Cancer chemotherapy, while long-term side effects include

Cancer patients are of great risk to develop infections and decrease overall body health due to low immunity caused by the disease itself and also the medications given to treat this tumor. These medications include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. One of the most important complications affect the gastrointestinal track and the oral cavity including the oral mucosa, the periodontium and bone with connective tissues. This risk results from multiple factors, including high rates of cellular turnover for the lining mucosa, a diverse and complex microflora, and trauma to oral tissues during normal oral function.
Not all patients who undergo cancer chemotherapy are at equal risk for developing oral complications. A number of variables have been identified that bear on both the frequency and severity of oral problems associated with therapy. patient-related variables include tumor diagnosis, patient age, gender, the patient’s oral condition before cancer therapy, the level of oral care during therapy, baseline xerostomia and baseline neutrophil counts .
Patients whose pretreatment oral condition is poor are at greater risk for some, but not all, oral complications of chemotherapy, than other patients without oral disease before the onset of cancer therapy also the level of oral care during therapy has a marked influence on outcome relative to oral complications and infections. The side effects of chemotherapy can be divided into short term and long term side effects, short-term side effects include those toxic effects encountered during chemotherapy, while long-term side effects include later complications of treatment arising after the conclusion of adjuvant chemotherapy.
The most common oral complications related to cancer therapies are mucositis, infection , salivary gland dysfunction , taste dysfunction, and pain . These complications can lead to secondary complications such as dehydration, dysphagia , and malnutrition.
This study will be mainly considering these side effect among breast and prostate cancer patients at RICK Khartoum, Sudan. Breast cancer continues to be the most common cancer among women in Sudan. In 1959, breast cancer comprised 22.9% of all cancers (n = 1335) followed by cancers of the genital tract. Majority of female patients were of menopausal age and the clinical course of the disease at that time appeared similar to the disease in European women . And about 74% of those patients were less than 50 years old and presented with stage III and higher tumors expressing no estrogen or progesterone receptors that had already metastasized. This indicates that women in Sudan are inflicted with breast cancer at young age.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Sudanese men . The age?standardized rate is 10.3 and mortality is 8.7 per 100,000 populations. It ranked second among all cancers in both sexes after breast in 2012. Recently, prostate cancer was the most common cancer among male patients treated at the NCI?UG . It ranked first among cancer male patients (n = 268) treated in the NCI, central Sudan (2006–2009).


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