CHALLENGES ON FOOD QUALITY AMONG SELECTED
RESTAURANT IN DAVAO CITY
A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the
Hotel and Restaurant Management
College of Hospitality Education
University of Mindanao
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management
BILIRAN, DUVAL YVES
LACIERDA, RUBY JEAN
SABINIANO, DJENESES D.
PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Background of the Study
Food quality is a culture that is built on a set of common values that managers and their employees follow to produce and provide food in the safest manner (Gould, 2013). Maintaining food quality means that operators and staff know the risks associated with the products or meals they produce, know why managing the risks is important, and effectively manage those risks in a demonstrable way (Brown, 2014). In an organization with a good food quality, individuals are expected to enact practices that represent the shared value system and point out where others may fail. By using a variety of tools, consequences and incentives, businesses can demonstrate to their staff and customers that they are aware of current food quality issues, that they can learn from others’ mistakes, and that food quality is important within the organization (Smith ; Allen, 2014).
In the global setting, some of the problems associated with food quality and safety are improperly trained employees, substandard products, or poor service can cost companies millions of dollars a year in lost sales and leave the door open to more severe consequences (Powell, Jacob ; Chapman, 2013). While the food operator must focus on customer safety, concern must also be directed toward the avoidance of litigation as sophistication in this arena is very high and the negative outcomes are very costly (Wilkins, 2010).
In the Philippines, the Food and Nutrition Research Institute, a line agency of the Department of Science and Technology, warned that public that some food establishments do not pass the same quality food processing of certified food establishments. Although the Institute is not discouraging business operators from selling their products, it suggested that management and staff should undergo training in food handling to ensure food quality and safety (Cruz, 2012).
In view of the above cited articles regarding the problems about poor food quality, the researchers were encouraged to conduct study regarding challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City.
Statement of the Problem
This research study was conducted to determine the challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City. Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions:
1. What are the challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City in terms of:
Management commitment; and
Worker food safety behavior?
2. Is there any significant difference in the level of challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City when analyze according to profile?
Ho: There is no significant difference in the level of challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City.
Review of Related Literature
Found in this section are additional literatures and studies from different authors which were taken from books, magazines, newspaper articles and internet.
Food is the most crucial part of the overall restaurant experience (Sulek ; Hensley, 2004). They lumped all food attributes into only one variable, food quality, whereas Kivela et.al (2009) who designed a model of dining satisfaction and return patronage saw that food quality had many attributes. According to Peri (2006), food quality is an absolute requirement to satisfy the needs and expectations of restaurant customers. Knowing the importance of food quality in the restaurant business, previous studies have examined various food quality attributes. There are some of the review of the literature reveals that the general description of food quality among researchers emphasizes on presentation, menu variety, healthy options, taste, freshness and temperature. Temperature is also a sensory element of food quality (Kivela et al, 2009).
The World Health Organization (2010) stated that poor food quality can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In developed countries there are intricate standards for food preparation, whereas in lesser developed countries the main issue is simply the availability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. In theory, food poisoning is 100% preventable (Lee, Kim ; Yoo, 2006).
Moreover, according to Okada and Hoch (2008), the five key principles of food hygiene, are: (a) prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests, (b) separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods, (c) cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens, (d) store food at the proper temperature and (e) do use safe water and cooked materials.
The importance of food safety has recently been emphasized through the addition of the guideline “Keep food safe to eat” which has been added to the USDA’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010). The goal for the study was to develop a strategy for promoting food safety among workers providing food to a vulnerable population who utilize food recovery programs. Education of food handlers is critical to decrease the risk of food-borne illness in this population.
Moreover, all foods served in a food service establishment must come from an approved source. Food service establishments should work with their suppliers to ensure the foods they are using meet the food safety standards. Temperature and time are the two most important factors to control. Foods need to be received and stored as soon as possible. The staff of the food service establishment should be checking for temperatures and conditions of incoming foods. All refrigerated foods should be put away quickly to prevent time and temperature abuse. Frozen foods should not have large ice crystals, be discolored or dried-out. Canned goods should have labels, no swelling and flawed seams, rust or dents illness (Howes, McEwen, Griffiths & Harris, 2013).
The importance of having a product fully meets all the intended requirements and to have all the expected characteristics is the basis for quality control in any process (Nickell & Hinsz, 2011). When any product is brought to market, there are a number of steps which have to be followed correctly to result in the desired goods to sell. This applies equally to literally anything bought or sold. Large institutions and corporations typically have a quality control or quality assurance department to ensure these various requirements in their products and services are as expected (Jespersen & Huffman, 2011). Sometimes this can be as simple as verifying that procedures are followed. It can also entail checking to see that records are kept and stored or that purchasing takes all the needed steps to make sure what is bought is exactly what is desired (Corke, 2014).
In many business’, food safety culture can be considered of similar importance to regulatory compliance and customer service. If any of these three aspects fail, the business itself could fail (Hanacek, 2010). Many business also elevate safety to the same or even a higher level of importance than these as no business can exist without employees. Food safety features in the workplace is another good example of the importance of quality assurance in society today (Schein, 2010). Whether it is the integrity of a safety harness for working at heights or the water testing for the city, quality measurements, processing and system configuration can all directly affect worker and even public safety (Hayes, 2013).
According to Delwiche (2004), temperature influence how to get the flavor of food has provided; this will be interacting with other sensory properties such as taste, smell and sight. Then, the temperature could be considered as one determinant enchanting pleasure in the food experience (Kahkonen et.al, 1995). Taste is regarded as a key attribute in food in the dining experience (Kivela et al.,1999). Many customers have become food savvy, so the taste of food in restaurant has become increasingly important (Cortese, 2003). It is thus not surprising that a shabby restaurant with gourmet cooking is packed with customer. Also, the taste is usually believed to influence restaurant customer satisfaction and future behavior intention Kivela et al., (1999).
As Cardello (1995) notes, food quality is typically measured using objective indexes related to nutrition, microbiological, or physicochemical characteristics of food. In reality, evaluations of food quality are consumer-based and are subject to the same context issues and expectations as other perceptions (Mela 1999; Rozin and Tuorila 1993; Cardello and others 2000). This is not to say, however, that people are not initially biased by such objective indexes or information. It only means that their final evaluation lies somewhere between where it would be without information and where it would be with such information (Cardello ; Sawyer 1992).
The attributes of food quality depend on the type of food and the individual’s food preference itself. The attributes that constitute quality in the mind of the consumer, and especially their weights, may change over time as well (Grunert, 2005). Furthermore, it is difficult to understand the consumer behavior when it comes to the differences of each individual underlying cognitive determinants on food quality (Rijswijk & Frewer, 2008). According to Grunert (2005), consumers are often poor at predicting quality and are dissatisfied despite the fact that they act in a situation where they are unable to confirm on their own expectations for a particular product.
According to Peri (2006), food quality is an absolute requirement to satisfy the needs and expectations of restaurant customers. Knowing the importance of food quality in the restaurant business, previous studies have examined various food quality attributes. There are some of the review of the literature reveals that the general description of food quality among researchers emphasizes on presentation, menu variety, healthy options, taste, freshness and temperature.
Research on consumer quality perception is reviewed using the Total Food Quality Model as a structuring device. The relationship between food safety and quality is addressed, and is discussed in the context of research on consumer risk perception. Quality and safety perception is linked to food choice and consumer demand, addressing questions of price perception and the validity of willingness-to-pay measurements. It is concluded that food quality and safety are central issues in today’s food economics, though many research questions remain to be addressed (Eur Rev Agric Econ 2005).
According to Jang and Namkung (2009), Kwun and Oh (2006), and Wu and Liang (2009), a restaurant’s environment includes service quality, food quality, and atmospherics. Kwun and Oh (2006) define food and beverages as restaurants’ core products. The freshness and tastiness of food can have significant impacts on consumers’ emotions. In addition, Wu and Liang (2009) note that the presentation of food and beverages is an important part of luxury restaurants’ food quality and can influence diners’ emotions.
Freshness is one of the quality factors that needs to be focused by the management team in the food industry in order to serve their customer at the right standard of quality required. As mentioned by Peneau et al., 2006, freshness refers to the crispness, juiciness, and aroma of the food. Besides that, as mentioned by Acebron & Dopico, 2000; Johns & Tyas, 1996; Kivela et al., 1999, one of the vital signs of quality is the freshness of food. Furthermore, according to Whitehall, Kerkhoven, Freeling, & Villarino, 2006, fresh food is relatively a current phenomenon in parallel with the consumers’ growing awareness of nutrition and quality. It is therefore an important attribute to be learned by all parties who are involved in the food industries such as cruise ships, themed restaurant, food courts and many others in order to satisfy the need and wants of their customers. To reduce the operational cost, most of the pioneers in fast food restaurant have chosen the location of their business at high volume traffic locations such as airports, motorways and railway stations. In other words, as mentioned by Davis, Aquilino ; Chase (2002), in the operational sense, fresh food relies on the principles of lean manufacturing. The effectiveness and efficiencies of operations is important to ensure the food can be served at the lowest time possible to ensure the freshness of the food itself.
Presentation refers to how attractively food is presented and decorated as a tangible cue for customer perception of quality. Kivela et al. (2009) pointed out that the presentation of food is a key food attribute in modeling dining satisfaction and return patronage. Presentation is associated with how the food is being prepared and presented to the customers. It is a part of tangible cue and by successfully presenting a good-looking and well-decorated food can stimulate the customer perception of quality. The presentation of the food is a key food attribute in modelling dining satisfaction (Kivela et al., 2009).
Moreover, when the food is well presented, it may catalyst the feeling and mood towards consuming the food. Consequently, it will help to create a good relationship and emotional attachment between customer and the server of the food. Presentation of the food actually is about how the consumer perceived the value of the product physically or internally (ingredients). Physically, the product may be perceived as good quality if it is presented with attractive packaging or informative labelling about the product. Internally, food may be associated with quality if the ingredients are in a complete mixture of necessary raw materials. As described by Caswell ; Mojduszka (2006), nutritional characteristics and the content level of various chemical substances are attributes that influence consumers perceived quality.
According to Namkung and Jang (2007), presentation refers to technique of plating food, decorated attractively to get an eye catching of costumer in order to fulfill the customer perception of quality. Kivela et al., (1999) highlighted that the presentation of food is a one of the factors food feature in modelling dining satisfaction and return customer. Other than that, food presentation also as one of the product/service factors in the TANGSERV scales (Rajpoot, 2002).
Presentation of the food actually is about how the consumer perceived the value of the product physically or internally (ingredients). Physically, the product may be perceived as good quality if it is presented with attractive packaging or informative labeling about the product. Internally, food may be associated with quality if the ingredients are in a complete mixture of necessary raw materials. As described by Caswell ; Mojduszka, 1996, nutritional characteristics and the content level of various chemical substances are attributes that influence consumers perceived quality.
In addition, Raajpoot (2002) healthy options involve offering nutritious and healthy food. Johns and Tyas (1996) stated that healthy food could have a significant effect on customer perceived evaluation of the restaurant experience. Kivela et al. (1999) noted the importance of healthy foods in restaurants and suggested nutritious food as one of the core properties in dining satisfaction and return patronage. The more notable thing is that restaurant customers are increasingly interested in healthy menu items (Sulek and Hensley, 2004). According to Johns and Tyas (1996), healthy food might have a significant effect on the customers’ perceived evaluation of the restaurant experience. Sulek and Hensley (2004) mentioned many restaurant customers are concerned with their health, so the availability of nutritious food items has become increasingly essential as one of the core properties of dining satisfaction.
Taste is regarded as a key attribute in food in the dining experience (Kivela et al., 2009). Many customers have become food savvy, so the taste of food in restaurants has become increasingly important (Cortese, 2013). It is thus not surprising that shabby restaurants with gourmet cooking are packed with customers. Thus, taste is usually believed to influence restaurant customer satisfaction and future behavior intentions (Kivela et al., 2009).
Every human has the opportunity to taste different tastes of food around the world. The taste of a kind of food depends on the culture and geographical locations. The flavor of the food has become a taste for each human being on this planet. It can be sweet, salty, or spices. According to Kivela et al., (2009), taste is the main attribute in food that influences customer satisfaction at the restaurant thus, it might create a future behavior intentions. Taste is like a message that comes with food informing the consumers that it has a quality towards the ingredients mixed in the cooking. As food is eaten within a meal, the attractiveness of its appearance, smell, texture and taste declines (Hetherington, M., Burley, V.J. & Rolls, B.J., 1989) and the intake of this food decreases relative to intake of other foods (Rolls, Duijvenvoorde, and Rolls, 2014).
According to Lim (2010), for the customer it is not necessary that a better quality can be a better taste, if customer like the taste of food he/she will be willing to pay for the it. Based on previous researches, in customer satisfaction and taste, there is a significant correlation found between them. Researchers found that Good taste of food has positive influence on customer’s satisfaction and it also increase the customer’s retention rate which is also depends upon customer’s satisfaction. Therefore, restaurants focus is on taste of the food and services that has influence on customer’s satisfaction.
Freshness usually refers to the fresh state of food and appears to be related to crispness, juiciness, and aroma (Péneau, Hoehn, Roth, Escher, & Nuessli, 2006). In previous studies, freshness of food has been cited as a crucial intrinsic quality cue of food (Acebrón & Dopico, 2010; Johns & Tyas, 2006; Kivela et al., 2009). Food is one of the factors that influencing customer satisfaction. Zeithaml and Bitner (2003) stated food related into factors to the customer and the context of eating. According to Brown (2004), factors that relate to the food are explicated in terms of the sensory characteristics of the food such as color, flavor (odor or taste), texture and temperature.
Temperature is also a sensory element of food quality. According to Delwiche (2004), temperature influenced how the perceived flavor of food was evaluated, interacting with other sensory properties such as taste, smell, and sight. Thus, temperature could be considered as one determinant enhancing pleasure in the food experience (Kähkönen, Tuorila, and Hyvönen, 2005). A small change in freshness is difficult for most people to assess (Cardello and Schutz 2013). Ironically, foods that are minimally processed (such as by high pressure or pulsed electric fields) are rated as less fresh than refrigerated or frozen foods.
Therefore, temperature can be considered, besides energy uptake, the most important proximal cause of variation in size and age at metamorphosis. Low temperatures retard differentiation more than growth, thereby increasing stage-specific size (Smith-Gill and Berven, 2009). As a result, larval anurans grown at cold temperatures have prolonged developmental periods but they are also larger as metamorphs than conspecifics grown at warmer temperatures. This phenomenon makes up one of the most general rules for ectotherms (Atkinson, 2006).
Proper food handling techniques must be used to avoid condition suitable for microbial growth and cross-contamination. Cross-contamination is the transfer of harmful microorganism from one item of food to another via a non-food surface such as human hands, equipment’s, or utensils. It may also refer to a direct transfer from a raw to a cooked food product. Numerous factors can contribute to the outbreak of foodborne illness, but errors in food handling are often implicated in outbreaks of foodborne illness. There errors can be avoided through an on going training. To prevent cross-contamination, it is a good idea to schedule staff so they are not assigned to do more than one job during a shift. Serving food, setting tables, and bussing dirty dishes are separate tasks, with different responsibilities. It is important for server and bussers who do double duty to wash their hands often and handle food safety. Employees should understand time temperature relationship and be able to practice proper food handling techniques. Serving safe food requires constant attention to the factors that can cause foodborne illness (Gawain, 2006).
Even food that is safe when delivered and properly store can quickly become unsafe if handled improperly during preparation and cooking. Food server need to be just as careful as kitchen staff. If they aren’t careful, they can contaminate food simply by handling the food-contact surfaces of a place. Server should use the following guidelines to serve food safety. Individuals that are involved in food handling should undergo a health examination before being hired and at routine intervals thereafter. The exam should include a tuberculin test and many food service operation, especially those on health care organizations, requires screening for hepatitis A. Many state and local regulatory agencies requires specific requirements. The successful hiring process should be followed by a thorough orientation and training on the standard of personal hygiene established or the food service operation (O’Hanlon, 2008).
In a study conducted by Linton (2010), he found out that nearly all foodborne illnesses from foodservice and food retail establishments could be prevented with good food handling practices. Most food-borne illnesses linked to foodservice and food retail are due to poor personal hygiene, cross-contamination, and/or temperature abuse. Personal cleanliness is essential to prevent foodborne hazards from being transferred from a food handler to a food. Good personal hygiene includes washing hands and other parts of the body that may touch food. It also involves good health of the food handler and proper use of hair restraints and gloves. Cross-contamination from a food handler to a food can be avoided with good personal hygiene.
Food preparation represents an integral stage in processing of raw materials to produce a quality finished food product for consumption. All food produced must be safe, wholesome, nutritious, palatable. The preparation requires consideration of a number of critical areas. First is the personal hygiene, all staff handling food must be in good state of health and any illnesses preventing the food handler from safety processing food must be reported before any duties are commenced. It is also an application of principles for maintaining health and personal cleanliness (Millman, 2012).
Moreover, in food preparation and cooking, policies should be designed, implemented, and monitored that cover proper attire, personal hygiene habits and employee illness. The single most important practice in preventing the spread of foodborne illness is proper and frequent hand washing. Foodservice personnel should keep their fingernails trimmed and clean hands should be kept away from face, hair, and mouth; disposable gloves should be encouraged for direct food contact and are required by raw in some areas of the country. Employees should be trained to change gloves frequently to prevent cross-contamination; smoking should be permitted in designated areas only and away from food preparation and service areas. Only authorized personnel should be allowed in production areas. Food being prepared should only travel in one direction and should not be passed from a clean area back to a dirty area. The avoidance of cross-contamination risk will require separate utensils per handling of the same product in its raw and cooked stages. The last one in the raw materials; the quality of the raw material used as components of a food product will have a direct relation to the ultimate quality of the food produce (Mazur, 2004).
Most cases of illness related to restaurant food can often be traced back to restaurant workers failing to utilize proper food handling and preparation. In order to improve the practices necessary to keep food and dishes safe, it is important to be aware of the various factors that affect such practices (Adams, 2013).
Adams (2013) also stated that there are basically seven food preparation practices that should always be followed to the latter. These include the frequent washing of hands, prevention of contamination of food items, use of gloves, making sure that the food is cooked at the right temperature, keeping heated food hot, keeping cooled food cold, and reheating food to the correct temperature.
In addition, many food workers have testified that there are a number of mitigating factors that make it much more difficult to safely handle food, and these include time pressure, the push to get dishes prepared and out to customers as fast as possible, as well as the lack of poor equipment and resources necessary to prepare meals properly (Richardson et al., 2012).
Proper cooking of foods is probably the most important way a food handler in food retail can promote safe food to the customer. If a potentially hazardous food is cooked to the proper temperature, harmful microorganisms will be eliminated in most cases. Cooking guidelines as published in the 1995 FDA Food Code are based on scientific studies (Siraj, 2014).
Furthermore, cooking methods in different food retail operations can differ. Most foods are cooked in a conventional oven or in a microwave. Foods heat unevenly when cooked in the microwave versus a conventional oven. Therefore, cooking temperature guidelines have been established for both cooking methods. Generally, foods need to be cooked to a higher cooking temperature when microwaved to assure safety. Cooking temperatures for foods should be measured with a calibrated temperature measuring device (i.e. metal stem thermometer). Temperature should be measured in the part of the food that is heated last. This is usually the center or thickest part of the food. Time can be measured with a clock or watch (Luke, 2013).
Most fine dining and casual dining restaurants employ a wait staff to serve and care for the patrons. Servers are an essential part of the concept; they deliver the positive attitude and respect that create a memorable experience for dining guests. Just as a manager should expect a top-notch server, servers need solid training and ongoing support to succeed (Duff et al., 2013).
In addition, servers spend their entire shifts on their feet, moving quickly between the kitchen and the dining room floor. Proper orientation to the layout of the restaurant, including restrooms, emergency exits, storage rooms, kitchen space and dining room arrangement are important to a server’s speed and comfort in the restaurant environment (kng.com, 2013).
Moreover, managers often provide new servers the opportunity to taste several items on the menu before serving them. In order to sell the items, it is essential that servers sample as much as possible so they can suggest a favorite or describe the flavors of the special. Additionally, guests often want to know the nutritional information of dishes, or how they are prepared (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2012).
Furthermore, proper service etiquette is paramount to a memorable dining experience. Servers must be adequately trained in exceptional customer care before they begin working shifts. Provide opportunities to practice proper serving techniques and etiquette by engaging in role-modelling exercises, or by pairing more experienced workers with new ones (Duff et al., 2013).
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
This study is anchored on the theory of Food Quality and Safety of Griffith (2006) that the attitudes and beliefs concerning food quality and safety within an organization is almost entirely dependent on management commitment and worker food safety behavior, such as how food quality and safety is communicated to the employees, and how well the employees trust what they hear from management. Management needs to
Incorporate the other components (commitment, environment, perception and risk taking behavior) into daily routines and current practices. The two most important factors for developing a food safety culture in food service
Operations are management commitment and worker food safety behavior.
This study is anchored on Gould’s (2013) proposition on the importance of food safety culture through food handling and food preparation. Food handling mainly refers to the activity of people who directly touch open food which can therefore apply to managers, cleaners, maintenance contractors, inspectors and direct food handlers such as cook, waiters, among others. On the other hand, food preparation represent an integral state in processing of raw materials to produce quality finish products for public consumption. Similarly, food safety has become an increasingly important issue in the food services industry, reflected by a significant increase in media and regulatory attention, and associated penalties for targeted organizations.
This was also supported on the food safety culture of Sikora (2005) who stated that on order to preserve the quality features in food products, various safety measures should be observed and developed. Moreover, Tannahill (2003) added that food industry employees and management should take appropriate actions to make sure food is safe from the moment it is received until the moment it is served to the costumer.
Moreover, this study is also anchored on the proposition of Simons and Schuster (2004) who stated that food safety culture is one of the core values, and nothing is more important in food enterprises than providing safe, quality food. It goes beyond what is required by law and even makes their expertise available to costumers’. Certainly, making food safety a priority is not just the right thing to do. It is one of the best ways to protect business reputation and preserve the values of the company.
Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study. The main variable is the challenges on food quality with the following indicators such as: management commitment and worker food safety behavior. The moderating variable is the profile of the respondents with the following indicators such as: age, sex, educational attainment and length of service (work).
center0CHALLENGES ON FOOD QUALITY
Worker Food Safety Behavior
400000CHALLENGES ON FOOD QUALITY
Worker Food Safety Behavior
158242046355PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS:
Length of Service (Work)
400000PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS:
Length of Service (Work)
Figure 1.Conceptual Framework Showing the Variable of the Study.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would be beneficial to the following:
Restaurant Operators / Managers. The result of the study is significant to selected restaurant and managers in Davao City because this will provide them information about the challenges on food quality.
Restaurant Employees. The output of this study is very important to restaurant employees since this will increase their level of awareness on the challenges on food quality in selected restaurant in Davao City, thus putting it into practice in their field of work.
BSHRM Students. The outcome of the study is valuable to BSHRM students since this will widen their knowledge about the challenges on food quality in selected restaurant in Davao City, which they can use as basis and reference in the practice of their chosen profession in the future.
Future Researchers. The findings of the study is important to future researchers for them to use it as their data baseline to conduct further study regarding challenges on food quality in selected restaurants in Davao City, particularly variables not discussed in this study.
Definition of Terms
For the purpose of classifying the terminologies used in this study are operationally and conceptually defined.
Challenges. It refers to is something new and difficult which requires great effort and determination. In this study, it refers to the problems / issues being confronted by selected restaurants in Davao City with regards to food quality.
Food Quality. It refers to the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers. This includes external factors as appearance (size, shape, color, gloss, and consistency), texture, and flavor; factors such as federal grade standards (e.g. of eggs) and internal (chemical, physical, microbial). In this study, it refers to the quality of foods being served by restaurants in Davao City.
Restaurant. Conceptually, it is a place where one can eat a meal and pay for it and is usually served by a waiter or waitress (Collins, 2016). In this study, it refers to business establishments who are serving food, which also refers to the research locale of the study.
Davao City. It refers to a major city in Southeastern Philippines, which is also considered as one of the major city in Mindanao (Moreno-Fernandez, 2017). In this study, it refers to the research locale of the study wherein restaurants are located.
Presented in this chapter are the discussions on the research design, the procedure in conducting and identifying the respondents, the instrument used and the statistical tools employed.
The researchers made use of descriptive research method. This method is more appropriate because it uses the survey in collecting data from a wide by selecting a representative sample of a large population. Krathwohl (2013) stated that there are three main purposes of descriptive research method which is: to describe, explain, and validate findings. Description emerges following creative exploration, and serves to organize the findings in order to fit them with explanations, and then test or validate those explanations. Thus, the researchers decided to utilize descriptive research method for the study determine the challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City.
The respondents of this study were (100) employees of selected restaurants in Davao City. The researchers utilized purposive sampling in which only employees of selected restaurants in Davao City were selected as respondents. According to Black (2010), purposive sampling also known as judgment, selective or subjective sampling is a sampling technique in which researcher relies on his or her own judgment when choosing members of population to participate in the study.
Profile of the Respondents
Table 1 shows the profile of the respondents. In terms of age, majority are between 26-35 years old with 42 (42%), which was followed by 36-45 years old respondents with 37 (37%), 21-25 years old with 18 (18%), and 46-55 respondents with 3 (3%). Moreover, in terms of sex, majority are male with 84 (84%), while female respondents has 16 (16%). In addition, in terms of educational attainment, majority are college level respondents with 86 (86%), while there are 14 respondents (14%) who are high school level. Furthermore, in terms of length of service, majority has 1-3 years work experience with 59 (59%), followed by 4-6 years with 21 (21%), 15 respondents (15%), with less than one year, 4 respondents (4%) with 7-10 years work experience and 1 respondent (1%) with 11 years above work experience.
Table 1. Characteristics of 100 respondents included in the survey.
Profile Variables Frequency Percent (%)
Age 21-25 18 18.0
26-35 42 42.0
36-45 37 37.0
46-55 3 3.0
56 above 0 0.0
Sex Male 84 84.0
Female 16 16.0
Educational Attainment Elementary Level 0 0.0
High School Level 14 14.0
College Level 86 86.0
Others 0 0.0
Length of Service Less than one year 15 15.0
1-3 years 59 59.0
4-6 years 21 21.0
7- 10 years 4 4.0
11 years above 1 1.0
The researchers utilized an adopted survey questionnaire from the study of Neal and Binkley (2012) entitled: Assessing Factors Contributing to Food Safety in Retail Food Establishment, and was modified to fit into the study. During the modification of the survey questionnaires, researchers were assisted by their research adviser. The survey questionnaire underwent content validation from experts / faculty members from the College of Hospitality Education of the University of Mindanao. The survey questionnaire was divided into two (2) parts. The first part covered the profile of the respondents. The second part were questions pertaining to the challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City.
In evaluating the responses of the respondents, the following scale was used:
Rating Scale Descriptive Rating Interpretation
4.20 – 5.00 Very High This means that the embodied statement signifies very high challenge in food quality.
3.40 – 4.19 High This means that the embodied statement signifies high challenge in food quality.
2.30 – 3.39 Moderate This means that the embodied statement signifies moderate challenge in food quality.
1.80 – 2.29 Low This means that the embodied statement signifies low challenge in food quality.
1.00 – 1.79 Very Low This means that the embodied statement signifies very low challenge in food quality.
Data Gathering Procedures
The following steps were followed by the researchers in the conduct of the study:
Asking Permission to Conduct the Study. The researchers asked permission, through a formal letter duly noted by their thesis adviser, to the Dean of College of Hospitality Education, to conduct the study. Another letter was sent to the managers / operators of selected restaurants, which was also duly noted by their thesis adviser, asking permission to conduct study in their business establishments through distribution of survey questionnaires to selected respondents.
Administration of Research Instrument. After getting necessary permissions, the researchers distributed the researcher-made questionnaires to their selected respondents.
Collation and Tabulation of Data. The researchers retrieved the survey questionnaires and tabulated all the data that was subjected to statistical analysis with the guidance of the school statistician. Then the results were analyzed and interpreted based on the statement of the problem of the study.
Statistical Treatment of the Data
The following statistical tools were used in the computation of data testing the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance.
Frequency Count & Percentage. This was used in determining the numbers of respondents and their ratio based on their demographic profile in percentage form.
Average Weighted Mean (Mean). This was used in determining the challenges on food quality among selected restaurants.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).This was used in determining the significant difference on the challenges on food quality among selected restaurants when analyzed by age, educational attainment, and length of service
T-test. This was used in determining the significant difference on the challenges on food quality among selected restaurants when analyzed by sex.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This section presents the analyzed data and discussion. The presentation as arranged as follows: Level of Challenges on Food Quality Among Selected Restaurants in Davao City and Significant Differences in the Level of Challenges on Food Quality Among Selected Restaurants in Davao City When Analyzed by Profile.
Level of Challenges on Food Quality Among
Selected Restaurants in Davao City
Table 2 shows the level of challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City. Overall, data shows that management commitment and worker food safety behavior very highly posed challenged to the restaurants in Davao City, as this was reflected in the overall mean rating of 4.92 or very high. This means that restaurant management and employees always faced everyday challenges on how to keep the food quality in excellent condition. This implied that keeping food quality at its highest level is a must in the food industry. This was emphasized by Sulek and Hensley (2004) that food is the most crucial part of the overall restaurant experience. They lumped all food attributes into only one variable, food quality, while Peri (2006) stated that food quality is an absolute requirement to satisfy the needs and expectations of restaurant customers.
Specifically, in terms of management commitment, it poses a very high challenge the restaurants, and these challenges were how to impose
Table 2. Level of Challenges on Food Quality Among Selected Restaurants in Davao City
Mean Descriptive Interpretation
1. Food safety even when the restaurant is busy. 4.90 Very High
2. Show leadership by keeping employees focused on food safety. 4.94 Very High
3. Make sure employees follow food safety rules all the time. 4.94 Very High
4. Make sure employees have the equipment and/or tools needed to follow the food safety rules. 4.92 Very High
5. Make changes when mistakes are found in food safety. 4.87 Very High
6. Impose that food safety is very important. 4.96 Very High
7. Check to see that all employees are following food safety rules. 4.92 Very High
Total Mean 4.92 Very High
Worker Food Safety Behavior 1. Wash my hands after handling raw food to protect the food from contamination. 4.98 Very High
2. Change my gloves after every operation to protect food from contamination. 4.92 Very High
3. Wash .my hands every 30mins to protect food from contamination. 4.79 Very High
4. Support our food safety program. 4.99 Very High
5. Did my job can affect the safety of the food the customer receives? 4.94 Very High
6. Encourage my co-employees to abide by the food safety rules. 4.99 Very High
Total Mean 4.93 Very High
Overall Mean 4.92 Very High
to the employees that food safety is very important, how to show leadership by keeping employees focused on food safety and also how to make sure that employees follow food safety rules all the time. This implied that restaurant management are really focused on their commitment how to provide food quality to their customers. The importance of food quality, which is a challenged through the management commitment of restaurants was explained by the USDA’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) which provide its guideline to “Keep food safe to eat”, in which the goal was to develop a strategy for promoting food safety among workers providing food to a vulnerable population who utilize food recovery programs. Education of food handlers is critical to decrease the risk of food-borne illness in this population.
Similarly, in terms of worker food safety behavior, it also poses a very high challenge to the restaurants, and some of these challenges is how to maintain the employees to wash their hands regularly to protect the food from contamination, how to get the support of the employees to support the management’s food safety program and how to encourage employees to abide by the food safety rules. This implied that restaurant management knew that food quality is not only the responsibility of the management, but it is a collective responsibility together with their employees. This was supported by Hanacek (2010) that in many business’, food safety culture can be considered of similar importance to regulatory compliance and customer service. If any of these three aspects fail, the business itself could fail. Many business also elevate safety to the same or even a higher level of importance than these as no business can exist without employees.
Test of Difference in the Challenges on Food Quality Among
Selected Restaurants When Analyzed by Sex
Table 3 shows the significant differences in the challenges on food quality among selected restaurants when analyzed by sex. Finding shows
Table 3. Independent samples t-test results showing the differences in the level of challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City when analyzed by sex.
Variables Group N Mean Std. Deviation t-value p-value
Management Commitment Male 84 4.93 0.163 1.583 0.117
Female 16 4.85 0.239 Worker Food Safety Behavior Male 84 4.94 0.110 1.816 0.072
Female 16 4.88 0.157 *p;0.05
that there are no manifestations of differences in the perception of the respondents in both indicators such as management commitment (p- value=.117) and worker food safety behavior (p-value=0.072), as p-values are greater than .05 level of significance set in this study. This means that that male and female respondents have the same perception on how big the challenges they are facing in order to maintain food quality. This means that male and female workers in the food industry shared the same belief that food quality is very important, and this was explained by Nickell and Hinsz (2011) that the importance of having a product fully meets all the intended requirements and to have all the expected characteristics is the basis for quality control in any process. This was also agreed by Jespersen and Huffman (2011) that when any product is brought to market, there are a number of steps which have to be followed correctly to result in the desired goods to sell, while Corke (2014) stated that sometimes this can be as simple as verifying that procedures are followed. It can also entail checking to see that records are kept and stored or that purchasing takes all the needed steps to make sure what is bought is exactly what is desired.
Test of Difference in the Challenges on Food Quality Among
Selected Restaurants When Analyzed by Age, Educational Attainment and Length of Service
Table 4 shows the significant differences in the challenges on food quality among selected restaurants when analyzed by age, educational attainment and length of service. Finding shows that in terms of age, there are no manifestations of differences in the perception of the respondents in the challenges on food quality. This means that young and old restaurant workers have the same level of perception on how big the challenges they are facing to provide quality foods to their customers. However, in terms of educational attainment (p-value=.002) and length of service (p-value=.047), both p-values are lesser than .05 level of significance, thus there are significant differences. This means that the perception on the challenges on food quality differs on the educational attainment of the respondents and also on the length of service. This can be attributed to the fact that the higher the education of a person, the higher also his or her knowledge about food quality. In the same vein, the longer the years of employee in the restaurant, the greater also his / her experience on food quality, thus in this aspect, this resulted to their differences in their perception towards food quality. This was supported by
Table 4. Summary of ANOVA results showing the differences in the level of challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City when analyzed according to age, educational attainment, and length of service.
Profile Variables Sum of Squares dfMean Square F Sig.
Age Between Groups 12.047 15 0.803 1.385 0.174
Within Groups 48.703 84 0.580 Total 60.750 99 Educational Attainment Between Groups 3.911 15 0.261 2.694 0.002*
Within Groups 8.129 84 0.097 Total 12.040 99 Length of Service Between Groups 14.152 15 0.943 1.803 0.047*
Within Groups 43.958 84 0.523 Total 58.110 99 *p;0.05
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter contains the summary of findings in the sub-problems set out in Chapter 1.
Summary of Findings
This study was conducted to determine the challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City.
The findings of the study are summarized as follows:
In terms of the level of challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City, maintaining management commitment and worker food safety behavior, both created greater challenges.
2. In terms of significant differences in the level of challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City when analyzed by profile, not significant differences were manifested when analyzed by sex and age. However, differences were manifested when analyzed by educational attainment and length of service.
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn:
1. Maintaining food quality posed a great challenge among restaurants in Davao City.
2. There is no significant difference in the level of challenges on food quality among selected restaurants in Davao City when analyzed by sex, however, are significant differences when analyzed by educational attainment and length of service.
Based on the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are given:
1. The restaurant operators and managers after learning the information on the importance of food quality through management commitment and food safety behavior of employees, it should continuously food quality practices must be maintained to the minds of their employees its importance and value. Which employee’s knowledge and awareness of food quality preserve the outlook of the risk of foodborne illness. Restaurant employees are to compel themselves to increase their level of awareness on the importance of food safety behavior citing accomplishment of the employees and how they contributed to the organization.
2. The restaurant employees should compel themselves to increase their level of awareness on the importance of proper food handling and preparation, thus putting into practice in their field of work.
3. The BSHRM students would consider this study to widen their knowledge about food handling and preparation, which they can use as basis and reference in the practice of their chosen profession in the future.
4. The future researchers may conduct further study regarding food quality among restaurants in Davao City, particularly variables not discussed in this study.
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