Cenospheres a problematic fly ash management. Meanwhile

Cenospheres Characterization from Indonesian Coal-Fired Power Plant Fly Ash and its Correlation with the Fly Ash’s Chemical CompositionHimawan Tri Bayu Murti Petrusa, Wisnu Supraptaa, Muhammad Olvianasa, Felix Arie Setiawanb, Ferian Anggarac, Agus Prasetyaa, and Sutijana*aDepartment of Chemical Engineering (Sustainable Mineral Processing Research Group), Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Kampus UGM Bulaksumur, D.

I. Yogyakarta 55281, IndonesiabDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Jember, Jalan Kalimantan No. 37, Jember, Jawa Timur, 68121, IndonesiacDepartment of Geological Engineering (Unconventional Geo-resources Research Center), Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Kampus UGM Bulaksumur, D. I. Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia*Corresponding Author:E-mail: [email protected]

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: +628121594442Declarations of interest: noneAbstractAs the major fuel to generate electricity in power plant unit, Coal has broadly used worldwidely. Namely fly ash, the solid waste resulted from the coal-fired is increasing with the increasing need of coal. Cenospheres, the spherical silica aluminate, have been part of fly ash with superior physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties which can be utilized in many products. Indonesia with predictive need of coal occupies 33% of the total energy mix in the year 2025 will indeed face a problematic fly ash management. Meanwhile the investigation on potential cenospheres production has not been conducted. Thus, we conduct this study to provide overall depiction on cenospheres potential and its correlation to fly ash chemical composition in order to be able to understand the cenospheres formation mechanism and to predict the potential production of cenospheres from fly ash. Many aspects affect the cenospheres formation during coal combustion such as coal properties and operating conditions. This work studies the cenospheres characterization and its relationship with fly ash chemical composition from seven coal-fired power plants in Indonesia.

For cenospheres characterization SEM-EDS and particle analyzer distribution were applied through all samples. Coal and fly ash chemical composition were analyzed using proximate analysis and ICP-MS. From the characterization of cenospheres and fly ash chemical composition, we correlate the concentration of SiO2, Al2O3, SiO2/Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe2O3+TiO2, CaO, MgO in the fly ash with cenospheres yield and diameter. Ternary diagram is also presented in this study for further application of cenospheres produced from Indonesia’s coal-fired power plant.Keywords: Fly ash, Cenospheres, Characterization, Chemical Compositions.IntroductionCoal is considered as the most feasible fuel to generate electricity at the moment.

The abundace of coal is the main factor affecting its feasibility which leads the lower price compared with other fuel sources. In addition effortless and economical technology applied in coal fired power plant triggers the excalation of coal fired power plant ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Mohr</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>124</RecNum><DisplayText>1, 2</DisplayText><record><rec-number>124</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426664″>124</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mohr, SH</author><author>Wang, Jianliang</author><author>Ellem, Gary</author><author>Ward, James</author><author>Giurco, D %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Projection of world fossil fuels by country</title></titles><pages>120-135</pages><volume>141</volume><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Cornot-Gandolphe</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>106</RecNum><record><rec-number>106</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426181″>106</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Indonesia&apos;s Electricity Demand and the Coal Sector: Export Or Meet Domestic Demand?</title></titles><dates><year>2017</year></dates><publisher>Oxford Institute for Energy Studies</publisher><isbn>1784670790</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Mohr</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>124</RecNum><record><rec-number>124</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426664″>124</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mohr, SH</author><author>Wang, Jianliang</author><author>Ellem, Gary</author><author>Ward, James</author><author>Giurco, D %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Projection of world fossil fuels by country</title></titles><pages>120-135</pages><volume>141</volume><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>1, 2, especially in Indonesia, as it can be seen in Fig 1 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Indonesia</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>126</RecNum><DisplayText>3</DisplayText><record><rec-number>126</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538428111″>126</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Legal Rule or Regulation”>50</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Keputusan Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia No. 5899 K/20/MEM/2016 tentang Pengesahan Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik PT </title></titles><dates><year>2016</year></dates><pub-location>Jakarta</pub-location><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>3. As shown in Fig.

1 (a) and (b), there will be significant increase of energy mix in Indonesia based on coal with twice-fold higher within 19 years from 2006-2025. As stated in Indonesian Presidential Regulation No. 5 of 2006, energy demand in the year of 2025 will mostly be supplied by coal with the percentage of 33% from total energy consumption ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Indonesia</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>103</RecNum><DisplayText>3, 4</DisplayText><record><rec-number>103</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426176″>103</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Indonesia, Presiden Republik %J Jakarta: Batan Pertahanan Nasional</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 5 Tahun 2006 Tentang Kebijakan Energi Nasional</title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Indonesia</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>126</RecNum><record><rec-number>126</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538428111″>126</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Legal Rule or Regulation”>50</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Keputusan Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia No. 5899 K/20/MEM/2016 tentang Pengesahan Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik PT </title></titles><dates><year>2016</year></dates><pub-location>Jakarta</pub-location><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>3, 4. This coal dependancy in energy sector is also observed in Asia Pacific region at which more than 45% of energy demand will be covered using coal ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Petroleum</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>125</RecNum><DisplayText>5</DisplayText><record><rec-number>125</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538427884″>125</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Report”>27</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>British Petroleum</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>BP Statistical Review of World Energy</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>BP Statistical Review of World Energy</title></titles><edition>67th Ed</edition><dates><year>2018</year><pub-dates><date>June 2018</date></pub-dates></dates><pub-location>London SW1Y 4PD</pub-location><publisher>British Petroleum</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>5.

This significant increase of coal usage in power generation, especially in Indonesia, will provide of about 8.31 million tonnes of fly ash in 2019 with 5% per year increase. This abundance of fly ash will posses serious environmental problems, if it is not well managed 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 ADDIN EN.

CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Kb3NoaTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjE5OTc8L1llYXI+PFJlY051bT45ODwvUmVjTnVtPjxEaXNwbGF5VGV4dD5bNi05XTwvRGlzcGxheVRleHQ+PHJlY29yZD48cmVjLW51bWJlcj45ODwvcmVjLW51bWJlcj48Zm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxrZXkgYXBwPSJFTiIgZGItaWQ9IjUwZmVyenNkNTAwZnNvZXBlZnR2YWEycjl6d2VyOXYydGFkYSIgdGltZXN0YW1wPSIxNTM4NDI2MTY4Ij45ODwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxyZWYtdHlwZSBuYW1lPSJCb29rIj42PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjxhdXRob3JzPjxhdXRob3I+Sm9zaGksIFJhbWVzaCBDPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5Mb2hpdGEsIFJQPC9hdXRob3I+PC9hdXRob3JzPjwvY29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjx0aXRsZXM+PHRpdGxlPkZseSBhc2ggaW4gY29uY3JldGU6IHByb2R1Y3Rpb24sIHByb3BlcnRpZXMgYW5kIHVzZXM8L3RpdGxlPjwvdGl0bGVzPjx2b2x1bWU+Mjwvdm9sdW1lPjxkYXRlcz48eWVhcj4xOTk3PC95ZWFyPjwvZGF0ZXM+PHB1Ymxpc2hlcj5DUkMgUHJlc3M8L3B1Ymxpc2hlcj48aXNibj45MDU2OTk1ODA0PC9pc2JuPjx1cmxzPjwvdXJscz48L3JlY29yZD48L0NpdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5QYXRyYTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTI8L1llYXI+PFJlY051bT4xMDE8L1JlY051bT48cmVjb3JkPjxyZWMtbnVtYmVyPjEwMTwvcmVjLW51bWJlcj48Zm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxrZXkgYXBwPSJFTiIgZGItaWQ9IjUwZmVyenNkNTAwZnNvZXBlZnR2YWEycjl6d2VyOXYydGFkYSIgdGltZXN0YW1wPSIxNTM4NDI2MTczIj4xMDE8L2tleT48L2ZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48cmVmLXR5cGUgbmFtZT0iSm91cm5hbCBBcnRpY2xlIj4xNzwvcmVmLXR5cGU+PGNvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48YXV0aG9ycz48YXV0aG9yPlBhdHJhLCBLQzwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+UmF1dHJheSwgVGFwYXNoIFI8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPk5heWFrLCBQICVKIEFwcGxpZWQgUmFkaWF0aW9uPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5Jc290b3BlczwvYXV0aG9yPjwvYXV0aG9ycz48L2NvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48dGl0bGVzPjx0aXRsZT5BbmFseXNpcyBvZiBncmFpbnMgZ3Jvd24gb24gZmx5IGFzaCB0cmVhdGVkIHNvaWxzPC90aXRsZT48L3RpdGxlcz48cGFnZXM+MTc5Ny0xODAyPC9wYWdlcz48dm9sdW1lPjcwPC92b2x1bWU+PG51bWJlcj44PC9udW1iZXI+PGRhdGVzPjx5ZWFyPjIwMTI8L3llYXI+PC9kYXRlcz48aXNibj4wOTY5LTgwNDM8L2lzYm4+PHVybHM+PC91cmxzPjwvcmVjb3JkPjwvQ2l0ZT48Q2l0ZT48QXV0aG9yPk5ldXBhbmU8L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDEzPC9ZZWFyPjxSZWNOdW0+MTAwPC9SZWNOdW0+PHJlY29yZD48cmVjLW51bWJlcj4xMDA8L3JlYy1udW1iZXI+PGZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48a2V5IGFwcD0iRU4iIGRiLWlkPSI1MGZlcnpzZDUwMGZzb2VwZWZ0dmFhMnI5endlcjl2MnRhZGEiIHRpbWVzdGFtcD0iMTUzODQyNjE3MSI+MTAwPC9rZXk+PC9mb3JlaWduLWtleXM+PHJlZi10eXBlIG5hbWU9IkpvdXJuYWwgQXJ0aWNsZSI+MTc8L3JlZi10eXBlPjxjb250cmlidXRvcnM+PGF1dGhvcnM+PGF1dGhvcj5OZXVwYW5lLCBHaGFuYXNoeWFtPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5Eb25haG9lLCBSb25hIEogJUogRnVlbDwvYXV0aG9yPjwvYXV0aG9ycz48L2NvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48dGl0bGVzPjx0aXRsZT5MZWFjaGFiaWxpdHkgb2YgZWxlbWVudHMgaW4gYWxrYWxpbmUgYW5kIGFjaWRpYyBjb2FsIGZseSBhc2ggc2FtcGxlcyBkdXJpbmcgYmF0Y2ggYW5kIGNvbHVtbiBsZWFjaGluZyB0ZXN0czwvdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBhZ2VzPjc1OC03NzA8L3BhZ2VzPjx2b2x1bWU+MTA0PC92b2x1bWU+PGRhdGVzPjx5ZWFyPjIwMTM8L3llYXI+PC9kYXRlcz48aXNibj4wMDE2LTIzNjE8L2lzYm4+PHVybHM+PC91cmxzPjwvcmVjb3JkPjwvQ2l0ZT48Q2l0ZT48QXV0aG9yPk55YWxlPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxNDwvWWVhcj48UmVjTnVtPjk5PC9SZWNOdW0+PHJlY29yZD48cmVjLW51bWJlcj45OTwvcmVjLW51bWJlcj48Zm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxrZXkgYXBwPSJFTiIgZGItaWQ9IjUwZmVyenNkNTAwZnNvZXBlZnR2YWEycjl6d2VyOXYydGFkYSIgdGltZXN0YW1wPSIxNTM4NDI2MTY5Ij45OTwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxyZWYtdHlwZSBuYW1lPSJKb3VybmFsIEFydGljbGUiPjE3PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjxhdXRob3JzPjxhdXRob3I+TnlhbGUsIFNhbW15IE08L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPkV6ZSwgQ2h1a3MgUDwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+QWtpbnlleWUsIFJpY2hhcmQgTzwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+R2l0YXJpLCBXaWxzb24gTTwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+QWtpbnllbWksIFNlZ3VuIEE8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPkZhdG9iYSwgT2xhbnJld2FqdSBPPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5QZXRyaWssIExlc2xpZSBGICVKIEpvdXJuYWwgb2YgRW52aXJvbm1lbnRhbCBTY2llbmNlPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5IZWFsdGgsIFBhcnQgQTwvYXV0aG9yPjwvYXV0aG9ycz48L2NvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48dGl0bGVzPjx0aXRsZT5UaGUgbGVhY2hpbmcgYmVoYXZpb3VyIGFuZCBnZW9jaGVtaWNhbCBmcmFjdGlvbmF0aW9uIG9mIHRyYWNlIGVsZW1lbnRzIGluIGh5ZHJhdWxpY2FsbHkgZGlzcG9zZWQgd2VhdGhlcmVkIGNvYWwgZmx5IGFzaDwvdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBhZ2VzPjIzMy0yNDI8L3BhZ2VzPjx2b2x1bWU+NDk8L3ZvbHVtZT48bnVtYmVyPjI8L251bWJlcj48ZGF0ZXM+PHllYXI+MjAxNDwveWVhcj48L2RhdGVzPjxpc2JuPjEwOTMtNDUyOTwvaXNibj48dXJscz48L3VybHM+PC9yZWNvcmQ+PC9DaXRlPjwvRW5kTm90ZT4A ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 6-9.

Somehow, worldwidely, the utilization of fly ash has not been sustainably established with the average percentage of 16% of the total ash ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ghosal</Author><Year>1995</Year><RecNum>96</RecNum><DisplayText>6, 10, 11</DisplayText><record><rec-number>96</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426164″>96</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ghosal, Sarbajit</author><author>Self, Sidney A %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Particle size-density relation and cenosphere content of coal fly ash</title></titles><pages>522-529</pages><volume>74</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>1995</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Joshi</Author><Year>1997</Year><RecNum>98</RecNum><record><rec-number>98</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426168″>98</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Joshi, Ramesh C</author><author>Lohita, RP</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Fly ash in concrete: production, properties and uses</title></titles><volume>2</volume><dates><year>1997</year></dates><publisher>CRC Press</publisher><isbn>9056995804</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Ranjbar</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>97</RecNum><record><rec-number>97</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426166″>97</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ranjbar, Navid</author><author>Kuenzel, Carsten %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cenospheres: A review</title></titles><pages>1-12</pages><volume>207</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>6, 10, 11. Most of the utilization is based on the material construction, soil amendment, zeolite synthesis, and as filler in polymers 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ODg3LTA2MjQ8L2lzYm4+PHVybHM+PC91cmxzPjwvcmVjb3JkPjwvQ2l0ZT48Q2l0ZT48QXV0aG9yPkxpPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMTwvWWVhcj48UmVjTnVtPjEyODwvUmVjTnVtPjxyZWNvcmQ+PHJlYy1udW1iZXI+MTI4PC9yZWMtbnVtYmVyPjxmb3JlaWduLWtleXM+PGtleSBhcHA9IkVOIiBkYi1pZD0iNTBmZXJ6c2Q1MDBmc29lcGVmdHZhYTJyOXp3ZXI5djJ0YWRhIiB0aW1lc3RhbXA9IjE1Mzg0Mjg4ODkiPjEyODwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxyZWYtdHlwZSBuYW1lPSJKb3VybmFsIEFydGljbGUiPjE3PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjxhdXRob3JzPjxhdXRob3I+TGksIFlpPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5XdSwgSG9uZ3dlaSAlSiBFbmVyZ3k8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPkZ1ZWxzPC9hdXRob3I+PC9hdXRob3JzPjwvY29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjx0aXRsZXM+PHRpdGxlPkFzaCBjZW5vc3BoZXJlIGZyb20gc29saWQgZnVlbHMgY29tYnVzdGlvbi4gUGFydCAxOiBBbiBpbnZlc3RpZ2F0aW9uIGludG8gaXRzIGZvcm1hdGlvbiBtZWNoYW5pc20gdXNpbmcgcHlyaXRlIGFzIGEgbW9kZWwgZnVlbDwvdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBhZ2VzPjEzMC0xMzc8L3BhZ2VzPjx2b2x1bWU+MjY8L3ZvbHVtZT48bnVtYmVyPjE8L251bWJlcj48ZGF0ZXM+PHllYXI+MjAxMTwveWVhcj48L2RhdGVzPjxpc2JuPjA4ODctMDYyNDwvaXNibj48dXJscz48L3VybHM+PC9yZWNvcmQ+PC9DaXRlPjwvRW5kTm90ZT4A ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5BY2FyPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxNjwvWWVhcj48UmVjTnVtPjEyMzwvUmVjTnVtPjxEaXNwbGF5VGV4dD5bMTItMTddPC9EaXNwbGF5VGV4dD48cmVjb3JkPjxyZWMtbnVtYmVyPjEyMzwvcmVjLW51bWJlcj48Zm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxrZXkgYXBwPSJFTiIgZGItaWQ9IjUwZmVyenNkNTAwZnNvZXBlZnR2YWEycjl6d2VyOXYydGFkYSIgdGltZXN0YW1wPSIxNTM4NDI2MjA5Ij4xMjM8L2tleT48L2ZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48cmVmLXR5cGUgbmFtZT0iSm91cm5hbCBBcnRpY2xlIj4xNzwvcmVmLXR5cGU+PGNvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48YXV0aG9ycz48YXV0aG9yPkFjYXIsIEk8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPkF0YWxheSwgTVUgJUogRnVlbDwvYXV0aG9yPjwvYXV0aG9ycz48L2NvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48dGl0bGVzPjx0aXRsZT5SZWNvdmVyeSBwb3RlbnRpYWxzIG9mIGNlbm9zcGhlcmVzIGZyb20gYml0dW1pbm91cyBjb2FsIGZseSBhc2hlczwvdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBhZ2VzPjk3LTEwNTwvcGFnZXM+PHZvbHVtZT4xODA8L3ZvbHVtZT48ZGF0ZXM+PHllYXI+MjAxNjwveWVhcj48L2RhdGVzPjxpc2JuPjAwMTYtMjM2MTwvaXNibj48dXJscz48L3VybHM+PC9yZWNvcmQ+PC9DaXRlPjxDaXRlPjxBdXRob3I+Q2hvPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAwNTwvWWVhcj48UmVjTnVtPjk0PC9SZWNOdW0+PHJlY29yZD48cmVjLW51bWJlcj45NDwvcmVjLW51bWJlcj48Zm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxrZXkgYXBwPSJFTiIgZGItaWQ9IjUwZmVyenNkNTAwZnNvZXBlZnR2YWEycjl6d2VyOXYydGFkYSIgdGltZXN0YW1wPSIxNTM4NDI2MDcxIj45NDwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxyZWYtdHlwZSBuYW1lPSJKb3VybmFsIEFydGljbGUiPjE3PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjxhdXRob3JzPjxhdXRob3I+Q2hvLCBIZWVjaGFuPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5PaCwgRGFseW91bmc8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPktpbSwgS3dhbmhvICVKIEpvdXJuYWwgb2YgSGF6YXJkb3VzIE1hdGVyaWFsczwvYXV0aG9yPjwvYXV0aG9ycz48L2NvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48dGl0bGVzPjx0aXRsZT5BIHN0dWR5IG9uIHJlbW92YWwgY2hhcmFjdGVyaXN0aWNzIG9mIGhlYXZ5IG1ldGFscyBmcm9tIGFxdWVvdXMgc29sdXRpb24gYnkgZmx5IGFzaDwvdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBhZ2VzPjE4Ny0xOTU8L3BhZ2VzPjx2b2x1bWU+MTI3PC92b2x1bWU+PG51bWJlcj4xLTM8L251bWJlcj48ZGF0ZXM+PHllYXI+MjAwNTwveWVhcj48L2RhdGVzPjxpc2JuPjAzMDQtMzg5NDwvaXNibj48dXJscz48L3VybHM+PC9yZWNvcmQ+PC9DaXRlPjxDaXRlPjxBdXRob3I+RHJvemh6aGluPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAwODwvWWVhcj48UmVjTnVtPjEyMjwvUmVjTnVtPjxyZWNvcmQ+PHJlYy1udW1iZXI+MTIyPC9yZWMtbnVtYmVyPjxmb3JlaWduLWtleXM+PGtleSBhcHA9IkVOIiBkYi1pZD0iNTBmZXJ6c2Q1MDBmc29lcGVmdHZhYTJyOXp3ZXI5djJ0YWRhIiB0aW1lc3RhbXA9IjE1Mzg0MjYyMDkiPjEyMjwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxyZWYtdHlwZSBuYW1lPSJKb3VybmFsIEFydGljbGUiPjE3PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjxhdXRob3JzPjxhdXRob3I+RHJvemh6aGluLCBWUzwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+U2hwaXJ0LCBNIFlhPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5EYW5pbGluLCBMRDwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+S3V2YWV2LCBNRDwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+UGlrdWxpbiwgSVY8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPlBvdGVta2luLCBHQTwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+UmVkeXVzaGV2LCBTQSAlSiBTb2xpZCBmdWVsIGNoZW1pc3RyeTwvYXV0aG9yPjwvYXV0aG9ycz48L2NvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48dGl0bGVzPjx0aXRsZT5Gb3JtYXRpb24gcHJvY2Vzc2VzIGFuZCBtYWluIHByb3BlcnRpZXMgb2YgaG9sbG93IGFsdW1pbm9zaWxpY2F0ZSBtaWNyb3NwaGVyZXMgaW4gZmx5IGFzaCBmcm9tIHRoZXJtYWwgcG93ZXIgc3RhdGlvbnM8L3RpdGxlPjwvdGl0bGVzPjxwYWdlcz4xMDctMTE5PC9wYWdlcz48dm9sdW1lPjQyPC92b2x1bWU+PG51bWJlcj4yPC9udW1iZXI+PGRhdGVzPjx5ZWFyPjIwMDg8L3llYXI+PC9kYXRlcz48aXNibj4wMzYxLTUyMTk8L2lzYm4+PHVybHM+PC91cmxzPjwvcmVjb3JkPjwvQ2l0ZT48Q2l0ZT48QXV0aG9yPkZvbWVua288L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDE0PC9ZZWFyPjxSZWNOdW0+MTIxPC9SZWNOdW0+PHJlY29yZD48cmVjLW51bWJlcj4xMjE8L3JlYy1udW1iZXI+PGZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48a2V5IGFwcD0iRU4iIGRiLWlkPSI1MGZlcnpzZDUwMGZzb2VwZWZ0dmFhMnI5endlcjl2MnRhZGEiIHRpbWVzdGFtcD0iMTUzODQyNjIwOCI+MTIxPC9rZXk+PC9mb3JlaWduLWtleXM+PHJlZi10eXBlIG5hbWU9IkpvdXJuYWwgQXJ0aWNsZSI+MTc8L3JlZi10eXBlPjxjb250cmlidXRvcnM+PGF1dGhvcnM+PGF1dGhvcj5Gb21lbmtvLCBFVjwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+QW5zaGl0cywgTk48L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPlNvbG924oCZZXYsIExBPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5NaWtoYWlsb3ZhLCBPQTwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+QW5zaGl0cywgQUcgJUogU29saWQgRnVlbCBDaGVtaXN0cnk8L2F1dGhvcj48L2F1dGhvcnM+PC9jb250cmlidXRvcnM+PHRpdGxlcz48dGl0bGU+Q29tcG9zaXRpb24gYW5kIHN0cnVjdHVyZSBvZiB0aGUgc2hlbGxzIG9mIGZseSBhc2ggY2Vub3NwaGVyZXMgZnJvbSB0aGUgY29tYnVzdGlvbiBvZiBjb2FsIG9mIHRoZSBLdXpuZXRzayBCYXNpbjwvdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBhZ2VzPjEyOS0xMzk8L3BhZ2VzPjx2b2x1bWU+NDg8L3ZvbHVtZT48bnVtYmVyPjI8L251bWJlcj48ZGF0ZXM+PHllYXI+MjAxNDwveWVhcj48L2RhdGVzPjxpc2JuPjAzNjEtNTIxOTwvaXNibj48dXJscz48L3VybHM+PC9yZWNvcmQ+PC9DaXRlPjxDaXRlPjxBdXRob3I+Rm9tZW5rbzwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTU8L1llYXI+PFJlY051bT4xMjc8L1JlY051bT48cmVjb3JkPjxyZWMtbnVtYmVyPjEyNzwvcmVjLW51bWJlcj48Zm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxrZXkgYXBwPSJFTiIgZGItaWQ9IjUwZmVyenNkNTAwZnNvZXBlZnR2YWEycjl6d2VyOXYydGFkYSIgdGltZXN0YW1wPSIxNTM4NDI4Njk0Ij4xMjc8L2tleT48L2ZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48cmVmLXR5cGUgbmFtZT0iSm91cm5hbCBBcnRpY2xlIj4xNzwvcmVmLXR5cGU+PGNvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48YXV0aG9ycz48YXV0aG9yPkZvbWVua28sIEVsZW5hIFY8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPkFuc2hpdHMsIE5hdGFsaWEgTjwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+VmFzaWxpZXZhLCBOYXRhbHkgRzwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+TWlraGF5bG92YSwgT2xnYSBBPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5Sb2dvdmVua28sIEVsZW5hIFM8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPlpoaXpoYWV2LCBBbmF0b2xpeSBNPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5BbnNoaXRzLCBBbGV4YW5kZXIgRyAlSiBFbmVyZ3k8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPkZ1ZWxzPC9hdXRob3I+PC9hdXRob3JzPjwvY29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjx0aXRsZXM+PHRpdGxlPkNoYXJhY3Rlcml6YXRpb24gb2YgZmx5IGFzaCBjZW5vc3BoZXJlcyBwcm9kdWNlZCBmcm9tIHRoZSBjb21idXN0aW9uIG9mIEVraWJhc3R1eiBjb2FsPC90aXRsZT48L3RpdGxlcz48cGFnZXM+NTM5MC01NDAzPC9wYWdlcz48dm9sdW1lPjI5PC92b2x1bWU+PG51bWJlcj44PC9udW1iZXI+PGRhdGVzPjx5ZWFyPjIwMTU8L3llYXI+PC9kYXRlcz48aXNibj4wODg3LTA2MjQ8L2lzYm4+PHVybHM+PC91cmxzPjwvcmVjb3JkPjwvQ2l0ZT48Q2l0ZT48QXV0aG9yPkxpPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMTwvWWVhcj48UmVjTnVtPjEyODwvUmVjTnVtPjxyZWNvcmQ+PHJlYy1udW1iZXI+MTI4PC9yZWMtbnVtYmVyPjxmb3JlaWduLWtleXM+PGtleSBhcHA9IkVOIiBkYi1pZD0iNTBmZXJ6c2Q1MDBmc29lcGVmdHZhYTJyOXp3ZXI5djJ0YWRhIiB0aW1lc3RhbXA9IjE1Mzg0Mjg4ODkiPjEyODwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxyZWYtdHlwZSBuYW1lPSJKb3VybmFsIEFydGljbGUiPjE3PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjxhdXRob3JzPjxhdXRob3I+TGksIFlpPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5XdSwgSG9uZ3dlaSAlSiBFbmVyZ3k8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPkZ1ZWxzPC9hdXRob3I+PC9hdXRob3JzPjwvY29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjx0aXRsZXM+PHRpdGxlPkFzaCBjZW5vc3BoZXJlIGZyb20gc29saWQgZnVlbHMgY29tYnVzdGlvbi4gUGFydCAxOiBBbiBpbnZlc3RpZ2F0aW9uIGludG8gaXRzIGZvcm1hdGlvbiBtZWNoYW5pc20gdXNpbmcgcHlyaXRlIGFzIGEgbW9kZWwgZnVlbDwvdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBhZ2VzPjEzMC0xMzc8L3BhZ2VzPjx2b2x1bWU+MjY8L3ZvbHVtZT48bnVtYmVyPjE8L251bWJlcj48ZGF0ZXM+PHllYXI+MjAxMTwveWVhcj48L2RhdGVzPjxpc2JuPjA4ODctMDYyNDwvaXNibj48dXJscz48L3VybHM+PC9yZWNvcmQ+PC9DaXRlPjwvRW5kTm90ZT4A ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 12-17. Other fly ash utilization is based on cenospheres recovery 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 ADDIN EN.

CITE 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 ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 18-21.

Cenospheres derives from fly ash produced during coal combustion which could be utilized into valuable products, such as lightweight construction products, syntactic foams, functionally gradient materials, metal-matrix composites rubbers, nickel coated cenospheres for shielding and microwave absorption applications, mullite-coated diesel engine components, metallic alloy and porous glass crystalline 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The amount of cenospheres in fly ash varies between 0.01–4.8%, commonly 0.3–1.5% ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Vassilev</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>109</RecNum><DisplayText>22</DisplayText><record><rec-number>109</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426186″>109</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Vassilev, Stanislav V</author><author>Menendez, Rosa</author><author>Diaz-Somoano, Mercedes</author><author>Martinez-Tarazona, M Rosa %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Phase-mineral and chemical composition of coal fly ashes as a basis for their multicomponent utilization.

2. Characterization of ceramic cenosphere and salt concentrates</title></titles><pages>585-603</pages><volume>83</volume><number>4-5</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>22. The physical structure of cenospheres has been studied by many researchers. The bulk density of Cenosphere typically is 0.2-0.5 g/cm3; size of 20-200 µm and shell thickness to diameter ratio of 2.

5-10.5 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Anshits</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>112</RecNum><DisplayText>17, 27</DisplayText><record><rec-number>112</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426192″>112</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anshits, NN</author><author>Mikhailova, OA</author><author>Salanov, AN</author><author>Anshits, AG %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Chemical composition and structure of the shell of fly ash non-perforated cenospheres produced from the combustion of the Kuznetsk coal (Russia)</title></titles><pages>1849-1862</pages><volume>89</volume><number>8</number><dates><year>2010</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Li</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>128</RecNum><record><rec-number>128</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538428889″>128</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Li, Yi</author><author>Wu, Hongwei %J Energy</author><author>Fuels</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Ash cenosphere from solid fuels combustion. Part 1: An investigation into its formation mechanism using pyrite as a model fuel</title></titles><pages>130-137</pages><volume>26</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>0887-0624</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>17, 27.

Cenospheres has identifiable favorable properties such as low density; high compressive strength; superior insulation; less water absorption; high purity; good thermal resistance and electrical properties 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 11, 17, 23, 25.

Many studies have been tried to correlate the particle size and density, resulting that density lower than 0.857 g/cm3 has diameter between 50 and 150 µm (80% w.t.), 150 and 200 µm (15% w.t.), and 200 and 250 µm (5% w.t.) and density lower than 1.

282 g/cm3 consists of diameter between 40 and 50 µm (10% w.t.), 50 and 100 µm (50% w.

t.), 100 and 110 µm (20% w.t.) and 110 and 150 µm (20% w.

t.) 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ADDIN EN.CITE 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 24-27.The formation of cenospheres during pulverized coal combustion can be identified by a several important factors, namely coal properties; characteristics of ash droplets; and combustion conditions 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ADDIN EN.CITE 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ADDIN EN.CITE.

DATA 17, 22, 28. Coal properties regarding with chemical composition must have strong relation with cenospheres formation. There are three types of substances in the coal namely organic maters, crystalline and amorphous material. Due to high temperature during the combustion of coal, crystalline and amorphous material are burdened by further process such as decomposition, dehydration, and reaction.

At this stage, the remaining product consists of amorphous glass phase (29 to 90 wt. %) and some crystalline phases 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ADDIN EN.CITE 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 14, 16, 29, 30. 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CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ghosal</Author><Year>1995</Year><RecNum>96</RecNum><DisplayText>10</DisplayText><record><rec-number>96</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426164″>96</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ghosal, Sarbajit</author><author>Self, Sidney A %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Particle size-density relation and cenosphere content of coal fly ash</title></titles><pages>522-529</pages><volume>74</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>1995</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>10. Proximate analysis of fly ash would be a very useful tool to determine the coal properties ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Yi</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>113</RecNum><DisplayText>28</DisplayText><record><rec-number>113</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426194″>113</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Yi, Lan</author><author>Feng, Jie</author><author>Qin, Yu-Hong</author><author>Li, Wen-Ying %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Prediction of elemental composition of coal using proximate analysis</title></titles><pages>315-321</pages><volume>193</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>28.There are two hypothesis for cenospheres formation process which have been proposed ADDIN EN.

CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ranjbar</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>97</RecNum><DisplayText>11</DisplayText><record><rec-number>97</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426166″>97</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ranjbar, Navid</author><author>Kuenzel, Carsten %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cenospheres: A review</title></titles><pages>1-12</pages><volume>207</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>11. Firstly, the most accepted one, condensed gases formed during decomposition of several substances and evaporation of water escalate the molten up to 500 mm, forming spherical and hollow particles 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 17, 22, 26. Secondly, flue gas is trapped into the molten ash droplets when the temperature drops ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Sokol</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>116</RecNum><DisplayText>32</DisplayText><record><rec-number>116</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426201″>116</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sokol, EV</author><author>Maksimova, NV</author><author>Volkova, NI</author><author>Nigmatulina, EN</author><author>Frenkel, AE %J Fuel Processing Technology</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Hollow silicate microspheres from fly ashes of the Chelyabinsk brown coals (South Urals, Russia)</title></titles><pages>35-52</pages><volume>67</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2000</year></dates><isbn>0378-3820</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>32.

However, after solidification, these hollow spheres are called cenospheres. These mechanisms are important to study the reaction process during combustion because broad derived products of cenospheres have been obtained from power plant coal combustion.Commonly, there are several methods for separating cenospheres from fly ash which are sink-float method; centrifugal separation; and combination of hydro and aerodynamic separation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ranjbar</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>97</RecNum><DisplayText>11</DisplayText><record><rec-number>97</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426166″>97</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ranjbar, Navid</author><author>Kuenzel, Carsten %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cenospheres: A review</title></titles><pages>1-12</pages><volume>207</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>11.

The frequently used method is the sink-float method exercised water as the medium for density difference. Another method to determine the amount of ash cenospheres in fly ash is centrifugal separation. Centrifugal, also, employs separation process due to density difference of cenosphre and its media such as water, lithium metatungstate solutions, and combined solvent (mixing carbon tetrachloride, dibromomethane, and di-iodomethane) with density 1.5, 2.0, and 2.2 g/cm3 respectively 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ADDIN EN.CITE 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ADDIN EN.

CITE.DATA 5, 11, 15. However, some integrated method with combination of dry fluid bed gravity separation technology and carefree cyclone technology also could be employed to detached cenospheres ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Neupane</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>100</RecNum><DisplayText>7, 8, 11</DisplayText><record><rec-number>100</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426171″>100</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Neupane, Ghanashyam</author><author>Donahoe, Rona J %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Leachability of elements in alkaline and acidic coal fly ash samples during batch and column leaching tests</title></titles><pages>758-770</pages><volume>104</volume><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Patra</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>101</RecNum><record><rec-number>101</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426173″>101</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Patra, KC</author><author>Rautray, Tapash R</author><author>Nayak, P %J Applied Radiation</author><author>Isotopes</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Analysis of grains grown on fly ash treated soils</title></titles><pages>1797-1802</pages><volume>70</volume><number>8</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><isbn>0969-8043</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Ranjbar</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>97</RecNum><record><rec-number>97</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426166″>97</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ranjbar, Navid</author><author>Kuenzel, Carsten %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cenospheres: A review</title></titles><pages>1-12</pages><volume>207</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>7, 8, 11.The major elements in cenospheres are a mixture of aluminosilicate with a moderate amount of Ca, Fe, K, Mg and limited occurrence of Na, Ti, S, P and trace elements. Ternary phase diagram is developed to allow a better overview of fly ash and cenospheres, based on the ‘intersection’ of their major oxides among the following groups of oxides: SiO2 + Al2O3 + K2O+TiO2+ P2O5; calcic: CaO + MgO + SO3 (oxides) + Na2O; and ferric: Fe2O3. As observed, depending on the chemical composition of fly ash and cenospheres, they can be classified in subgroups: Sialic; Ferrocalsialic; Ferrosialic; Calsialic; Ferrocalcic and Calcic.

The chemical compositions can vary each other because inorganic substances of the coal are not homogeneously distributed 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ADDIN EN.CITE 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 ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 7, 24, 26. Aside from their benefits and ultimate characteristic for multi products derivation, cenospheres from Indonesian coal-fired power plants have not been studied. Thus, the objective of this work is to characterize and to corrrelate the chemical composition and structure of fly ash with obtained cenospheres from seven coal-fired power plants in Indonesia.

In order to have a comprehensive study, detail properties of the cenospheres have observed using several techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). Coal properties and fly ash chemical composition have been identified using proximate analysis and Induced Coupled Plasma-Mass Sprectroscopy (ICP-MS) to identify the correlation with the cenospheres’s yield.Materials and method Coal and fly ash samples were collected from seven coal-based power plants in Indonesia, i.e.: Tanjung Jati B (TJB), UBJOM Paiton, Indramayu, Tuban, Pacitan, Paiton and Rembang as shown in Figure 2. To determine the chemical compositions, those samples were analyzed by ALS Canada Ltd. using ICP-MS and method of ME-ICP06, OA-GRA05 with analysis certificate of VA17182839.

In order to quantitatively determine the amounts of cenospheres in fly ash, float and sink tests were conducted. A mixture of 10 wt. % was prepared using 50 g of fly ash and 500 mL of distilled water.

Ultrasonic vibration (Elmasonic S300H) was applied for 15 min to ensure the stability of individual particles. The suspension was then poured into a 1 L separatory funnel. The separatory funnel was then placed in a holder attached to a vertical pole and was left to stand for 24 hours. Thereafter, the float and tail products were collected, drained through a 0.2 ?m paper filter, dried at 550 °C for 5 hours using laboratory furnace to remove the unburnt carbon, and then weighted after cooling to ambient temperature. The float product was consisted of cenospheres, while the tail product was consisted of coal fly ash particles. The procedures were repeated three times for each fly ash and cenospheres’s yield was calculated from the average value.

Further analyses were conducted on cenospheres using SEM-EDS and PSA. The SEM used in this study is JEOL JSM-6510LA equiped with JED-2300 EDS. SEM analysis was operated using an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The SEM images were used to interpret the morphology of cenospheres particles. The particle size distributions of the cenospheres were determined using a Horiba SZ-100.

Samples were prepared as 1% suspension of cenospheres and distilled water. To ensure the stability of the individual particles, a liquid dispersant was added to the suspension. Results and DiscussionThe analysis of chemical compositions of coal, fly ash, and cenospheres are mandatory to find the relationships of cenospheres formation during the coal combustion process. The proximate analysis of coal and chemical composition analysis of fly ash and cenospheres can be seen in Table 1, 2, and 3 respectively. Analysis for diameter of cenospheres gained is also necessary to draw connection of reaction mechanism during combustion which is also being affected by the chemical composition of fly ash. The diameter of cenospheres could be seen in Fig. 8. The chemical composition analysis of fly ash and cenospheres were conducted generally without division in size range alike other researchers PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5GaXNoZXI8L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4xOTc2PC9ZZWFyPjxSZWNOdW0+MTE5PC9SZWNOdW0+PERpc3BsYXlUZXh0PlsxNywgMjIsIDIzLCAzM108L0Rpc3BsYXlUZXh0PjxyZWNvcmQ+PHJlYy1udW1iZXI+MTE5PC9yZWMtbnVtYmVyPjxmb3JlaWduLWtleXM+PGtleSBhcHA9IkVOIiBkYi1pZD0iNTBmZXJ6c2Q1MDBmc29lcGVmdHZhYTJyOXp3ZXI5djJ0YWRhIiB0aW1lc3RhbXA9IjE1Mzg0MjYyMDYiPjExOTwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxyZWYtdHlwZSBuYW1lPSJKb3VybmFsIEFydGljbGUiPjE3PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjxhdXRob3JzPjxhdXRob3I+RmlzaGVyLCBHTDwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+Q2hhbmcsIERQWTwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+QnJ1bW1lciwgTWFyZ2FyZXQgJUogU2NpZW5jZTwvYXV0aG9yPjwvYXV0aG9ycz48L2NvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48dGl0bGVzPjx0aXRsZT5GbHkgYXNoIGNvbGxlY3RlZCBmcm9tIGVsZWN0cm9zdGF0aWMgcHJlY2lwaXRhdG9yczogbWljcm9jcnlzdGFsbGluZSBzdHJ1Y3R1cmVzIGFuZCB0aGUgbXlzdGVyeSBvZiB0aGUgc3BoZXJlczwvdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBhZ2VzPjU1My01NTU8L3BhZ2VzPjx2b2x1bWU+MTkyPC92b2x1bWU+PG51bWJlcj40MjM5PC9udW1iZXI+PGRhdGVzPjx5ZWFyPjE5NzY8L3llYXI+PC9kYXRlcz48aXNibj4wMDM2LTgwNzU8L2lzYm4+PHVybHM+PC91cmxzPjwvcmVjb3JkPjwvQ2l0ZT48Q2l0ZT48QXV0aG9yPkxpPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMTwvWWVhcj48UmVjTnVtPjEyODwvUmVjTnVtPjxyZWNvcmQ+PHJlYy1udW1iZXI+MTI4PC9yZWMtbnVtYmVyPjxmb3JlaWduLWtleXM+PGtleSBhcHA9IkVOIiBkYi1pZD0iNTBmZXJ6c2Q1MDBmc29lcGVmdHZhYTJyOXp3ZXI5djJ0YWRhIiB0aW1lc3RhbXA9IjE1Mzg0Mjg4ODkiPjEyODwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxyZWYtdHlwZSBuYW1lPSJKb3VybmFsIEFydGljbGUiPjE3PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjxhdXRob3JzPjxhdXRob3I+TGksIFlpPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5XdSwgSG9uZ3dlaSAlSiBFbmVyZ3k8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPkZ1ZWxzPC9hdXRob3I+PC9hdXRob3JzPjwvY29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjx0aXRsZXM+PHRpdGxlPkFzaCBjZW5vc3BoZXJlIGZyb20gc29saWQgZnVlbHMgY29tYnVzdGlvbi4gUGFydCAxOiBBbiBpbnZlc3RpZ2F0aW9uIGludG8gaXRzIGZvcm1hdGlvbiBtZWNoYW5pc20gdXNpbmcgcHlyaXRlIGFzIGEgbW9kZWwgZnVlbDwvdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBhZ2VzPjEzMC0xMzc8L3BhZ2VzPjx2b2x1bWU+MjY8L3ZvbHVtZT48bnVtYmVyPjE8L251bWJlcj48ZGF0ZXM+PHllYXI+MjAxMTwveWVhcj48L2RhdGVzPjxpc2JuPjA4ODctMDYyNDwvaXNibj48dXJscz48L3VybHM+PC9yZWNvcmQ+PC9DaXRlPjxDaXRlPjxBdXRob3I+Tmd1PC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAwNzwvWWVhcj48UmVjTnVtPjEwODwvUmVjTnVtPjxyZWNvcmQ+PHJlYy1udW1iZXI+MTA4PC9yZWMtbnVtYmVyPjxmb3JlaWduLWtleXM+PGtleSBhcHA9IkVOIiBkYi1pZD0iNTBmZXJ6c2Q1MDBmc29lcGVmdHZhYTJyOXp3ZXI5djJ0YWRhIiB0aW1lc3RhbXA9IjE1Mzg0MjYxODQiPjEwODwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxyZWYtdHlwZSBuYW1lPSJKb3VybmFsIEFydGljbGUiPjE3PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjxhdXRob3JzPjxhdXRob3I+Tmd1LCBMaW5nLW5nZWU8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPld1LCBIb25nd2VpPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5aaGFuZywgRG9uZy1rZSAlSiBFbmVyZ3k8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPkZ1ZWxzPC9hdXRob3I+PC9hdXRob3JzPjwvY29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjx0aXRsZXM+PHRpdGxlPkNoYXJhY3Rlcml6YXRpb24gb2YgYXNoIGNlbm9zcGhlcmVzIGluIGZseSBhc2ggZnJvbSBBdXN0cmFsaWFuIHBvd2VyIHN0YXRpb25zPC90aXRsZT48L3RpdGxlcz48cGFnZXM+MzQzNy0zNDQ1PC9wYWdlcz48dm9sdW1lPjIxPC92b2x1bWU+PG51bWJlcj42PC9udW1iZXI+PGRhdGVzPjx5ZWFyPjIwMDc8L3llYXI+PC9kYXRlcz48aXNibj4wODg3LTA2MjQ8L2lzYm4+PHVybHM+PC91cmxzPjwvcmVjb3JkPjwvQ2l0ZT48Q2l0ZT48QXV0aG9yPlZhc3NpbGV2PC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAwNDwvWWVhcj48UmVjTnVtPjEwOTwvUmVjTnVtPjxyZWNvcmQ+PHJlYy1udW1iZXI+MTA5PC9yZWMtbnVtYmVyPjxmb3JlaWduLWtleXM+PGtleSBhcHA9IkVOIiBkYi1pZD0iNTBmZXJ6c2Q1MDBmc29lcGVmdHZhYTJyOXp3ZXI5djJ0YWRhIiB0aW1lc3RhbXA9IjE1Mzg0MjYxODYiPjEwOTwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxyZWYtdHlwZSBuYW1lPSJKb3VybmFsIEFydGljbGUiPjE3PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjxhdXRob3JzPjxhdXRob3I+VmFzc2lsZXYsIFN0YW5pc2xhdiBWPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5NZW5lbmRleiwgUm9zYTwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+RGlhei1Tb21vYW5vLCBNZXJjZWRlczwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+TWFydGluZXotVGFyYXpvbmEsIE0gUm9zYSAlSiBGdWVsPC9hdXRob3I+PC9hdXRob3JzPjwvY29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjx0aXRsZXM+PHRpdGxlPlBoYXNlLW1pbmVyYWwgYW5kIGNoZW1pY2FsIGNvbXBvc2l0aW9uIG9mIGNvYWwgZmx5IGFzaGVzIGFzIGEgYmFzaXMgZm9yIHRoZWlyIG11bHRpY29tcG9uZW50IHV0aWxpemF0aW9uLiAyLiBDaGFyYWN0ZXJpemF0aW9uIG9mIGNlcmFtaWMgY2Vub3NwaGVyZSBhbmQgc2FsdCBjb25jZW50cmF0ZXM8L3RpdGxlPjwvdGl0bGVzPjxwYWdlcz41ODUtNjAzPC9wYWdlcz48dm9sdW1lPjgzPC92b2x1bWU+PG51bWJlcj40LTU8L251bWJlcj48ZGF0ZXM+PHllYXI+MjAwNDwveWVhcj48L2RhdGVzPjxpc2JuPjAwMTYtMjM2MTwvaXNibj48dXJscz48L3VybHM+PC9yZWNvcmQ+PC9DaXRlPjwvRW5kTm90ZT4A ADDIN EN.

CITE 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 ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 17, 22, 23, 33.From Table 1, the data show that mostly fixed carbon + volatile matter (% wt.) values are above 95 percent with ash content vary from 1.81 until 5.31 percent. Those data represents the quality of coal used in power plant.

The more fixed carbon + volatile matter (% wt.) value, the better the quality of coal is, although, the yield of cenospheres should be decreased with the less percentage of ash content. The detailed relationship of ash content and cenospheres yield is discussed in the next chapter. Table 2 and 3 shows the characteristic of fly ash and cenospheres respectively. The chemical composition of fly ash and cenospheres is slightly similar because cenospheres is known as by-product of fly ash.

Relationship between yield of cenospheres and fly ash’s chemical composition Cenospheres generally are a mixture of aluminosilicate with a fair amount of others substances, such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg, LOI and limited occurrence of Na, Ti, S, P and trace elements ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Ranjbar;/Author;;Year;2017;/Year;;RecNum;97;/RecNum;;DisplayText;11;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;97;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426166″;97;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Ranjbar, Navid;/author;;author;Kuenzel, Carsten %J Fuel;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Cenospheres: A review;/title;;/titles;;pages;1-12;/pages;;volume;207;/volume;;dates;;year;2017;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0016-2361;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;11. To distinguish fly ash and cenospheres type in this study, a ternary phase diagram was developed regarded on their major oxides as follows: ferric: Fe2O3; calcic: CaO+MgO+SO3+Na2O; and oxides: SiO2+Al2O3+K2O+TiO2+P2O5. The ternary diagram is presented at Fig. 3 with mostly of the samples, cenospheres, are in ferrocalsialic. It means that the cenospheres produced from the power plant are magnetic particles as ferrocalsialic nature. Furthermore, Cenosphres mostly located in sialic and ferrocalsialic area ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Ranjbar;/Author;;Year;2017;/Year;;RecNum;97;/RecNum;;DisplayText;11;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;97;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426166″;97;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Ranjbar, Navid;/author;;author;Kuenzel, Carsten %J Fuel;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Cenospheres: A review;/title;;/titles;;pages;1-12;/pages;;volume;207;/volume;;dates;;year;2017;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0016-2361;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;11.

The mechanism of cenospheres reaction has been develop by many researcher 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ADDIN EN.CITE 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ADDIN EN.CITE.

DATA 14, 29-32, 34. The first ideal condition to describe the cenospheres formation is by comparing the amount of fly ash formed directly yielding in cenospheres. Meanwhile, the value of float and sink tests result can be seen at Fig. 4. The more fly ash formed in coal combustion, duly, the more cenospheres obtained is; which also can be seen from Fig. 5. Although, the R-squared value of Fig.

5 is very small, 0.498. It is believed due to out-layered data of Tuban power plant, 2.68 percent of ash content. Furthermore, the composition of coal used in Tuban power plant is roughly different with others.

From Table 2, the value of Si/Al from fly-ash analysis is below 2 (others are more than 2). It confirms that the value of SiO2/Al2O3 from fly-ash greatly affects the cenospheres yield.Comprehensive comparison between each substances and cenospheres yield was conducted to see the effect of chemical substance in the cenospheres production. As mentioned by many researchers ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Drozhzhin;/Author;;Year;2008;/Year;;RecNum;122;/RecNum;;DisplayText;14, 17;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;122;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426209″;122;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Drozhzhin, VS;/author;;author;Shpirt, M Ya;/author;;author;Danilin, LD;/author;;author;Kuvaev, MD;/author;;author;Pikulin, IV;/author;;author;Potemkin, GA;/author;;author;Redyushev, SA %J Solid fuel chemistry;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Formation processes and main properties of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres in fly ash from thermal power stations;/title;;/titles;;pages;107-119;/pages;;volume;42;/volume;;number;2;/number;;dates;;year;2008;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0361-5219;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Li;/Author;;Year;2011;/Year;;RecNum;128;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;128;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538428889″;128;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Li, Yi;/author;;author;Wu, Hongwei %J Energy;/author;;author;Fuels;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Ash cenosphere from solid fuels combustion. Part 1: An investigation into its formation mechanism using pyrite as a model fuel;/title;;/titles;;pages;130-137;/pages;;volume;26;/volume;;number;1;/number;;dates;;year;2011;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0887-0624;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;14, 17, the chemical components in fly ash directly were affected by the chemical composition of coal and combustion condition.

As a result, if the correlation of fly ash composition can predict the cenospheres yield, the upscaling process of cenospheres utilization will be easily drawn to calculate the amount of cenospheres produced. In the recent study, the relationship analysis between major component of SiO2, Al2O3, SiO2/Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe2O3+TiO2, CaO, MgO and yield was conducted and presented in Fig. 9-15(a) respectively. It can be seen that the more SiO2 and Al2O3, the more cenospheres is gained.

Meanwhile, others chemicals give opposite result; the more SiO2/Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe2O3+TiO2, CaO, and MgO, less cenospheres is gained. The values of R-squared from data fitting for chemical components and yield are vary 0.66 – 0.84 which still be acceptable.From the data, it could be concluded that the value of ash content greatly affects the yield of cenospheres. Meanwhile, the amount of fly ash produced, undeniable, have chemical composition which also influences the yield of cenospheres produced with different alteration of every substances. The chemical composition of fly ash is affected by the coal properties; coal type, particle size, and mineral characterization; and combustion parameters; strongly believed such as temperature, pressure, combustion duration, and oxygen fraction because those parameters directly affect the reaction mechanism during combustion process.

As it is well recognized that reaction is affected by amount of reactant (coal type, mineral characterization, and oxygen fraction), collation factor (particle size), time (combustion duration in chamber), and energy activation (temperature and pressure).Relationship between diameter of cenospheres and fly ash’s chemical compositionDiameter of cenospheres was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) shown in Fig. 4 – 6. From Fig.

5, it shows that the diameters of cenospheres formed vary from 16 – 200 nm for TJB power plant, 1200 – 8500 nm for UBJOM Paiton power plant, 2000 – 4600 nm for Rembang power plant, 1300 – 5200 nm for Indramayu power plant, 2500 – 7500 nm for Tuban power plant, 2200 – 5200 nm for Pacitan power plant, and 2500 – 5200 nm for Paiton power plant. Because the diameter produced varies greatly, we proposed to use average diameter for each power plants as a parameter to be compared with chemical composition. From the average diameter calculation, the diameter of cenospheres is formed under several different unknown conditions, confidential data, for each power plants produced two region of cenospheres diameter which are Particulate Matter1 and Particulate Matter10 (PM1 and PM10). TJB power plant has produced PM1 while another power plants have produced PM10. The mechanism of PM1 and PM10 is strongly believed follow the mechanism of previous study ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Xu</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>120</RecNum><DisplayText>35</DisplayText><record><rec-number>120</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426207″>120</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Xu, Minghou</author><author>Yu, Dunxi</author><author>Yao, Hong</author><author>Liu, Xiaowei</author><author>Qiao, Yu %J Proceedings of the Combustion Institute</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Coal combustion-generated aerosols: Formation and properties</title></titles><pages>1681-1697</pages><volume>33</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>1540-7489</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.

proci.2010.09.014.</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>35. Two categories of pathway for PM formation was suggested which are solid-to-particle processes, producing PM1-10 typically via coalescence of included mineral particles within the same burning coal/char particles and fragmentation of mineral and/char particles and solid-vapor-particle processes, producing both PM1 and PM1-10 via possible pathways involving homogeneous nucleation, coagulation and agglomeration ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Xu</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>120</RecNum><DisplayText>35</DisplayText><record><rec-number>120</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426207″>120</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Xu, Minghou</author><author>Yu, Dunxi</author><author>Yao, Hong</author><author>Liu, Xiaowei</author><author>Qiao, Yu %J Proceedings of the Combustion Institute</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Coal combustion-generated aerosols: Formation and properties</title></titles><pages>1681-1697</pages><volume>33</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>1540-7489</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.

1016/j.proci.2010.09.

014.</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>35. We do agree that the formations of both PM1 and PM10 are through those mechanism, although, there is unclear data nor strong information explained about the mechanism yet. We also believe that mechanisms of PM1 and PM10 differ each other because of greatly difference of its diameter produced. The mechanism of a vaporization-condensation process seems fit for PM1 and a solid-particle process seems suitable for PM10.From Fig. 6, it can be seen the surface and diameter imaging of cenospheres produced from all power plants. Diameter variations are very noticeable from the figure while the smoothness of the surface for each cenospheres slightly different from TJB, UBJOM Paiton, and Tuban power plants.

The further imaging is processed for TJB, UBJOM Paiton, and Tuban power plants in Fig. 7. It shows that TJB and Tuban power plant produce plerosphere and UBJOM Paiton power plant produces magnetosphere as described and grouped by many researchers.

Because of limitation data of PM1 produced in this study; only TJB power plant data, the relationship of cenospheres diameter and chemical composition is conducted for PM10 only. The relationship analysis between major component of SiO2, Al2O3, SiO2/Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe2O3+TiO2, CaO, MgO and diameter of cenospheres was conducted and presented in Fig. 8-14 (b) respectively.

It can be seen that the more SiO2 and Al2O3, the bigger of cenospheres diameter is gained. Meanwhile, others chemicals give opposite result; the more SiO2/Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe2O3+TiO2, CaO, and MgO, the smaller of cenospheres diameter is gained. The values of R-squared from data fitting for chemical components and diameter of cenospheres are vary 0.50 – 0.66. Even though, the value of R-squared is less than 0.

7, the relationship of each substances to the cenospheres diameter is greatly shown from the data and figure. However, further detailed research should be made for study the effect of chemical composition on the cenospheres diameter. The comprehensive comparison with previous studies about the relationship of chemical compositions and diameter of cenospheres is also presented in Table 4. The data gained in this research gives more reliable relationship for every chemical composition compared to others study. We only could not draw the relationship of SO3 with diameter of cenospheres because some power plants have undetected amount of SO3 in their fly ash.ConclusionFly ash and cenospheres from seven coal-fired power plants in Indonesia have been successfully characterized. This study briefly explained the relationship of chemical composition-cenospheres’s yield and chemical composition-diameter of cenospheres, thus, it would help the understanding of cenospheres formation mechanism during coal combustion process and estimating the cenospheres production from fly ash produced. Furthermore, the result showed that the higher SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O3, and Al2O3/SiO2 value in the fly ash, the higher is the cenospheres yield.

Reversely, another chemical component, such as Fe2O3, Fe2O3+TiO2, CaO, and MgO, gave lower yield in the increasing of the chemical component value. The data fitting for chemical components and yield had acceptable R-squared value in the range of 0.66 – 0.84. Those chemical existence in fly ash could be initial measuring variables to predict the amount of cenosphere obtained. To study the mechanism process of cenosphere, the relationship between diameter formed and chemical composition is often used in many studies. In contrast to other studies, this study used average diameter for comparison. Every chemical existence in fly ash surprisingly gave the same tendency on the diameter size produced alike the cenosphere yield.

Even though, the values of R-squared value were only at 0.50 – 0.66 on the relationship between chemical component and cenosphere’s diameter, these tendency could provide valuable information in the cenospheres formation mechanism. Hopefully, this work can be useful for the utilization and further application of problematic fly ash management in Indonesia.AcknowledgementsHighly appreciation to the Minister of Higher Education of Indonesia for the financial support to conduct this project under PTUPT scheme with contract number 1860/UN1/DITLIT/DIT-LIT/LT/2018.

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