, the RFID tag attached to it is sensed by the sensor. The moment the tag comes within the magnetic field of the RFID reader, the current is induced in it and it gets energized. Then, it sends the information stored in the chip in form of the radio frequency signals through the antenna. When the antenna of the reader receives the signal, it again converts it into digital form thus making it suitable for displaying on the LCD screen of the operating person.

Fig. 1.3The RFID Toll System
(www.electronicshub.com)

Fig. 1.4 Microcontroller, LCD and EM-18 Interfacing
(www.circiuttoday.com)
This project works like this:
1. A car will approach the toll booth. The RFID reader at the toll will read the RFID card embedded on the vehicle.
2. Then, it will pass the information stored in the card to the microcontroller.
3. The microcontroller will track information and will check whether the card is valid or not.
4. If the card is valid, the validation of card will be displayed on the screen. A certain amount will be deducted from the owner’s account. Here, we have fixed the amount for everyone is 100. Along with this, a green LED light will glow.
5. After this, a command will be send to the motor to open the gate and the vehicle will pass. Now, GSM module will send message to the owner informing him about amount deducted from their tag. Here, message will be: ‘Rs 100 deducted’
6. If the card is not valid, the screen will show ‘invalid card’ and no amount would be deducted. Along with this, a green LED light will glow. Thus, no command will be send to the motor.
7. If the balance is insufficient then display will show “NO BALLANCE” with the buzzer making noise continuously. Thus, no command will be send to the motor
.
1.6 Material and tools used
1. PCB Board with AT mega 328 microcontroller
2. EM-18 RFID Reader
3. RFID cards (125 kHz)
4. IR sensor
5. LEDs
6. Buzzer
7. DC Stepper Motor
8. 5v DC Power Supply
9. SIM300 GSM Module
10. Jumper Wires

Chapter-2 System Design/Material used/Methodology
2.1 systems Design

Fig 2.1 Block dagram of ATC
2.2 Hardware Image

Fig 2.2 Hardware of ATC
2.2.1 SYSTEM WORKING
When the vehicle passes through the toll initially the RFID tag is detected by the RFID receiver. As soon as the tag is detected the LCD will display modes of operation, namely, transaction mode . If sufficient balance is present in the vehicle stipulated amount will be deducted, motor driver will open the gate and the vehicle will pass through the toll.If the card is not valid, the screen will show ‘invalid card’ and no amount would be deducted. Along with this, a green LED light will glow. Thus, no command will be send to the motor. If the balance is insufficient then display will show ” NO BALLANCE” with the buzzer making noise continuously . Thus, no command will be send to the motor. In both the cases a SMS will be sent to the user using a GSM modem. When the vehicle passes through the toll using the transaction mode a SMS is sent to the user which specifies the toll amount as well as the remaining balance. When the user selects the recharge mode and recharges the card, SMS regarding the recharge details such as amount debited, new balance is sent to the user.
Basically, ATCS discussed in this project contains some of these hardware components shown in above figure 1.5:

1. ATmega328 microcontroller
2. EM-18 RFID Reader
3. RFID cards (125 kHz)
4. LEDs
5. Buzzer
6. DC Stepper Motor
7. 5v DC Power Supply
8. SIM900 GSM Module
9. Jumper Wires
10. PCB Board

There are certainly a lot of methodologies or ways to design a ATCS which include Active RFID, Passive RFID, GNSS, Infrared technology, Microwave technology, but this projects demonstrate the best one of all these i.e. Passive RFID technology. Passive RFID means Radio Frequency Identification device which do not require power source to activate, it works automatically and is detected without the help of any power source.
2.3 Material used
2.3.1 Hardware Requirement
• Atmega328 microcontroller
The Atmel picoPower ATmega328/P is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR® enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega328/P achieves throughputs close to 1MIPS per MHz. This empowers system designer to optimize the device for power consumption versus processing speed. Features
? 8 bit microcontroller
? Operating voltage-1.8to 5.5v
? 1 KB EEPROM,2 KB SRAM

Fig 2.3 pin diagram of AT-mega 328 microcontroller
(www.toshiba.co.jpg)
• EM- 18 RFID Reader
Fig 2.4 EM-18 RFID Reader
(www.perfectrfid.com)
In this project it is used as stationary reader which is always looking for the RFID tags in its range. If any vehicle with RFID tag comes in its range it receives its data and transfers its unique ID to the ATmega328 for further functioning. EM-18 RFID reader is basically microcontroller-based transceiver; it gives power to the tag with help of EM radio frequency or known as RF field. As soon as the RF field passes RFID tag’s antenna, alternating current voltage generates and this AC voltage is rectified to input power of RFID tag. On getting powered from reader, the tag is able to get commands from EM-18 RFID receiver. The hardcoded data of tag now can be read by RFID reader and sent to the microcontroller for processing.
• RFID Tag
A Radio Frequency Identification tag/card usually known as RFID tags are electronic gadgets that can be attached with a product, person, anima or many more for their identification or tracking using radio waves. Every tag its own identity or tag number, these tags are of different types, some can be read from long distance and some can even be read from a distance place up to which a normal human cannot see. Most of these RFID tags are made of two parts, one is an antenna for transmitting and receiving of signals, and other is integrated circuitry for processing and storage of information, it can also be used for specific functions.

Fig 2.5 RFID tags
(www.perfectrfid.com)
There are basically three types of RFID tags:
1. Passive tags, with no power supply,
2. Active tags, with power supply, and
3. Beacon tags.
The RFID tags use in this project is passive type this helps in saving power and has no Problem of providing power supply to the tags all the time to make them work.
• DC Motor
In this project, work of these stepper motors is to lift toll gate to let the vehicle pass on receiving a positive signal from the microcontroller which is generated when RFID tag is valid and the transaction is successful. Stepper motor rotates 90º degrees anticlockwise to lift the gate then waits in that positions until the vehicle passes and then rotate 90º clockwise to close the gate.

Fig 2.6 DC motor
(www.electronicshub.com)
• L293D
L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors

Fig 2.7 L293D Motor Driver IC
(www.electronicshub.com)
• Power Supply
The power supply used is 5 volts to 9 volts DC power supply through DC batteries. The current used is 2 mA.
.
Fig 2.8 9v DC Battery
(www.electronicswing.com)
• LEDs
Light Emitting Diode or IR LEDs is also one of the important components used in this Project; basically it is used as visual indicator to the owner of the vehicle weather his/her RFID tag is valid to let him pass the toll plaza or not. There are two LEDs used in this Project green colored LEDs. The working principle of LED is electroluminescence, they have two semi-conductor light sources which when activated or given electricity produce light and the LED glow.

Fig 2.9 LEDs
(www.google search.com)
• Buzzer
The buzzer is an electronic device which creates a beeping sound when turned on or activated. A buzzer can be mechanical, piezoelectric or electromechanical. This project uses an electromechanical buzzer to indicate the state of the card. This buzzer can be turned on or off by just giving an electrical pulse from the microcontroller.
• SIM300 GSM Module
This is a plug and play GSM Modem with a simple to interface serial interface. Use it to send SMS, make and receive calls, and do other GSM operations by controlling it through simple AT commands from micro controllers and computers. It uses the highly popular SIM300 module for all its operations. It comes with a standard RS232 interface which can be used to easily interface the modem to micro controllers and computers.
The modem consists of all the required external circuitry required to start experimenting with the SIM300 module like the power regulation, external antenna, SIM Holder, etc.
Features
1.Power supply : Single supply voltage 3.4V – 4.5V
2.Power saving : Typical power consumption in SLEEP mode to 2.5mA 3.Frequency bands
(1) SIM300 Tri-band: EGSM 900, DCS 1800, PCS 1900. The band can be set by AT COMMAND, and default band is EGSM 900 and DCS 1800.
(2) Compliant to GSM Phase 2/2+ 4. GSM class : Small MS 5. Transmit power
(1) Class 4 (2W) at EGSM900
(2) Class 1 (1W) at DCS1800 and PCS 1900

Fig 2.10 GSM module
(www.google.com)
• IR sensor

Fig 2.11 IR Sensor
(www.engeeniringsgarage.com)
? This is a multipurpose infrared sensor which can be used for obstacle sensing, colour detection (between basic contrasting colours), fire detection, line sensing, etc and also as an encoder sensor.
? The sensor provides a digital and an analog output. The sensor outputs a logic one (+5V).
? An onboard LED is used to indicate the presence of an object. The sensor outputs an analog
? The analog output can be hooked to an ADC to get the approximate distance of the
Object from the sensor.

2.3.2 SOFTWARE REQUIRED
? software we used – Arduino Ide
? Language used- Embeded c

2.4 METHODOLOGY
The basic methodology used in this project is integration of small Embedded C codes for each hardware to form a large working code for a working model of ATCS(Automated Toll Collection System). Embedded C is a very similar language to C and C++ with few of its libraries and function name being different it serves as an easy and simple language to make embedded systems work according to the coders need. The basic methodology or concept that is developed to make this project is explained through this “V” diagram

Fig 2.12 The “V” Diagram
Chapter-3 Implementation

3.1 Flowchart of the ATC system

Fig 3.1 Flowchart of System

? Starting of the project.
? Car enters in the toll plaza.
? The RFID reader at the toll will read the RFID card embedded on the vehicle.
? Controller will track information and will check whether the card is valid or not.
? If the card is valid, green LED will glow.
? amount will be deducted, a command will be send to the motor to open the gate,
? GSM module will send message to the owner informing him about amount deducted from their tag.
? Gate will be closed.
? If card is not valid green light will be glow and gate stay stop.

3.2 Results of Hardware

3.2.1 RFID Read
The RFID Reader i.e. the EM-18 RFID tag reader was interfaced first with the ATMega328 board so as to read the card or the tag attached to the vehicle. This gave the output as desired showing the tag ID saved into the small memory of the tag.

Fig 3.2 Result of Valid card Deduction
3.2.2Reading Valid and In-Valid Card
The second program to be dealt with was stating as to which card is valid and which is not. A valid card is denoted by displaying that the card is Valid or Correct and vice versa for the other case. The round shown in the fig indicates green LED Glow for Invalid card.

Fig 3.3 Result of invalid car
3.2.3 GSM – Arduino Interfacing
The next step was to interface the GSM Sim300 Module and the Controller. The module helps in sending the user of a RFID Tag a message indicating the amount deducted from his/her account and also displaying the amount left and other details.

Chapter-4 Conclusion and Future work plan
4.1 Summary of the result
The toll collection system works as proposed; when a vehicle approaches the toll booth and reaches the EM 18 card reader, it reads the card as it matches the same frequency range i.e. 125 KHz. The data thus stored in the card i.e. the unique ID is sent to the Arduino where it processes as to what needs to be done. If the program contains the ID read from the card, it gives an output that it is valid/ correct and hence forwards the command to the LEDs and Buzzer to work accordingly i.e. to blink twice and buzz simultaneously. After this is done the Arduino commands the motor to start for a certain time so as to open the toll gate or barrier in a way that the vehicle containing the card could pass easily. After a delay of nearly 5 seconds the toll gate automatically closes so that no other vehicle could pass.
The Arduino further commands the GSM Sim900 Module to forward a message meant only for that registered user suggesting that a certain amount has been deducted and notifying that this much amount is left in their balance for toll. This ends the procedure. If the card is read and the Arduino rejects the card displaying it as invalid/incorrect, a command is sent to the LEDs and the buzzer to beep for a long duration and hence not opening the gate.

Table 4.1 Overall Summary Result of the project.
Sr.no TAG Status LCD display MSG Result of LED
And Buzzer GATE position
1 Valid “Card id Valid” LED=1 Buzzer=0 OPEN
2 Invalid “Invalid Card” LED=1 Buzzer=0 CLOSE
3 Insufficient amount “NO Balance” LED=1 Buzzer=1 CLOSE

4.2 Advantages
The benefits of the proposed system are:
1. Time Saving: This is one of the major benefits of ETC systems. Since, user is not required to stop and pay the cash. So, it saves a lot of time.

2. Reduced Congestion/ traffic: ETC toll plazas play a major role in reducing the traffic. The manual systems make the vehicles stop and pay the cash to the collector.Thus, making a long trail of vehicles waiting for their chance to pay. But in ETC plazas, the users don’t stop to pay the cash unless there is a problem regarding their identity.

3. Saves Fuel: In manual systems, when vehicles wait for their chance to come they don’t shut the engines off. This makes the vehicle to consume more fuel. Whereas in ETC system, the vehicle doesn’t stop and passes directly without wasting any fuel.

4. Cash Handling enhanced: In ETC systems, there is no use of cash. So, all the problems related with cash handling are eliminated.

5. Reduced number of accidents: Since, there is no congestion around the toll plaza; the chances of accidents are also reduced due to these systems.

6. Reduced human error: In ETC systems, there is no need of a collector or any human to operate. Thus, the chances of human errors are also reduced. The database may face faults due to human error which is reduced in these systems.

7. Reduced corruption: Since, there is lesser manual interruption in ETC systems; the chances of corruption are also reduced.

8. Environmental aspects: Apart from all the above benefits, ETC systems also have few points favourable to environment. Fuel consumption has been discussed. Other than this, there is one more aid of this system i.e. the use of SMS service as payment receipt instead of paper. This saves a very large amount of paper.

4.3 Conclusion
At the ending of this report, the conclusion that came out is that, to implement modern system of toll collection i.e. ATCS embedded systems were used and a new technique RFID came into This project is reliable and easy way to collect toll comparing to manual one. This system can easily collect toll from people without even making them stay at the toll booths. This system will definitely help both the ends i.e. toll authorities and the people in form of cost, time, increased capacity and better convenience.

4.4 Future Aspects
This project describes Automated Toll Collection System using, RFID, ATmega328 microcontroller and GSM. Since the RFID used in this project has low range, so the system works only if the vehicle is near the toll booth, due to which the owner has to slow down his/her vehicle’s speed. Using RFID that has high range can help solve this problem so that vehicle can be detected from far distance and vehicle owner can pass the toll plaza without reducing the speed of the vehicle. With slight modification in design this can be easily achieved.
There are lot of future aspects which can be achieved using this technology:
1. No violating of traffic rules: Further, if we deploy RFID readers and speed calculators at small distances on the highways, police can easily catch vehicle exceeding speed limit by getting the vehicle details captured through vehicle’s RFID tag. This can be done to catch people violating rule of overloading their vehicles by replacing speed calculators or speedometers with weight calculators. This will reduce traffic police work and make traffic rules more efficient.
2. Adding image processing technique: Implementing DIP technique with RFID can help in making ATCS more efficient fast reliable and secure for users as well as authorities. This can be done by using IR sensors and camera at the toll gate for taking images of vehicles entering toll plaza to collect the vehicle’s License number. This will help in matching the license number with the tags id so that no crimes like changing of tag or the license plate could take place. This will help in reducing a lot of load at traffic police check posts.
3. Instant recharging for defaulters: Let’s say if any vehicle owner has a valid card but the current balance in the card is not sufficient to pay for his/her toll, a mobile app can be developed for users to help the recharge there card through their bank account details by using internet banking or their credit or debit cards. This can be implemented with a SMS facility from the Registration offices, which will send a SMS to the owner of the vehicle as soon as there is less money in their RFID card from a proposed limit, to remind them to recharge again.

REFERENCES
• Khadijah K, Dr. Widad I (2005), Electronic Toll Collection System using Passive RFID Technology, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), I: 70, Vol. No. 4, Issue 2.
• Priyanka C, Govinda P, Poonam B (2013), Image Processing Based Automatic Toll Booth in Indian Conditions, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology (IJCSIT), I:410, III:411-412, Vol. No.5.
• Pranoti S, Poonam M, Kirti D, Jayshree D (2013), Automated Toll Collection System Using RFID, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical Electronics ; Instrumentation Engineering(IJAREEIE), II: 62, Vol No.3, Issue.
• Rakhi K, Anand P, Akshay M, Rohan K (2014), RFID Based Toll Collection System, International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Research (IJEER), 3: 2582 Vol No.2 Issue -2.
• Microcontrollers ; Embedded Systems by Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillispie Mazidi, Prentice-Hall.
• Auto identification ; computing applications using RFID ; smart technology by Judith Symonds ; David Parry

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ATCS: Automate Toll Collection System
ETC: Electronic Toll Collection
RFID: Radio Frequency Identification
GSM: Global System for Mobile
CPU: Central Processing Unit
LED: Light Emitting Diode
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display
RAM: Random Access Memory
ROM: Read only Memory
EEPROM: Electronically Erasable Permanent Read Only Memory
DC: Direct Current
SIM: Subscriber Identity Module
TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol
GPRS: General Packet Radio Service

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